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Full text of "Agadat En Yaakov"

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EN JACOB 

AGADA OF THE BABYLONIAN TALMUD 

BY RABBI JACOB IBN CHABIB 

REVISED AND TRANSLATED INTO ENOLISH 

BY 

^ Rabbi S. H. CLICK 

VOLUME I. 



THIRD EDITION. 
NEW YORK •eeo 



COPYRIGHT 1919. BY RABBI S. H. OLICK. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS 



Chr Chronicles 

Dan Daniel 

Deu Deuteronomy 

Ecc Ecclesiastes 

Est Esther 

Ex Eiodus 

Eze Ezeklel 

Gen Genesis 

Hab Habakkuk 

Hag Haggai 

Hos Hosea 

Is , Isaiah 

jer Jeremiah 

Josh Joshua 

Judg Judges 

Lam Lamentations 

Lev Leviticus 

Mai Malachi 

Neh Nehemiah 

Num Numbers 

Ob Obadia 

Pr Proverbs 

Ps Psalms 

Sam Samuel 

Zeph Zephanlah 

Zech Zecharia 

R Rabbi or Rab 

b ben or bar 

lb Ibid 

Foi. (referring to the page of the Tahnud) . .Folio 



PnK«a OP Ross 



Forword to the Third Edition. 



It is certainly encouraging to the translator to continue his work 
with more vigor, and also to the reader that within the short period of 
about eight months he is printing a third edition of the first volume 
exceeding double the number of the combined previous editions. The 
demonstration of such keen interest shown to this work is therefore 
firmly and clearly established. 

At this time I take pleasure in announcing to my esteemed readers 
the completion of the Second Volume containing of Pesachim, Yoma, 
Succah, Betza, Rosh Hoshana, Taanith, Megilla, and Meed Katan, and 
that the Thii'd Volume, containing of Chagiga and the entu-e order of 
Nashim, is already far advanced in print. I am also in a position to 
promise the reader that the entire set which will consist of Five Volumes 
(not four, as previously contemplated) will, with the help of the Almighty, 
be completed by next Shebuoth. 

Feeling a sense of gratitude toward the reader and thanking our 
Heavenly Father for His mercy bestowed on me to be among Qi^in n^fD 
I am with full hope to see the restoration of Zion and Jerusalem. 

New York, Tishii, 5680. 



Preface to the Second Edition. 



The translator points with pride to the fact that within a httle 
over two years, he is printing a second edition of the fiist volume of 
the EN JACOB, consisting of Berachoth, Shabbath and Erubim. This 
proves that the bringing to Ught of the Uterature so long withheld eve* 
from the scholarly world, has attracted the desued attention. Thousands 
of readers have taken adventage of the opportunity of looking into the 
words of the Talmud, which for many centuries were doomed to de- 
struction. 

The hope that it may serve to renew the interest in the Talmud 
among the people and throw new hght on its character and contents, 
encourages the author to announce that the second volume is ah-eady 
in the hands of the printer and that preparations are being made to 
start the publication of the third and fourth volumes, thus bringing, 
with the help of the Almighty, the entire set to completion. 

Again I would urge the esteemed reader that before beginning 
the reading of my translation, he should read carefully the introduction 
to the Agada by Abraham, son of Moses Maimonides, in order to 
become conversant with the real character and spirit, as well as the 
style of the Sages and Rabbis. By so doing, the reader will be greatly 
aided, and misconceptions will be avoided. The reading of the same 
would greatly clarify to a certain extent, numerous passages of my 
translation which, to the modern reader, who is not initiated into the 
pecuhar dialectical method of the Talmud, may appear not only un- 
intelligible but even ridiculous. 

I also wish to emphasize my statement made in the preface to 
the first edition that one of the great reasons for my work is to acqaint 
the reader with the Hebrew text ; for, to have a real conception of the 
spirit and psychology of the Talmud and to enable one to render judgment 
concerning the moral and spiritual decisions of the Sages, one must read 
the text in its original and therefore the author has kept himself as 
clOBely as possible to the literal translation. 



Editor's Preface. 

In placing before the public the first volume of the translation 
of the Agada of the Babylonian Tahnud, a brief explanation of the 
purpose of this work will not be amiss. 

There can be no doubt that the Talmud has been the most im- 
portant factor in Jewish life. Time and again, it has proven to be 
the fountain of Ufe to the Jewish nation during its entire exile, so that 
it is impossible to think of Israel, without thinldng of the Tahnud. 
Its influence was wrought and exercised upon both young and old ; 
to the former, it was a spring wherewith to qhench their mental thirst, 
and to the latter, a source of consolation and historical pride. 

Observation of the Jew in our free country, in so far as religion 
and Jewish education are concerned and more especially among the 
youth, leads to the conclusion that the lack of rehgion is, in great 
measure, due to ignorance. The main source of education, the 
Talmud, has remained a sealed book to them, and therefore, as the 
years advance, religion decUnes and is forgotten. In order, therefore, 
to render some service to Israel and render accessible an important part 
of the Talmud in both the original Hebrew and EngUsh. the author 
has attempted this work. 

The translation treats with the part of Agada only, and has 
practically no relation to the Halacha (Law). The Talmud consists of 
two parts : the Halacha, which treats of all the laws concerning Jewish 
life, in every form and respect ; the second part, which treats of 
narrations, ethics, sociology, astronomy, and medicine, under the 
name Agada or as it is commonly known "The Homiletics of the 
Talmud", and among Jews, this portion is called En Jacob. In 
choosing the part of Agada, the advice of our sages has been followed 
who say, "He who wishes to become acqainted with his Creator, let 
him study the Agada." Special pains were taken to translate in such 
a way that the reader, in due time, should be able to assimilate some 
parts in the original Hebrew ; as for example, every word added In 
the translation, which has no equivalent in Hebrew, has been placed 
in brackets, so that the reader may distinguish the du-ect translation 
from the necessary explanatory words. 



n 

I trust that this Is sufficient reason for adopting this method 
which should be a satisfactory explanation to several of our friends who 
have been lu-ging us to adopt a free translation in the next volumes. 

At this occasion I wish, however, to say to the reader, in the 
words of our great Rabbi and philosopher, Moses Maimonides : "Beware 
that thou takest not Uterally those words of the Sages, for this would 
simply be degrading the sacred doctrine, and would sometimes contradict 
it. Seek always the hidden sense ; and, if thou canst not find the kernel, 
let the shell alone, and confess, 'I do not understand this !' " 

New York, Adar Rishon, 5679. S. H. G. 



of the twentieth century. The reader \dll find that the character of the 
Talmudlsts was pure and noble, as befitted such great scholars, and 
thus he may be prompted to follow their teachings ; this, by the way. 
Is the only desire of the Author, for the Talmud says (Aboth 1, 17.) 
"Not the learning but the deed is the chief thing." 

As long as Israel will study the Torah, it will endure and flourish 
and survive all persecutions ; it will weather all storms and remain 
the same model for all the world untill its influence will penetrate 
through the dense curtain of darkness which envelopes to some degree 
modern civilization ; then the universe shall, without prejudice, ac- 
knowledge Israel and its Torah as the true banner and Godly pillar 
of light. 

In conclusion I must acknowledge myself deeply indebted to 
Messrs. S. C. Sugarman and A. M. Sugannan, my brothers-in-law 
respectively, and to my nephew A. L. Geilich, for their valuable 
assistance cordially rendered in the preparation of this work. Also to 
the Rev. Dr. B. Revel, for many of his beneficent suggestions. Credit 
is also acknowledged to those who aided financially, whose valuable 
assistance was an important factor in making this work possible. 

THE AUTHOR. 
New York, Elul. 5676. 



IV 

To translate the latter is difficult First, because this part has 
not as yet been translated into EugUsh in its entirety ; in fact, the 
Mesichta (treatise) "Bcrachoth" has never before been attempted even 
by those who did translate some portions of the Tahuud. Secondly, 
because none of those who have rendered translations heretofore, did 
BO under the spiritual influence of an Orthodox Rabbi, who considers 
the Talmud not only secondary to the Bible but believes, as a Jew 
should, that the Talmud was given unto Moses orally on Mount Sinai 
together with the Bible ; as the Talmud states (Volume I, page 12). 

In addition to the Introduction, which has been translated from 
the original Hebrew by the son of Maimonides, it is noteworthy to 
call the attention of the esteemed reader to the fact that the Tanaim 
and Amoraim, the composers of the entire Talmud, lived under the 
most trying conditions, and under a strict censorship ready to oppress 
and punish rigorously the shghtest criticism ; and for these reasons, 
some of the sayings and teachings of our sages, in certain portions 
of the Agada, under the cover of allegory, refer and allude to either 
their own condition, or to their oppressors, the Romans. 

As an illustration, let the reader consider the following (lb. 2) : 
regarding the Division of the Night ; this surely was intended to de- 
scribe the sorrowful condition of Israel in exile as is explained in the 
note therein. Thus wiU be understood the manner in which the Talmud 
deals with the heathens of its age. It is not necessary to enumerate 
here all the persecutions which prevailed during the Talmudic period, 
for the detaUs of such persecutions may be found in Jewish history. 

Wherever the reader shall come to a subject which he thinks is 
dealt with severity, or whenever he finds a subject which he cannot 
entirely comprehend, let him not forget for a moment the suffering 
of the Jewish people, subject to persecution and destruction for no 
other crime but that they studied and adhered to the teachings of 
their Torah and the tenets of their religion. It is sufQcient but to 
mention the inuman and brutal persecution of the scholar Rabbi Akiba 
and his colleagues (lb. 94) and that of Rabbi Simon b. Jochal 
(lb. 136). 

There is no doubt that whoever will rtad this translation carefully 
will find in It an expression of the highest standard of humanity ; he 
will find that thousands of years ago Israel performed its charitable, 
social and philanthropical duties by reason of God's commandment and 
was therefore bound to such duties even more so than the ci\ilizatioa 



vn 

and to show thee the subjects together with their illustrations ac- 
cording to their respective parts as I shall soon divide them for thee 
In this chapter. First of aU, however, I must begin with a preamble. 

II. Know that it is your duty to understand that whoever 
propounds a certain theory or idea and expects that theory or idea to 
be accepted merely out of respect for the author without proving its 
truth and reasonableness pursues a wrong method prohibited by both 
the Torah and human intelligence. From the standpoint of intelligence, 
such a method is worthless for it would cause one to minimize the im- 
portance of those things which, after scrupulous observation and proofs, 
ought to be belived, and from the point of view of the Torah — because 
it inclines from the true path and from the straight, levelled road. 
The Lord, praised be He ! said : Thou shalt not respect the poor 
person, nor honor the great person ; in righteousness shalt thou 
judge, etc. (Lev. 19, 15). And it also says. Ye shall not respect a person 
in judgment (Deu. 1. 17). And there is no difference between him 
who accents an idea without any evidence as to its integrity, and him 
who beUeves a person's statement simply because he respects the latter 
and therefore contends that his idea is undoubtedly true since it 
emanates from a great man like Heiman, Kalkal or Darda 2). For all 
this gives no evidence as to the merits of the subject in question ind is 
therefore forbidden. According to this preamble, then, we are not in 
duty bound to defend the opinions of the sages of the Talmud, con- 
cerning medicine, physics and astrology, as right in every respect simply 
because we know the sages to be great men with a full knowledge of 
all things regarding the Torah, in its various details. Although it is 
true that in so far as knowledge of our Torah is concerned, we must 
beheve the sages arrived at the highest stage of knowledge, as it is 
said (Deu. 17, 11.) In accordance with the instructions which they may 
instruct thee, etc., still it is not necessarily so concerning any other 
branch of knowledge. Thou canst see that even the sages themselves 
say very often of things which cannot be proved by discussions and 
arguments, " I swear, that even had Joshua b. Nun said it, I would not 
obey him." This beans that I would not believe him although he was 
a prophet — since he cannot prove the reason for such a thing in ac- 
cordance with the rules of the Talmudical construction. The following 
evidence will be sufllcient proof for it end none will venture to dispute 



2) See I KlDfs 5, II, in reference to these namei. 



INTRODUCTION TO THE AGADA 

By Abraham, son of Moses Maimonides, 

Translated from the Hebrew. 

I. Let it be known that the greater part of whatever is found 
in the Tahnud or in the other books of the sages, blessed be their 
memories ! as the Midrash (BibUcal exposition) is entirely concealed 
from us ; and even they who wrote couiiuentaries upon the Talmud, 
never made an attempt to fathom its meaning. And my father, my 
teacher, blessed be his memory ! contemplated writing an explana- 
tory commentary, as he mentions in his "Commentary on the Mishnah'". 
but refrained from doing so. And Moses was afraid to approach it^ 
as he says in the beginning of his Hamore 1). Nevertheless, after my 
father's death, I devoted considerable energy to make some explanations 
regarding this subject, and I did not withdraw from this step because, 
after all my study, I came to the conclusion that it is of great importance. 
My explanation shall, however, merely serve to call the attention of thy 
heart and thy thought so that thou shalt open thine eyes and compre- 
hend the manner in which the sages spoke in their so-called Medrashim. 
From my words, shalt thou be able to determine what are the real mean- 
ings of their words, and I shall be thy prophet while thou shalt be my 
spokesman. Thus, thou wilt cause thy soul to refrain from mocking at, or 
denying the truth of the words of the sages ; and, on the other hand, 
to refrain from thinking that the miracles which happened to the sages 
are as important as either that of the di\iding of the Red Sea (Exodus 
14, 22.) which happened to Moses and Israel, who went forth from 
Egypt, or the miracle caused by Elisha and EUja when the Jordan was 
divided for them (II Ivings 2, 14). Such a persumption arises because 
you may take the so-called Derash Uterally from the facts as stated ; 
but there is sufficient evidence to indicate that there are many stories 
and Derashoth in which hidden meanings are found besides the plain 
interpretation patent to every one. And how much more can we under- 
stand that from what my father, my teacher, blessed be his memory, 
has revealed in his book ! I intend to explain this to thee more plainly 

1) A book of philosophy by Moics Maimonidet, called Hamore (The Guide-- 



rx 

they say (Erubim fol. 16, 104) 3) Raba empowered an Interpreter to 
say in Ills name : "The words which I have said in your presence were 
a gross mistake." Such are the countless events which cannot be 
understood except through undisputed eveidence, as my father, my 
teacher, blessed be his memory ! said in explaining the same ; and 
this can easily be understood by anyone who does not depend upon his 
own way of explaining the thing. 

V. And after this preamble, I crave the help of the Almighty 
that I may comprehend the truth, and I shall proceed. The different 
parts of the Derashoth or interpretations which are found to be the 
utterance of the sages, blessed be their memories, whether in the 
Talmud or in any other book, may be grouped into five parts or 
classes. 

VI. The first part treats of such Derashoth or intrepretations as 
contain naught else but their literal meanings. Although this part needs 
no illustration, yet I shall give thee one to be sure of your grasping 
its full meaning. It is Uke the one mentioned in Berachoth (Vol. I, 65) 
It is forbidden for a man to fill his mouth with laughter in this world ; 
for it is said (Ps. 126, 2), Then (when Messiah will come) shall our 
mouths be filled with laughter and our tongues with singing, etc. 

VII. The second part treats of such Derashoth or interpretations 
of passages, as contain both a figurative and a literal meaning. 
As it was intended, because of frequent use, that the meaning should 
be unrevealed, they therefore constructed it in such a way that the 
literal meaning should represent just the opposite of its unrevealed and 
real meaning, as most of them have already been explained in the 
Hamore (III, 43.) as well as in the "Commentary on the Mishnah." 
An example may be supplied from the Talmud Ta'anith (Fol. 31) : "In 
the future , the Holy One, praised be He ! will take a dance for the 
righteous in the garden of Eden placing Himself in the centre, and 
every one will point at Him with his finger and say, (Is. 59, 9) 'Behold, 
this is our Cod; .we have waited for him; .we will be glad and re- 
joice in His salvation.' " The simplicity of this Derash will, of course, 
prevent every religious and thoughtful man from believing in it literally ; 
the real object which R. Blazar aimed at, is that the reward of the 
righteous in the world to come will be In their obtaining from the Holy 
One, praised be He ! such things as were impossible of attainment 



3) tee also Berachnth 3t>, S.ibbath 6' 



vm 

It. Since we find that the sages themselves had said, concerning 
medical knowledge that the opinion of such and such a Ilabbi did not 
prove to be true, as for instance, The eagle-stone (Sabbath fol. 66b), 
or other things mentioned. We infer from this that they did not arrive 
at the true ultimate conclusion of everything outside of the Torah. 

III. However, thou shall take note that this rule has some ex- 
ceptions and therefore, what the sages — blessed be their memories ! 
said, "When thou art hungry, eat ; if thou art thirsty, drink ; If thy 
dish is ripe, pour it out while It is hot," is undoubtedly true, because 
that theory Is the main key to human health ; it has been proved by 
many physicians as well as by physical tests, that a man should not 
eat untill he is hungry, nor should he drink untill he is thirsty ; and 
when he feels the need of relieving himself, he ought not to delay 
such action. 

IV. And on the other hand, it would be wrong to argue thus : 
Aristotle, the father of all great philosophers, although he proved by 
indisputable facts, the supernatural existence of the Creator, praised 
be He ! as well as other things which are true ; nevertheless, since 
he approved the wrong theory that the world exists from time im- 
memorial, or that the Creator, praiser be He ! knows not every detail, 
etc., therefore, we must declare him wrong even in his correct 
theories, contending that because he is wrong in one thing, he must 
therefore, be ^^Tong in the other. This must not be so, but we, as weU 
as all wise and thoughtful men, must consider and ponder ^^^th all 
possible care, and then decide each thing upon its own merits ; to 
preserve that which deserves presen-ation and to destroy that which 
deserves destruction ; and to refrain from deciding such things that 
cannot be decided either way, in-espective of who says it. Just as we 
notice that our sages, blessed be their memories ! say : "If It be a 
tradition then we must accept it ; but as to its inference, we have a 
refutation." In a like manner, concerning those laws which they were 
unable to decide either way, they said Teiku, meaning the question re- 
mains unsolved. Similarly, we find that when they discovered that the 
opinion they held was wrong they retracted it frankly declaring a 
certain Rabbi changed his words. "The academy of Hillel retracted 
their earlier decision and decided In accordance with the academy of 
Shammai". Furthermore, we find them so addicted to the truth that 



XI 

or tne similarity of the two words, Beshachbecha (when thou Uest down) 
mentioned in the Sh'm'a and Mishkabcha (thy bed) mentioned in the 
quoted verse of Psalms. This rule is known in the Talmud as the rule 
of analogy. The second and more convincing reason is that in the 
Sh'm'a great stress is laid upon obedience to the Yetzer Job, the so- 
called good incUnation, the purpose thereof being to beUeve in ever- 
lasting and supremacy of God, to love Him, to serve Him, to believe 
in His reward and punishment, and the duty of subduing the so-called 
evil inclination while saying, Ye seek not after your heart and your eyes, 
etc., (Num. 15 30) and strengthening the so-called good incUnation 
while saying. And be holy unto your God (lb. 15, 40.). What is stated 
later : If he overcome him, it is well, etc. means that if the passion 
will continue to overpower the wisdom and will faU to be subdued after 
all these remedies, let him mention the day of death through which 
he will subdue him, for the mere fact of mentioning the end of all 
human things, is suflScient cause to break down the pride of the so- 
called evil incUnation as Akabia b. Mahalalel said : "If thou wilt look 
upon these three things, thou wilt not approach any sin, etc." 
(Aboth 3, 5.). 

DC. The fourth part contains explanations of certain passages 
in a poetical style ; but their intention was not that every one should 
beUeve that this is the meaning of that passage, God forbid to think 
that, and tliis is meant what the sages, blessed be their memorj ! said : 
"The plain meaning of the passage is a thing in itself." An example 
of this part can be found in the Talmud (Taanith fol. 9a) where R. 
Jochanan said : "What is meant by the passage (Deu. 14, 22.) Asser 
Te'asser, Thou shalt truly tithe ? This is to mean : Thou shalt give 
tithes in order that thou mayest become rich," 5) as it is also explained 
there what is meant by Ad-beili-Dai ? Raba b. Chama, in the name of 
Rab said : "Untill your Ups wiU wear out saying enough." And think 
not like those who do not grasp the real truth that every simple Derash 
or so-caUed aUegorial explanation of the passage uttered by the sages, 
was handed over by tradition, Uke the principal parts of the Torah, 
because the fact is otherwise; that the explanation of such passages which 
do not involve either a dogma of a reUgious principle or any law of the 
Torah, has no traditional bearing, but was explained by the authors, 
merely according to their own knowledge and feeUng. And many of 



Asaer means "tithes," Osher, "rich." Both are spelled alikt. 



X 



In this world. This is the highest and best reward ; he Ukens the 
reward, therefore, to a dance — and the individual joy. to the point- 
ing with their fingers at the Holy One. praised be he ! and thus he 
describes the whole situation in a brief manner. From this shalt thou 
form an opinion upon all other similar things. 

VIII. The third part treats of such Derashoth as contain none 
other but their simple meanings — the plain and simple meaning is, 
however, so difficult that most do not understand it ; and if one does 
understand it, the arrangement of the essay is constructed so peculiarly 
that it often lacks, or is entirely without order, and in many instances, 
the reader wiU find a confusion of different objects or terms of words 
used therein which resemble the foregoing part and whose hidden 
meanings may even exceed the foregoing one. Therefore, it is urgent 
not to be hasty in determining its meaning lest one will err and thus 
be led astray from the right course. An example of this pari; is that 
of the Talmud (Vol. I. 11) : "Always shall a man provoke the Yetzer 
Tob (good inclination) against the Yetzer Ra'a (evil incUnation). as 
it is said (Ps. 4, 5.) Tremble, and sin not. If he overcome it then 
it is weU, but if not, then he should read the Sh'm'a ; 4) if he over- 
come it, it is weU, but if not, then he should remind himself of the 
day of death, as it is said. And be still Selah (lb.)." Now. although it 
has none ather than its simple meaning, it is nevertheless difficult to 
comprehend this interpretation because of a lack of understanding of 
the terms "good" and "evil" incUnations, as well as of the causes 
which are mentioned. I shall, therefore, explain it at length, so that 
thou Shalt be able to compare all others belonging to this part with 
this particular one. Thus I say. The word, Yargiz (provoke) means 
to rule ; Yetzer Tob, means the wisdom of the man and Yetzer Ra'a 
means the passions and lust of the human body or something of that 
sort. And the real meaning of that statement is that a man should 
endeavor to rule by his intellect and knowledge over the physical lust 
and passions of the body ; and this he must always bear in mind. If 
this is sufficient to suppress his passions, it is well ; but if not, then 
let aim add to the mere thinlcing, the action of his mouth, uttering 
certain passages which may cause the passion to subside by occupying 
his attentions with other things, and therefore read the Sh'm'a. This 
particular chapter has been selected for two reasons ; first becaufw 



4) Hear O Israe the Lord our God is one 6od TDeu. 6, 4). 



xm 

of Hillel appealed to the Scliool of Shammai saying : "Did it not 
happen that the elders of Shanimai's school and the elders of Hillel's 
school once visited R. Jachonan b. Haturani and they found hun sitting 
with his head and the greater part of his body within the Succah 
but his table was within the house and they said nothing to him ? 
Hence we have a precedent that malies it proper ?" To which the 
school of Shammai answered : "You cannot establish a precedent from 
this incident, because they did say to him, 'If thou hast always been 
accustomed to do so, then thou hast never fulfilled the commandment 
of Succah.' " The same can be found in the treatise of Kethuboth and 
in many other places. 

XI. Secondly, for the purpose of drawing a moral as the one 
(Vol. I, 122) "Always shall a man be as humble and calm as Hillel 
and not so pedantic as Sammai. It happened once that a man laid a 
wager with another, etc.," and Hillel did not become angry. The moral 
that we may draw from this is that every man should try to imitate 
the character of HiUel and not become pedantic or angry even when 
provoked ; for this is the best and most praiseworthy indication of 
character. Many similar stories referring to this can be found in the 
Talmud. 

XII. Thirdly, in order to derive a reUgious principal as the one 
(Taanlth fol. 31.) It happened once that Clioni, the Ma'agel, was 
requested to pray for rain. He drew a circle around him and said 
"Sovereign of the Universe, Thy children have turned unto me, etc." 
This story shows the stabiUty of the firmly established faith that the 
Lord hstens unto the voice of His righteous servants and answers them 
when they are in distress, as it Is said (Deu. 4. 7.) For what great 
nation is there that hath gods so nigh unto it, as is the Lord our God' 
at ail times that we call upon Him ? And it Is also said through the 
prophets (Is. 58, 9.) Then shalt thou call and the Lord will answer, 
and also (Ps. 91, 15.) When he calleth upon Me, I will answer him. 
A similar story is also told (Taanlth fol 19) of Nakdimon b. Gurlon. 

XIII. Fourthly, to call attention to a miracle or some wonder- 
ful incident, as the one (Yoma fol. 83.) concerning the story of R. 
Meier, R. Juda and R. Jose, who were travelling on the road when 
R. Meier guessed right regarding the honesty of the inn-keeper after 
he examined the name and its meaning. The same can be found (Me- 
gilah fol. 16.) R. Juda the Prince of the Exile sent to R. Oshia, a thigh 
cut from one of his best calves, and a Jar full of wine. Whereupon 



XII 

them are used merely as figures of speech m a poetical style, or are 
explained in that poetical form. Thus I have no doubt that when R.Joshua 
said (Zebachim fol. 116.) regarding the sentence (Elx. 18, 1.) And 
Jethro heard. What did he hear ? R. Joshua said, "the war of Ama- 
lek." 6) This is merely an opinion, not a tradition and his bringing 
of evidence to support his opinion proves that it is so, for in a tradition 
we need no evidence ; furthermore, the fact that all other sages differ 
with him on this explanation proves this also. The same can be said 
regarding the explanation of (Ex. 15, 22.) And Moses caused Israel to 
depart from the Red Sea, i. e., He caused them to do so by tallung 
unto them with soft words. And instances Uke this thou wilt find not 
clear in the Talmud in numerous places, where they are constructed 
in a poetical form. Only a fool or an ignorant person will dispute this. 
They are constructed in different styles because each author has his 
own taste and, as ■with other poets, each wrote after his own fashion. 
X. The fifth part treats of such Derashoth or allegorical expla- 
nations as contain exaggeration Uke the one of (Pessachim fol. 62.) 
Mar Zutra said : "Between Azel and Azel, 7) there are four hundred 
camel-loads of critical researches due to the presence of numerous 
contradictions." The first Azel is at the beginning of the verse and the 
second is at the end. And Azel had six sons, and these are their names, 
Azrikam, and Bacheru, and Ishmael, and She'aryah, and Obdiah, and 
Chanan, all these were the sons of Azel. Even if we say, as some 
others explain it, that this refers to the Azel of the next verst, it 
still must be taken as an exaggeration ; for if in the whole book, 
there would not be four hundrtd camel-loads of Derash explanation, 
how then could there be that many in two passages only ? It must 
be, therefore, as others say, an exaggeration. And this part will become 
small after it will be subdivided into more parts as I shall do, for 
exaggerations are employed in parts of stories, and stories are to be 
divided into four respective parts. The first part consists of true 
stories told for the purpose of deciding a question of law as to a 
precedent, like the one : (Succah fol. 3) concerning him who Is 
sitting with his head and the greater part of his body vvithin the Succah 
but with his table in the house. The academy of Shammai said it is 
not proper and the academy of HiUel said It is proper. The school 



6) Ex 17. 8-14 . 

7) Two passages is Chronlcleg I. 



XV 

the Mishnah, but in the Gemara, they are numberless. An illustration 
of this may be found (MegiUa fol. 7b) : "Raba and R. Zeira were ban- 
queting together ; during the banquet Rabba stood up and slaughtered 
R. Zeu-a. He craved to God for mercy and R. Zeira returned to life." 
The meaning of this is that Rabba beat R. Zeira and wounded him 
so severely that the latter was at the point of death ; he uses the 
term "slaughtered him" because it was severe, or it might have been 
at the throat. And the word Achaye (made him return to hfe) means 
he became well. The word is frenquently used for that meaning. 8) 
Many similar stories are found in the Talmud. 

XVI. The fourth part consists of stories which actually occured; 
but they are told in parable form so that not every one is able to under- 
stand them, unless he understands the real interpretation of such 
language. In some instances even an ignorant person will soon re- 
cognize that the facts are exaggerated, but he will take in literally, 
for the reason that he lacks a knowledge of the natural philosophy re- 
quired to explain it. An illustration of this can be found in Succah. 
I have no desire to dwell at length upon this particular subject. 

XVII. Thou Shalt not wonder at the fact that the sages, blessed 
be their memories ! in then* researches, use the parable and riddle 
word-style, and not plain, ordinary language ; this is due to the fact 
that they themselves explain certain passages of the Prophets in that 
style. See Berachoth, on the passage in which the sages explained it 
in parable style although the prophets stated it in simple language as 
if there were no other meaning to it. Here I wish to emphasize how- 
ever that I do not mean that those passages have any other meaning 
than that which the sages explained. If the style of the parable is 
applied to the words of the prophets, how much more then should 
this style be apphed to the words of the sages which cannot be under- 
stood in any other way ? And concerning this, my father, my teacher, 
blessed be his memory ! has long ago called attention to this particular 
fact in his "Commentary on the Mishnah." 

XVIII. And we found a place in Talmud where it Is openly ad- 
mitted that the sages spoke parable style and that their words should 
not always be taken literally (Erubin fol. 63) "A disciple of R. Ellezer 
decided a lawful question in the latter's presence. R. Eliezer said to 
his wife, Ema Shalom, 'I wonder if he will live through this year ?' 
And he died during that year. 'Art thou a prophet ?' his wife asked 



8) See II Kings 20, 7 and Isaiah 38 that the word is used for "becoming well. 



xrv 



the latter answered him. Thou hast fulffllled the commandment of 
sending gifts to the needy. (Esther 9, 22.) Thereupon R. Juda sent 
Wm the whole of the calf vsith three jars of wine. The latter m re- 
turn sent him a message saying. "Rabbi, thou hast fulfflllcd the custom 
And of sending portions one to another." (Esther 9. 22). Other similar 
incidents are recorded in the Tahnud in great numbers, especially m 
the treaUse of Gittin. After glancing over the opinions expressed by 
many on the fourth class of stories, it seems that every one belongs 
to one of the former three groups, but when you consider them and 
analyze them thoroughly thou uilt find they belong to a separate 
group ; hence I placed them in a fourth division. 

XIV The second part of the stories consists of such stories as 
did not astually occur but were seen in dreams ; they speak of them 
as real stories, because they beUeved that no thoughtful man would 
ever mistake them for real facts ; as the one (Vol. I. 24.) We are 
taught (in a Baraitha) R. Ishmael said : "Once upon entermg the 
holy of hoUes, to prepare incense. I noticed etc.." and many other 
similar stories. And the same is true regarding certain stories in which 
are mentioned the visions of the prophets, how God spoke to them, 
and also the stories of demons. The thoughtless observer who. for the 
sake of beUeving. thinks that these thmgs occured exactly as stated 
though the facts are contrary to common sense, in doing so. is both 
fooUsh and ignorant of the laws of nature. For all the stories of 
mh^cles. told by the sages, blessed be their memories, are stated 
in language similar to that employed by the prophet, who told la 
plahi language whatever they saw in theh: visions, just as my father, 
my teacher, blessed be his memory ! explained it in "The Guide. 

XV The third part consists of stories which actually occured. 
but were exaggerated in the beUef that no thoughtful man would mis- 
take their meaning. And the sages admitted using such a style, as 
they say (Tamid fol. 29.) "The Torah spoke in exaggerated language, 
the prophets spoke in exaggerated language, and the sages spoke in 
exaggerated language ; the Torah - for it is said (Deu. 1, 28.) The 
cities are great and fortified up to heaven ; the prophets — for it is 
said (I King 1.) So that the earth was rent at their noise. The sages— 
when they speak of the heap of ashes on the altar ; what the Mishnah 
says (lb ) in regard to the ^ine which stood at the entrance of the 
Temple and what they say concerning the curtain which separated 
the holy of hoUes from the Hechal." These are but three instances in 



piHiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuuiuiuiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiNiiiiiiiw 



BERACHOTH ^ 



m :j n n 



CHAPTER ONE 

FKOM what time on may we read the 
Sh'm'a^ of the evening P^ "From the 
time the priests enter to eat their 
Terumah^ vmtil the end of the first 
watch,"* said R. Eliezer. But the other 
sages say "Until midnight/' and Eabban 
Gamaliel says "Until the ai^pearance of the 
morning star." It happened that the sons 
of Rabban Gamaliel came [very late at 
night] from a banquet and told Rabban Ga- 
maliel that they had not yet read the Sh'm'a, 
whereupon he said to them : "If the morning 
star has not yet appeared you must read it." 

(Gemara) Let us see: when do the priests 
enter to eat the Terumah ? Is it not when 
the stars appear ? Let then the Mishnah say : 
"From the time the stars appear!" In using 
this expression, he lets us hear something 
by the way ; namely, that with the appearing of 
the stars, the priests are allowed to eat their 
TerumaJi, because the forgiveness-offering 
[which will be brought on the morrow] is not 
a hindrance, as we have been taught; "And 
when the sun hath set. he shall be clean. (Lev. 
22, 7.) i. e., the waiting for the setting of 
the sun prevents him from eating the Teno- 
mah, but not his forgiveness-offering." 

(lb. b) R. Jose said: "Twilight lasts as 
long as a twinkling ; this one comes and that 
one goes, and it is impossible to determine its 
exact time." 

(Fol. 3a) "Until the end of the first 
watch," said R. Eliezer. Let us see: with 
whom does R. Eliezer agree ? If he hold that 
the night is divided into three watches, then 
let him say "until the end of the fourth 
hour" ; and if he hold that the night is divided 
into four watches, then let him say 
"Until the end of the third 
hour?" He holds indeed that the night has 



]12^Kn p-l£5 

^K"'^d: pi nvin t; cnc-,s CDDm 

-nB'n TiDj? n^y «^ ns en? idk .yntr 
.m-ip!' nriN ]"'n"»"'n 

nonna ■'^ox sp nn-'S D''jn3 nsD 'dj 

]■/ yora sp ninms 3jk sn^o D''33i3n 
n«s nya*n nonna i^ds «p ncs w^ino 
.snaya «^ ms3i ^'cp sm □■'njon 
nsin nntDi tt'ocn «3i {2= «-ip'i) N^jma 
ims3 ]^«i rmnns 'bisN^n innayn wnc 
.nonnn '71dk^q innDtyo 

-inop •'«» s"m nmocsn qiD ly (^ ^n) 
•ry «o''^ n'7">^n Mn nnoa'D 'j "laop •«« s""i 
n^-'^n ""in m-iDtyo 't nnop '•si mye' 't 
mnoB'n ': incp D^iy^ myty 'J ly «d^'7 



.TV,o +re!i.H<!6 BerocTiotTi treats of Ben^ictions and prayers. „ „„ , , „ 

,>tJI%m™';? consists of three sections: Sh'm'a ((Deu. 6, 4-9.), Vhaya (lb. 11, 12-22.) and Vayomcr (Num. 
■?7 41 T -The term Sh'm'a refers also to the two Ben«diotions before the Sh'm'a and Uie two Benedictions after 
If t/'i= Vniiert Rh'm'a from the word with which it begins. 
It I' 's £,?,"^Vi<hnah beSns with the evening Sh'm'a following its Biblieal order: When thou Heth down, and 

^ "^v ■.„ti, „», (TleiT (i 7) or as at the creation: And it v:as eveninfl and it teas mominrt (Gen. 1, 5). 

" 3) Hiv^flering.— Pr'icsti' who were rltually unclean were to abst^n from the use of sacerdortal food until 
tiey bathed themseKes in the evening (Lev. 22, 6-7). 
4) See note 5. 



XVI 

him. The disciple's name and his father's name," continued the Tal- 
mud, "were purposely mentioned, that we should not construe it as a 
paiable, but as a true fact." From this is clear that in many instances, 
their words were not taken literally, but in parable form. Put this proof 
in thy heart and let thine eyes watch it, for it is a wonderful thing as 
well as important evidence. This was called to my attention by one of 
my wise disciples and this last part of the narration is very much Uke 
the second part, treating of the Derash or allegorial explanations 
(mentioned above). .They are both important parts, containing great 
and wonderful events which could not be revealed to every one, and 
they have therefore spoken in parable style. Finally thou shalt know 
that there is one thing w'hich thou must always remember which will 
be of great help to thee in determining the exact meaning of the story — 
namely, that many stories contain a mixture of all these parts, of true 
stories, of parable, of dreams, etc. And if thou wilt attempt to explain 
the whole in any particular form, either In plain form or in any other 
way, thou ^^ilt come to naught, an example of which can be found 
in Chagiga and in many other parts of the Talmud, only I cannot dwell 
upon it in detail because I am not allowed to go too deeply into the re- 
velation of such secrets. And I trust that the explanations I have 
offered, will be sufficient for every thoughtful man ; and that hence- 
forth it will be easy for every one to determine the exact part to which 
every Derash belongs. And through this, he will avoid spreading evil 
leports like the Karaites and the fools did upon the words of the sages, 
blessed be their memories ; this will also prevent a man from going 
to the other extreme of beheving foolishly in every Impossible thing, 
thus causing him to think that the sages reported Impossible things 
and things which did not exist, and in this way, finally leading him to 
deny the existence of the Holy One, praised be He ! 

XIX. Behold this carefully, for it is a great pillar and fortified 
wall against such things. 

And now come thou, blessed of God. Put this like a seal upon 
thy breast and like Tephilin (Phllactarles) between thine eyes. 

Let this be an opening and an introduction for whatever thou 
wilt read or hear in the future of any Derash or story and cast thy lot 
among the true and virtuous scholars, but not among those who turn 
things up-side down and who walk foolishly after all nonsense. 

And the Lord shall in His mercy lead you In the righteous path 
so that thy feet shall walk straight in His chosen path. Amen. 



3pv py 



and my guide.' 'My son,' said he, 'why did 
you enter this ruin?' 'To pray,' I replied. 
Tou could have prayed on the road ?' he said 
'I was afraid lest I be interrupted by travel- 
ers.' 'You should then have prayed a short 
prayer.' ° From this conversation, I con- 
cluded three things: First: It is not safe to 
enter a ruin. Second: One is permitted to 
pray on the road, and third : A man on the 
road [having no place to pray] has the priv- 
ilege of saying a short prayer. He then said 
to me: 'li^Tiat voice did you hear in this 
ruin?' 'I heard,' I replied, 'a Bath-Kol (hear- 
enly voice) which coos like a dove, saying, 
'Woe to the children that because of their 
sins I have destroyed my edifice, burned my 
Temple, and exiled my children among the 
heathens.' 'My son,' said he again, '[I swear] 
by your life and the life of your head, that 
this occurs not only at that particular time, 
but thrice daily; furthermore, every time 
Israelites enter the Synagogues or places of 
learning and answer Let His great name b« 
praised, the Holy One, praised be He! nods 
His head, ' and says, 'Happy is the king 
thus praised in his own house, but what avai- 
leth it a father who hath exiled his children 
among the heathens? Woe to the children 
who have been exiled from their father's 
table !' " 

Our Rabbis have taught : For three reasons 
shall no person enter a ruin ; because of sus- 
picion (of an immoral intention) ; becauae 
the ruin may cave in; and on account of 
demons (dwelling in ruins). 

(lb. b) Our Ralibis have taught: "The 
night has four watches," so says Eabbi. B. 
Nathan says "Tliree." What is R. Nathan's 
reason? It is written (Judges 6, 19.) And 
Gidon, and the hundred men that were with 
him, came unto the edge of the camp in the 
beginning of the middle watch. And we are 
taught that Tichon (middle) cannot be used 
unless something preceds and something fol- 
lows it. But Rabbi disputes this and says 
that "by the middle is meant one of the two 
middles." R. Nathan says: "Is it then writ- 
ten one of the middles? Behold! It is writ- 
ten the middle!" What is Rabbi's reason? 
R. Zerika in the name of R. Ami, who speaks 
in the name of R. Joshua ben Levi, said: 
"One passaare says (Ps. 119. (i2.) At midnight 
do I constantly rise to give thanlcs unto Thee, 
etc., and another passage says (lb. ib. 148.) My 



no '':sD "'3S '''? nns .mm '»m y'?y oi^tr 
^'? imDS ima ^72nn^ i? ^^^ i^ ncs 

nni«3 .n-i"ip n'i'sn ^^snn'? -p hm >'? ids 
]i«*^ "rno? nnan 'i una imn'? nysy 
•\-\i2 ]'«772nt:c TiiQ^i namn? po:;: 
.mxp n'7sn ^^sno tiis '7'7sn»na' ■"ma'" 
^mas IT namna njjaty 'b'.p na ""jn '>'? "ia« 
ma-si n^ro nan:at:' '?'p na Tiyaw' i^ 

nas .□"-.ryn p^^ i^a ns ''n''7:m ■'^3^^ ns 
nn^i IT nyiy s'? p'si ■'im -j-'^n 1:2 *''? 
.np maiK b": dt"! dt" '73a n7s -p maiN 
ina^ |''DJ3J ^Nit:"'t:* -v'w'2 S7S na'bn it n7i 
n-'ais' KH'' pr.yi nvl^'■na ^na7i m^DjD 
"imxi itrxn v:y:Q n"2pn ^ni^a '?'n:in 
TOT .-p ^r^''22 ims ]''D7pa'i' i^an ncs 
"'IK1 D"-r>'n pa^ v:2 ns n7;-ti' ns^ i^ 
: cni3N ]n'?'j "^ija i'?:::- cjab on'? 

p« cnaT nff'bty ""jsa -i"n 
n'7iEan •':sa". n^'n "ijsa nnmn^ 

: pp-'Ta 

.•'an '•im n'7'''7n ■'in rma'u^'a 't "i"n (^''v) 
Tr\D'[ \r\i '-n ui"a n^'^c nais \r\i ""m 
*.nK nt?« tr^« nsai j-.yn: ss""! ('1 D^'-Bitr) 
«:n n:^^^ nmair'sn c'«n njnan nspa 
^3-n nnnw^i n-ija^ city s^s njoTi ps 
niJiDTists' n:i2inn ]a nns njuTi •'sa 
maiaTiaiy n:",2in a-ris ^a ]ni 'm 
••BS -i"K spnT n"s '•3-n a"a -aTiD n^im 
(Btp Dt'^nn) na-iS nns mriD '7"3"'i nas 
IpTt lasra '7>; i'? nmn'? cps n'71'7 n:%'n 
•»rj? lanp (B'P OS*) "lais nns mnsi 






«) A short pray«r for those smble to say the oraal prayer. 

7) The reference to God Is atways niade methaptiorically, symholloally, or hy personification. 



n I 3 -I 2 



V^p-13 nnott'D «r>tn ':"Dp «m n'7"''7n ""in 

in-* "itrip pyOtST ;«'^^ D"1DD 'n (n": n-Dv) 

.cpy'iX cn^D .Tity -lyu Tcn micwn 
msDD ntt^Ki iD« nu'D piT" P'i^ri n^tr^'i'Br 
n^nn •>« «"n a-itrnp ^Ka .n'ryn ay 
navwi'Hi mouTS n'rnn i-i-np nnoco 

•''7 nn? wa-iD njnns mnca ^'d 2^\ffnp 
r]:y:,'i^^ mott'D qiD 3^a*n «?« win kdc 
«n^j!i't:sT n"'j;sD«T nr,-in« moo'D n'bnm 
OTnp nnoa'D ci',d in^o «n'« n-iva i«i 
na-iD sps^'-iSD^ T1X K'b ninnw Kcn "«3i 
]Dt yi^ «^i ^SK n^33 ''::n ISC': ts'"? npo^ 
n'7ya ny msDO nctn it's .nn"«« t?"p 
IDS ."•np'-'ri cip"'^ icN nti'D p:!"" pirm 
rn mnatr'D ': an nos 'bsioty na pns^ n 

^n'l'bjm "''73''n ns ^nantt'i Ti'^a ns Tiannn 
: D^DDis nmyn |'«3'7 ^aa hk 

^'7^o •'fi^'^n nnN nya lor n"K «'Jn 

m3T,nD nns n3T,n'7 tidjsji Tiin 
^y --^ -ictyi y'T in-7« nsi 'b'bsnn^ d^^b'it 
^ne-'^c'^' nnN'7 Ti'rsn ^na^^oa' Ty nnsn 
1^ ••mns •'31 I'l'by ci'btr "i^ nns ^n'7Dn 

M~~A«T>nI1iiK to most o^mTnrntntnr. the nioht refers to the eillc. which 1s> a. dark a. nleht to Israel, the 
dUrerent watch« airf their respective elgns are the dark periods of I^roel's exile and his suflerings; the Holy OM 
Buffers -Kltb his people. All similar stories are to be Interpreted In -the same manner. 



three watclies, but he intends to inform us 
ihat just as Uiere exist watclies in Heaven, so 
there exist watches here on the earth ; as we 
are taught tliat R. Eliezor siiys: "Three 
watches has the night; anii at the beginning 
of every watch tlie Holy One, praised be He ! 
sits and roars like a lion, as it is sai.i 
(Jer. 25, 30.) The Lord will roar from Hea- 
ven on high and from His holy dwelling shall 
He give forth His voice. Verily, He will 
roar over His habitation. And the divisions 
of the night arc recognized by these signs: 
In the first watch the ass brays; in the second 
the dog barks; and in the third the baby 
nurses from its mother's breast and the wife 
converses with her liusband.'' ^ 

How does R. Eliezer arrive at these con- 
clusions? Does he apply tlie signs to the be- 
ginning or to the end of each watch ? If lie 
applies his signs to the beginning of each 
watch, then it is unnecessary to have a sign 
for the first, as nightfall itself is a sufiBcient 
indication for it I If, however, he applies liis 
signs to the end of each watch then the sign 
for the last is unnecessary, for the dawn is 
then sufficient! He applies his signs to the 
end of the first watch, the beginning of the 
last and the middle of the second. And if 
you please, you may say that he applies his 
signs to the end of each watch. In answer 
to your question as to the necessity of a sign 
for the last, I say : It is necessary for a man 
who sleeps in a dark p'ace and does not know 
the time for reading the Sh'm'a : as soon as he 
hears the wife conversing with her husband, 
and the baby nursing from its mother's 
hreast, he may begin to read the Sh'm'a. 

R. Isaac b. Samuel in the name of Rab 
said : "Three watches has the night and at 
the beginning of ever\' watch the Holy One, 
praised be He ! sits and roars like a lion and 
says 'Woe to the children that because of 
their sins I have destroyed my edifice, and 
burned my Temple, and exiled my children 
amontr the heathens.' " 

We are taught that R. Jose says: "Once 
upon a time i was walking on a road and I 
entered one of the ruins of Jerusalem to 
pray. EMjah, blessed he his memory! came 
and watehed me at the door until I finished 
my prayer. After I had finished, he said to 
me: '.ihalom, (peace, unto thee), my teacher,' 
to which 1 answered, 'Shalom, my teacher 



3py 



said, about midnight, etc. Why [does he 
come to say] about midnight? Should we say 
that he was told so by the Holy Oue, praised 
1)6 He ! Is there any possibility of God being 
in doubt? We must therefore explain it 
that Moses was told At midnight [as it really 
-happened] ; but Moses [on his own recogniz- 
ance] said Aboiit.midniglitj consequently we 
infer that Moses was in doubt. And how did 
David know it? Da\'id had a sign [which in- 
dicated the exact time at midnight to him], 
for R. Ghana b. Bizna said in the name of R. 
Simon the Pious that: a harp was hanging 
over David's bed and, as soon as midnight ar- 
rived, a northerly wind blew in upon the 
strings of the harp and caused it to play. 
Thereupon, David arose and studied the 
Torah until dawn. At dawn the sages of Israel 
visited David and said to him : "Our Lord, 
King ! Israel, thy people need a living !" "Go 
and support yourselves by dealing with one 
another," replied David. "But," said they, "a 
handful does not satisfy the lion nor can a 
pit be filled with its own earth ! [i. e., a com- 
munity cannot live on its own resources]." 
'Whereupon David said to them : "Go ye and 
stretch your hands out as a band [of war- 
riors]. Immediately they held counsel with 
Achi'tophel and took advice from the San- 
hedrin and inquired of the Urim and Tum- 
mim. ® 

E. Joseph said: '^What is the passage 
[that refers to this] ? It is written (I Chr. 
27, 34.) And after Achi'tophel (came) Joho'- 
yada, the son. of Bena'yahu, and Ebya'thar, 
and the captain of the Icing's army was Joab, 
i. e., 'Achi'tophel' is the adviser; as it is said 
(II Sam. 16, 23.) And the council of Achi'- 
tophel, which he counseled in those (Fol. 4a) 
days was as if a man had asked advice of 
th e word of God : 'Jehoyada the son of Bena'- 
yahu,' refers to the Sanliedrin; 'Ebyathar' 
refers to the Urim and Tummim ; as the pas- 
sage said (lb. 20, 23.) And Bena'yal\n. the 
son of Jeho'yada was over the Kareithi and 
Peleithi. But why are the Sanhedrin called 
'Kareithi ?' Because they cut their words clear- 
ly; and 'Peleithi?' Because their acts were 
wonderful [predestined]. And why was the 
name Urim given to the stones? ^* 
Because they enlightened their words ; 'Tum- 
mim?' Because they finished their words.' 

0) See next paragrapli in reference to these najnea. 

10) When the King or the people -wanted to know th© faith of some national undertaking the Hlgh-Prle»t clad 
Wmself in the Urim and Tummim and some letters of the AIpha.bet which were ret In the Ophed with precious stoaee 
became Illuminated. The reading of these letters gaye the answer. See Toma Pol. 73, A. B. 



x-'att' ''Dp Np.-'SD sjis •'Di msna n"apn 

nm nv spsoo «o'7« nnn^ ioki ".n-'x 
mn «:d^d in ('« fs imnjo) .yi^ mn 
«TDn D*"T lax xjf'a -\2 sjn m ncsT n-^i 
]TiDi nn '?::' •int2cn n^yn? ''•.'rn hnt tjs 

ny mina pD".j;i nDijj ^^^ vo ii^sa p:aT 
-intt-n T.ny n^ytr* ]V2'\ .intr'n Tioy n'?)}^ 

cn7 -IDS nD2ns i^ans ?«nty'' py I'ban 

in"^ino «7DnD nun i^si nsn n« yna'o 
n"isj?T' i^D inj3 DDn"" itatrsi id'? on'? icx 

K"m) 3T13T inp iSD riDT' y\ noK .Ditsim 

nniaxi iniji p yTin"» '7Sin'»nK nnsi (»= 
«",n p"i ry."' nr ^s^n^ns asii I'ra'i' «2X nc'i 
CD^a f y itrK 'i'Sinins nx-y, (v.::"!:-) noix 
yTini .cn'TNn i2nn d^k '?«::'"' "itrsa nnn 
.CDini CTs i7!S nn^zs ^mniD nr in^ja p 
^y yrini ]2 i.T'jm (= =8-) lo-.x «'n pi 
TnD CDr Nip: rm'bi /n^En '7yi im^n 
•«n^s cn'^nm 0^11121:' "rns •Ti'i'ai 
"12 nnsi .cnn^T n^N'rE'irsty 



1S3S 



n 1 3 1 3 



eyes are awake before the night watches. How 
is this possible? At midnight; because 
The night is divided into four watches, 
[midnight is therefore after two watches.]" 
But K. Xatlian explains it hy the statement of 
E. Joshua ; as we are taught that R. Joshua 
says: "It is tlie custom of kings to rise on the 
third hour of tlie day. [i. e.., six hours of tho 
night and two hours of the day together 
make two ni^ht watches of four hours each}. 
E. Ashi said : "One watch and a half are also 
called watches (plural)." 

Another thing said R. Zerika, in the 
name of R. Ami. who speaks in the name of 
R. Joshua b. Levi: "In the presence of the 
dead it is not proi)er to speak of anything ex- 
cept things concerning the dead." R. Abba b. 
Cahana said: "This refers only to affairs of 
the Torah, but worldly affairs do not mat- 
ter." Rut some say that R. Abba b. Cahana 
said : "This refers to affairs of the Torah and 
even more positivelv to worldly affairs." 

It is written (Ps. 119, 62.) At midnight 
do I constantly rife to tjirr th-anks unto Thee. 
Did David rise at midnight? Behold! He 
arose at the beginning of the night, for it is 
said, (lb. ib. 147.) / came before thee in the 
twilight of night. And how do we know that 
the meaning of Neshef is the beginning of 
night? For it is written (Pr. 7, 9.) In the 
Neshef, in the evening of day. R. Oshiya said: 
"Thus [said David], 'I never passed half a 
night in sleep.' " R. Zerika said: "Until mid- 
night he slumbered like a horse, ' thereafter 
he strengthened himself [fought sleep] like a 
lion." R. Ashi said: "Until midnight he was 
engaged in the study of the Torah ; after that 
[he spent his time] in songs and praises." 
And do you say Xeshef means the beginning 
of night? Why do we find it used as the 
dawn of morning? For it is written (I. Sam. 
30. 37.) And David smote them from the 
Neshef even unto the evening of the next day. 
Is it not meant from morning until evening? 
"Xay, from evening to evening." If so, then 
let it be written Me-haneshef Ad Haneshef or 
instead of Me-ha'ereb Ad Ha'ereb! [Why are 
the two words Neshef and Erei, used for the 
same idea?] "But," says Raba, "Neshef 
means originally, 'The transition of anything* 
hence, night ends and day comes, the day 
ends and night comes." But how did David 
know the exact time at midnight? Behold I 
If Moses our teacher did not know it, for it 
is written (Ex. 11, 4.) Thus hath the Lord 

•) Sm Saeeah Fol. leb. 



ytyin* 'n pm yB'in'» 'nD n'7 "i3d \r\i 'm 
Tin «DDn "Tnm «"'^''^t r\'>^ m^^' sy^trn 

: in^ np nnDtyo ""Di 
]''K Van nos IDS -\"s spm -i"ni 
n"« no '?^ T'lm S7s nnn '>:22 pms 
•''j^D '73« n"in s'tk pDS* «7 Nina la «is 
"in N2« -i"N ''icNT NJ-'Si na ]'? n"''? sd^jjt 

s^iD tt'"31 n"'\2 '■»£« N?N pDK «^ «jn3 

: «0'7yT 

n^ps n^i^ nisn (p^p n'^"fi) stid 
••Hp n-,n «i^"i^i Nj^ss T,i '•31 "1^ nmn^ 
r,tt*ja "Tiaip (ov) a^nsT "'sp nin «mi«o 
Kin «mi« qtr: ^«m yntyD ''«di .yitt'si 
■"an nD« '^i^ uv mya citrjs (» '^W3) a-^nai 
■"^y -\2V N'7 c^'ijjD "lONp "i^n nn siyti'is 
msn ly nnx niv ■'an n:'<^2 n'?-''? msn 
n^n ■\'7''Ki |K3D DiDD DJDJDD ^^^ n^""^ 
n^>'7 msn ly ncs ^ty« m ^kd nDjnn 
niT'tt'a n^^Ni 5Nra min ■'lain pmy nM 
«in Knsx cjB'j «in smix qtr-ji .mnncm 
anyn nyi t\mrm ir\ ddm (^ •«"b') a^nsn 

K"7 «^^'''7 lyi «n£3XD 1K^ ""KO cmTO^ 

tUPiTD mno^ •'Dn ik -NmiN Tyi Nn-n«D 
-lOK N'i'K .anyn Tyi anynts -iN p^'sm lyi 
Koc KDNi K-''?"'^ r,trj nn •'Scj nn «dt 
yr ^in ^D im •n^'?^^ ndsi «dq^ iitya 
vn N^ i:^m niro Nn^'n nn^K n'^'pi'n k:^9 
nixno 'n ncK ns («> niotr) s^nai yT 



f 



3py^ PI? 



bosheth. Why was he called Mephi-bosheth ? 
Because he insulted David during Halachic 
disciissions ;" therefore, [because David hum- 
bly accepted these reproaches,] David was re- 
warded and Kilab came forth from him and R. 
Jochanan said: "His name was not Kilab 
but Daniel ; ^^ why then was he called Kilab ? 
Because he reproached Mephi-bosheth in mat- 
Lc-rs of Halacha/* and concerning him 
(Elilab) Solomon said in his \\isdom (Pr. 
23, 15.) My son, if thy heart be wise, my 
heart shall rejoice, even mine. And it is also 
said (lb. 27, 11.) Become wise, my son, and 
cause my heart to rejoice that I may give an 
answer to him that reproacheth me." 

Why, did David call himself pious? Is 
it not written (Ps. 27, 13.) Unless I had to 
see the goodness of the Lord in the land of 
life, and we are taught in the name of E. 
Jose, "Why is the word Lulei (unless) dot- 
ted? ^^ David said before the Holy One, 
praised be He ! 'Sovereign of the universe, I 
assuredly trust in Thee, knowing that Thou 
wilt properly reward the just when the time 
shall come [in the future world], but I doubt 
whether I shall have a share in them,' 
[Hence we infer that David did not consider 
himself a pious man.]" He was afraid be- 
cause of the sin, as R. Jacob b. Ide said ; for 
E. Jacob b. Ide raised tlie following contra- 
dictory question: "It is written (Gen. 28, 
15.) And hehold, I, {God) am with thee, 
(Ja-coh), and will keep thee withersoever 
thou goeth. And it is written (lb. 32, 8.) 
And Jacob was greatly afraid and he felt 
distressed. [Why was he afraid after the 
Lord promised to be with him?] Jacob said: 
'Perhaps there is some cause of sin which will 
prevent the fulfillment of His promise;' as 
we have been taught: 'It is said (Ex. 15, 
16.) Till thy people pass over, Lord, till 
this people pass over, which Thou hast pur- 
chased. Till thy people pass over, Lord: 
refers to the first entrance, [into the land of 
Israel] ; Till this people pa,ss over which 
Thou hast purchased; refers to the second 
entrance [in the days of Ezra]. From 
this, declared the sages, it can be inferred 
that Israel was to be brought in [into the 
land of Israel] during the days of Ezra '* 
by the same miracles through which they 
entered the first time, in the days of Joshua 



■"'is c-iino ^^•^ty ntria-'fiD idb' Kip: no^i 

•"IS D'''73D iTnt? n«^3 inc' «np: no^i 
inoana hd^b' no« r^i naSnn nB'n''SD 
•■js DJ '•i'? natr'' '\2'? nan q« '•jn i>^ '^^a) 
••siin n3"'ty«i ^2'? nott*! •'ja DDn(tants')-imKi 
^•^no Nm T-on n-'ti'sj^ np iD-in im om 
;-isn 'n mna msn'? tudnh n^i^ 0= Q''''in) 
s^i^ ^y mpj nn"? •'dt> "'am n^nira Kjm o^n 
•p ■«:« niamn y"t:'3"i n"2p:\ "»:s'7 in now 
S3^ T'Jij;'? □■'pnx^ 31D nstr d^itd nriKty 
.iK^ DM nn-'ra p'7n ^b t:"' ns yiT* ''r« ^3« 

njm (na n't"«i3) 3in2 "'c-i n-'N na npy< 
niriDt I'bn ics ^22 iTnotyi py ""ajx 
Dn:^ «otr no« nsa spv «T'"'i (^'' °^^ 
'n "loy iny^ TV (''" "^"^"^ s^jms Nonn 
IT 'n iDj? -luy"" ly ,n'':p it ny may' ny 
rsia IT n>3p IT ny luy ly -jid'si nsia 
'7«nt5''' ^^^ d"»"'1K-i cnan nns |SDn n^Jiy 



,i) mepHi. meaning "OTit of the motrth": Boseth, '^Oiat causes shame." 

13) See II Sam. 3. 3 and I Chr. 3, 1. . , , . , ^^ j 

14) Kil. meaning "ot aJl" : ^6, "fattier" (4. e.. tie master of aJI In wisdom). 15). The word Lul« is dotted 
ttotx/r^ng to tlie Messora. 

16) See Ezra 1-3. 



n 1 D T 3 



And after this, the}' applied to Joab, the 
king's captain." 

R. Isaac b. Ada said : "^Vhat biblical pas- 
sage relates to this? [That the harp 
was hanginij over David's bed.] Awake.' my 
spirit, awake! my psaltry and harp; I will 
wake up the morning dawn! (Ps. 57, 9)." 

TL. Zera said : "Mo?es, our teacher, knew 
verj- well [the exact time at midnight] and 
so did David; the harp was used not to 
tell him the time at midnight, but to awaken 
him from sleep. The reason for Moses' state- 
ment About midnight is that he feared lest 
the astrologers of Pharaoh might err in the 
time and would afterwards say that Moses 
lied ; as the master has said, TJse thy tongue 
to say, I do not know lest you be found mis- 
taken and deceived !' " 

R. Ashi said: "The time when Moses 
spoke was midnight (between the thirteenth 
and the fourteenth day of Nisan) and thus 
he said to Pharaoh: 'The Holy One, prai?ed 
be He ! said, 'To-morrow, at this time, will I 
go out in the midst of Egypt." " " 

[It is written] (Ps. G6, 1.) A prayer of 
David, preserve my said, for I am piou.9. E. 
Levi and E. Isaac both explain this passage. 
One said : "Thus said David before the Holy 
One, praised be He! 'Sovereign of the uni- 
verse, am I not pious? Whereas all the 
kings of the east and west sleep until the 
third hour of the day, I rise at midnight to 
praise Thee.' " And the other said : "Thus said 
David before the Holy One, praised be He! 
'Sovereign of the universe, am I not pious, 
whereas all the kings of the east and west sit 
companies in their glory, my hands are soiled 
in blood, membraneous-bag and after-birth in 
order to decide questions pertaining to family 
life; and moreover, whatever I do, I first 
consult ilephi-bosheth my teacher, saving to 
him : Meplu-bosheth my teacher, have I prop- 
erly convicted ? Have I properly acquitted ? 
Have I properly declared pure? Have I prop- 
erly declared impure? And I do not feel 
degraded [asking this].'" E. Joshua, the 
son of Ide, said : "What is the Biblical pas- 
sage [that refers to this] ? It is written 
(Ps. 119, 46.) And I will speak of thy testi- 
mony before kings and will not he ashamed." 
We are taught that his name (David's 
teacher) was not Mephi-bosheth but Ish- 



Nip •'«D WIN 12 pnxi 31 IDX .nKi"» "pth. 
•njsi '73jn m-.j? maa nmy (»3 oyhnD] 
■\y2.-\ ntj'D ics N-in '1 .nna* m''y« 
]"i^3"i j;ti mn ■'ca ini jrT' mn yro 
.nTiJS'D .T'-iiyns'? ?"!? iud yT" mn im 
n'.sns "iniD? ?"? yT« mn Tvcm jr:;! 
nyis ■'rjjiDxs' "VIS'' kdc' -i^op nca 
10N1 ,i:"m mn isii nco noK^ 
mann sac yr,'' ijin nai'? -^jw^ no^ id 
icr'i'rn smiN «2'7sa ion tn m rnNm 
'jsitr"''? ncD p"m -isp nin no'^s-iN \n:j 
\xn'>t^n ID n^i'rn msna nna^ n"3pn -idk 

■•JK T^on ""J ""tt'sj mnty in^ (id o'^nn) 
''iti'i ^^^ nas -[3 los in pnx^ 'm r'? ^3t 
rriTD ''D'i'D ^Dtt* "OS TDn s? j;"&'m n"3pn 
n^^^ msn "'jni mj;^* '; ~j; D-'Jt:"' anyoi 
•"la? in "IDS -[3 piNi ."i'? nmn'7 DipN 
mro •'2'7n ^3ty ••:« n^on s? j?"c3t n"3pn 
'':si cm333 niTUS nm:s D"»3tyT' 3-iyoi 

ino^ ^3 N"i7ty31 n"«3C*31 m3 ni3^31^D "'T' 

^istr nn 73:^ «?« i:j; s'bi n'7y3^ ntj'S 

1'? ID-.ST •'3T nt:'13''fiD3 I^DJ ^JN nc'ij? 

nB"» ^n3''''n na'' ^nn ns^ ■'3n ns'i3^2D 
.'«na'i3 vh^ TisDa ns^ Tnna ns^ sr)^3T 
c») s-ip isa "'TIS 3m nn3 ytyin"" 31 las 
.B^i3« «^i □•'3^0 n:j T-nnys namKi (bt- 

IDt? DO'S B'^K K'7N IDC Dtrn'SB N7 K:n 



iDThe letter Choi when prefixed to the word Cha*'o*^ I"" the meaning of Zi&e and about. It tihea-eiore 
moans here "Uke this mldniglit." 



npv^ py 



real redemption did not take place until the 
morning, [therefore the Ge-ula which indi- 
cates the redemption should be said imme- 
diateljf before the Eighteen Benedictions in 
the evening also] ; buu R. Joshua b. Levi 
holds that as long as the real redemption 
did not take place until the morning then 
the redemption of the evening matters little. 
As to the Biblical pa-^b^.j ■ tiii,_, uii...^ la the 
interpretation of the passage. (Deii. 6, 7.) 
And when thou lieth doivn, arid ivhen thou 
riseth up, (referred to Sh'm'a) . E. Jochanan 
holds: "We compare ^° Lying down [at eve- 
ning] to arising [in the mnniing] I"'" t^.e 
reason that just as the reading of the Sh'm'a 
in the morning comes before the prayer, so, 
in the evening, the reading of the Sh'm'a 
comes first also, and then the prayer of the 
Eighteen Benedictions." E. Joshua holds: 
"We compare the reading of tlie Sh'm'a 
■when lying do^vn to the reading of the 
Sh'm'a when arising, for the reason that just 
as in the morning the Sh'm'a Is read 
close upon rising so is the Sh'm'a of the 
evening read just before lying down." 
The following objection was raised by Mar 
b. Rabina: "We have learned (in a Mishnah) 
'In the evening, he says two benedictions be- 
fore the Sh'm'a and two after the Sh'm'a.' If 
the Eigliteen Benedictions should be said im- 
mediately after Ge-ula, then the Benedictions 
of Eash-lci-hcnu, -" prevents his having the 
Ge-ula, (the first one after Sh'm'a) closely 
after the Eighteen Benedictions?" Since the 
Eabbis ordained that Hash-ld-benu is to be 
said [between Ge-ula and the Eighteen Ben- 
edictions] then it is considered as one long 
benediction ; for if we do not say so, then in 
the morning how can we say the Eighteen 
Benedictions immediately after the Gc-ulaf 
Has not E. Jochanan said : "He shoiild first 
say, Lord, open Thou my lips, and my 
mouth shall declare thy praise (Ps. 51, 17), 
and then proceed with the Eighteen Benedic- 
tions; and at the conclusion he should say. 
May the words of my mouth, and the medita- 
tion of my heart he acceptable before Thee, 
Lord, my rocl' and my redeemer, (lb. 
19, 15)." But since the Eahbis ordained that 
the passage [0 Lord, open my mouth, etc. ] 
be said, it is considered one long prayer 
(part of the eighteen benedictions), so in this 
• instance also, since the Rabbis ordained that 



'(■^■2 "13D y'2 V*^*""'!"' •'3T1 N'~l2X !>' S'7S Vn 

nns snpa cnir^jn «-ip kd"'« n"'>'a isi 

•'iT 1Gip21 ■]23t^•a (1 nn:i) iifijjT i^ni 

HDip no .iDip'7 nnirt:' D'^pD -ino pm-' 
-nsi r"p v::j na-'Dii* r,« -'rsn 3"nsi ty"p 
nair*L:' r-ipo -an ^'n yi:'in"i •'^-i n?2n •\^ 
n^'^rc' ->' ',nt2D^ -idd d'"p no-ip no nn"'p'7 
^j''2-\i nnn na n-^nD intit:^ ^icd f'p ''n: 
•'S'l nnnN7 cnt:", iT^is? Dina* p^n mya 
n^:«: li^D sp «'? sn iiec^ v;3 mow 

s"'CT sn^nN nr-is^r ":2'':ut! jjm ij-'prn 
ITD I'ic ■'rT; n^-ni:' •'rn n-c\-i n't ""si 
(Kj D'7-r) ims -7nna pn-,-' 12-1 -id-s s.'iI 
'B' =«•) noiN Kin qiDn'bi nnsn Tisii' 'n 
irpm ^ra Dnn s''?s ■•a ncs* \\-i-\b vn"* 
sn^ns n'i'EnD nnsn •'nsii* 'n nco^ pm 



19) Rule of Interpretation by which new laws are derlTOd or the reason of laws are established. 

20) The last benediction referred to In the Mishnah. 



n 1 3 -i 3 



ben Nun, but Israel's sins prevented the ful- 
fillment of this." " 

(lb. b) We are taught: The sages made 
a fence to their words [to protect their or- 
dinances], lest a man coming from the field 
in the evening, would say: "1 will go home, 
eat a little, drink a little, and sleep a while 
and then 1 will read Sh'tn'a and pray the 
evening service." In the meantime he will fall 
asleep and sleep through the whole night 
without having read the Sh'm'a or prayed. 
But [in order to prevent this they say:] "A 
man coming from the field in the evening 
shall enter the synagogue, and if he be accus- 
tomed to read the Scripture, let him do so ; or 
if he be able to study traditional law, let him 
do that. After this, he should read the Sh'm'a 
and pray ; then he can cat his meal and recite 
the Aftermeal Benediction. He who transgres- 
ses the words of the wise, deserves the pen- 
alty of death." Why docs the Baraitha use the 
expression here that "lie who transgresses the 
words of the wise is worthy of the penalty 
of death," and not use it in any 
other place? If you wish, you may say, 
because here the force of sleep puts him be- 
yond his own control [and if he is not strong- 
ly warned against it, he may transgress the 
command even though he really desires to 
fulfill it] ; and if you please, you may say, 
because it is the intention [of the Baraitha] 
to reverse the opinion of those who say that 
the evening service is only optional it tells 
Tis, therefore, [by its warning,] that it is ob- 
ligatory. 

The master said [above] : 'Tie reads the 
Sh'm'a and prays (the evening service)" 
This is in support of [the view of] E. Jo- 
chanan, who was accustomed to say: 
"Who is sure to have a share in the world 
to come? He. who, immediately after the 
benediction of Geula, " says the prayer of the 
Eighteen Benedictions at the evening ser- 
vice." R. Joshua b. Levi said : "The Eight- 
een Benedictions were ordained to be said in 
the middle."" On what do they base their dif- 
ference of opinion? If you please, you may 
say on a Biblical passage, and if you please, 
you may say on common sense. As to 
reason, R. Joshua holds that the redemption 
(of EgA'pt) commenced on the evening (to- 
wards the fifteenth of Nisan) although the 



r.-'7 r^z'yivf "pna mtj; ""cn d: on'? mcT;"'^ 

1?K -ic-.ST 3-1V3 mrn ]D K3 m« sni «7tr 
yz"'i^^ syn^p nnipsi i^ycp ^3i«i Ti-'n'? 
instaim 'r^snsi v"p «np« D"n«i kv^^V 

m-ip'7 '7"':-i D« :"3n3^ dj3: anyi mi^n 
ty"p N-ipi rtiw m:ty^ ^""n c«i snip 
bV -imvn ^31 J\:l^^ ins ^31ki 'b^srim 
^33 xit:' iKt3 .nnits D^^n D"'03n i-inT 
i<3n S3tt' "'«m T\r\v2 ai^n X7i «n3n 
mc'D «a''K niyaiN •nn-'o n^in ""jripT 

noN .nairn ^'op man ninny n^sn Ydq 
]:nv '1^ .T^ yi"'DD 'p^snoi v"p x-np id 
lp^Dn m «3n D^iy p iniis '>"-\ idnt 
^"3 ya'in"» "«3n ninny 'be n^sn^ n^isa 
ij^siD «p ^«on mjpn ysosn mban idik 
,«-i3D nDi« niynis «-ip ncis niy3i« 
n'biKa n3D \:m'< 13-n xnao -sbik niynix 
s'7 snii^yo n'7iw «^« n:n 10: sn-nKo 

17) A prayer for r«j<Tn(ptlon preceding the EJIghteen Ben«<lloUtme. 

18) Between the morning Sh'm'a and that of the erenlng. hence tlhe evening prayer o£ tile Eighteen Benedictions 
Brst, and then comes the evenine sh'm'a triOi the b-nedlotlons of the Oe-ii7<i. 



11 



npy^ pj? 



K^ 



Echad (one) apply to Michael]." In a Barai- 
tha it was taught : "Michael [reaches his des- 
tination] with one [flight] ; Gabriel with 
two; Elijah with four and the angel of death 
with eight ; but during an epidemic the angel 
of death reaches [his destination] with one 
[flight]." 

(Fol. 5a) R. Levi b. Chama, in the name 
of Simon b. Laldsh said: "At all times let 
man stir up his good inclination against the 
evil inclination), for it is said (Ps. 4, 5.) 
Tremble, and sin not. If he conquers it (the 
evil inclination) it is well, but if he does not, 
then he should study the Torah ; for we read, 
(lb.) Commune with your heart. If it goes 
away, then it is well, but if not he should 
then read the Sh'm'a; for it is said (lb.) 
Upon your bed. If he conquers it, then it is 
weU, but if not, he should then remind him- 
self of the day of death, for it is written. 
And be still Selah (to the end)." 

E. Isaac said : '^Whoever reads the Sh'm'a 
when on his bed is considered [protected] 
as if he were holding a two-edged sword in 
his hand, for it is written (Ps. 149, j6.) The 
exalted praises (of God) are in their mouths 
and the two-edged sword in their hands." 
How does he infer this? Mar Zutra and ac- 
cording to others, R. Ashi, said : "From the 
beginning of that passage (lb. ib. 5.) Let the 
pious be joyful in glory; let them, sing aloud 
upon their beds; " and it is written after 
this The exalted praise of God is in their 
mouths and a two-edged sword in their 
hands." 

Furthermore, said R. Isaac: Whoever 
reads the Sh'm'a on his bed [before sleep], 
will cause the departure of all evil spirits; 
for it is said (Job 5, 7.) And the sons of fire 
take up their flight. By Uf (flight) is 
meant nothing else but the Torah, as it is 
said (Pr. 23, 5.) When thou letteth merely 
thine eyes fly over it (i. e., if thou learneth 
the Torah superficially), it is no more. And 
reshef (fire) means nothing else but evil 
spirits; as it is said (Deu. 32, 24.) Devoured 
with burning heat and with bitter deadly 
disease." ^^ 

Furthermore, said R. Levi h. Cbama, in 
the name of Resh Lakish : "What is meant by 
the passage (Ex. 24, 12.) And I will give thee 
the tablets of stone, with the law and the Com- 
mandments, which I have written to teach 



jji-i«3 in^^N nintyi ^«'»nDJ nnsa ^n^-'d 
: nnN3 r^z'^'or^ njj'^-m njioca n'.Dn ■]n'?di 
y'ntyn nn« son nn -ii^ 'n -in« (n ^n) 
Cj.-in) 'sjtr n"x'' TV 2"^'' ms tij-|i d'jij;'? 
«'? ■'SI .ama inx: c« .istinn ^si it:"! (i 
D« .D23a?3 nnx -inxr^ rmnn piDj?"" 
"tj? iDXitr' t:'"p sip-' vh is 3dis inx: 
DT' 1': -i>3ri s^ INI iDia inxj cs* .cDnstrn 
^D pn^f 'I ncs .n^D mm nasjt:' niTisn 

'?]} n"DD",n (--^OP ov) 'DNitt' IT'n JT,"'£3 '•ntt* 

"iDH yntTD i«D DT2 nvz^s mm 0:11:3 
wjjjT iT'tr'no ■>»•« m ncti-'NI n-iqu no 
^ ijiT' TODa onion •.t^j;'' nTian 
o:n:a ^« mnon nnnn niriDi onuacD 
Kiipn ^D pn:fi im -ins"i •ct'; misia mm 
-iiawU'' i:dd CTna ppira inno ^y 'yp 
K^K r,',y psi T-,)! inia:"" r,t:n ijai (n =''«) 

o'lai) "iDNit:* ppno sb« J^tn j^ni .i::''«i 
: nnn ncpi r]t:n ■'Din'?! (='' 
V'p'? tr'^n "IDS Nan in i".^? 'i ioni 
nim'7 ns i^ w^nsi (i; mos') nTiai "isa 
.ommn'? ti^d: irs n-.sam minm psn 
nt nmn ,m-imn n-i*^*v !'?« — .mm'? 



25) Upon fTieJr SeiJs refers to the Sh'm'a before going to sleep. 

26) The passage is thus explained "Devoured with enrU spirits."— Retemnig ix> evil spirits, also to the good 
esul tlie evil iuclination see introd'uctioii. 



10 



n 1 3 n 3 



the nash-ki'beniL be said between Ge-ula and 
the Eighteen Benedictions, it is considered a 
part of Gc-ula- 

R. Elazar b. Abina said : "He who recites 
Te-hila I'David (Ps. 145) tliree times a day 
may be sure of an inheritance in the world to 
come." What is the reason? Shall I say be- 
cause that particular chapter is arranged 
alphabetically? "' Then why not prefer chap- 
ter 119 Ps., which has an arrangement of 
eight repetitions of each letter of the alpha- 
bet? Is it because it has the verse Thou, opcii- 
eth Thy hand and satisfieth the demands of 
all Thij crcaiurcs. [it influences men to be 
benevolent] ? If so, then why not the Great 
Hallel? " in which also is written (lb. 136, 
25.) He giveih food to all flesh. Because Te- 
hila I'David has tlie advantages of both; [is 
arranged alphabetically and influences men. 
to be benevolent]. 

R. Jochanan said : '^Why is tlie letter Nun 
missing in the [alphabetical course of] 
Ashrei? Because the letter Nun is used for 
bad tidings. It is said (Amos 5, 2.) She is 
fallen (Nafla)-' and will not ri.se again, the 
virgin of Israel." In Palestine they inter- 
pret [this prophecy of Amos as good tidings] 
thus: She is fallen and will not fall again! 
Rise! virgin of Israel! R. Nachman b. Isaac 
said: "Even so, David indicates [the prophecy 
of] the Nun for the purpose of strengthening 
Israel, through a holy vision; for he says 
(Ps. 145, 14.) The Lord upJioldeth all who 
are fallen (Noflim)." 

■R. Elazar b. Abina said further: 
"Much more is said [regarding the actions] 
of Michael than is said of Gabriel; for in 
describing Michael, it is written (Is. 6;, 6.) 
Then flew unto me one of the Seraphim. 
Whereas in describing Gabriel it is written 
(Dan. 9, 21.) The man Gabriel whom I had 
seen in the vision at the beginning, came fly- 
ing swiftly." ■* And whence do we know that 
the word Eclmd (one) [mentioned by Isaiah] 
refers to Michael ? R. Jochanan said : "We de- 
rive it from the word Echad which occurs in 
both passages; it is written here (Is. 6, 6.) 
One of the Seraphim and it is written there 
(Dan. 10, 13.) But Michael, one of the chief 
princes, came to help me. [.Just as in the lat- 
ter case] the word Echad (one) is applied to 
Michael, so also in the former case does 



id''d'7 ]33-i irpm \V2 ■'03 «3n ^DT 

: N^Dl Sn3nK H^INM "US^Diyn 
CV ^33 D'«C>'3 ir'i'ty Tll^ n^nn (nc? D'^nn) 

«Dj?a •'ND N3n c'i'iyn p «intr i'? ntssio 
«Di^ «n^3 Ns^s n'»3 3^-131 mtt'o Kn^^-iw 
«^« ^ss K"'jnn3 s^nsT im "»D"'Dn ntrK 
ystt'Di "yf ns nms (°- ) ni3 3ti3i mca 
n-is 3^131 '7njn ^'jn «d^'7 ]ixn ""n ^3'? 
n-iKT Dityo s^K ntyn '?:>'? on^ ]^)^3 (i^p ov) 

ntrsD. ]"M nns3 s'? no ■•:2a '•"t id« 
n^33 C'T did;-) -ii:N:ty n'JSQ ns ty-'ty ""jso 
^x-ino s-3n>'D3 .^«"ii5''' n^ins mp ci^Din h'? 
n'7in3 Dip iiy ^isj^ cj-'Din n'71 n^sjj ^3n n'? 
-itn n"SK pnr "13 pm 21 nnx .^«"it?'» 
(nop D>^nn) noxity irnpn m-i3 n3DDi m 

: D"'^S1Jn ^3^ 'n lOID 

no ^nj sj''3K nn ity^N -isn "id«i 

'•'?« qyi (1 n'i'S") 3TI3 ^K3^D3 'l'7'Kl 

n^ns '7«n3: ^3: i'jk'i n^sia'n p ins 
in"«ST ic'S ^Nn3J ti'-'sm (» 'jn'-jh) 
^sm yoc'D •'«oi riy3 qyiD n^nn3 ^iTn3 
STiK ]:n^'' ■)"« 3^13 ^S3in3 in« 
p ins '''7N riyi S3n 3^03 ins ins 
ms ^ss-iQ nam (• d^) cnn 3'n3i D''sirn 
sjn ••'JiTV'i' S3 cjitt'sin □•'itrn (p) 



Ps 145 l9 arranged alphabetlcaJIy. This chapter 19 also called Ashrei. 

Ps. 136 is callpd -Hnllel Ilarjgadol' (the Great Praise). 

This begins with the letter Nun (Nafla). 

"Flying. sTciftiy," each word stands for one flight 



13 



apy^ py 



J* 



Lord, and ieaclieth out of Thy Torah. But 
if he investigated and did not find [neglect of 
the study of the Torah] then it is known that 
his affliction is the cause of God's love, for it 
is said (Pr. 3, 13.) Because whomsoever the 
Lord loveth He admonisketh." 

Eaha, in the name of R. Sechorah, who quot- 
ed R. Huna, said : "Whomsover the Holy One, 
praised be He ! loveth. He af flicteth, for it is 
said (Is. 53, 10.) But the Lord was pleased to 
crush him through disease. We might think 
that, even if he does not accept the affliction 
with resignation. It is therefore said (lb.) 
When his soul hath brought the trespass-offer- 
ing, i. e., just as a guilt offering must come 
with his acknowledgement, so also must this 
be accepted with resignation. And if he ac- 
cept it with love what will be his reward? 
Then shall he see (his) seed live many days, 
(lb.) and moreover his learning shall endure 
with him, as is said (lb.) And the pleasure 
of th e Lord shall prosper in his hand." As to 
affliction, there is a difference of opinion 
between R. Jacob b. Ide and R. Acha b. Cha- 
nina. One holds that all such affliction which 
does not prevent one from studying the Torah 
is one of love, for it is said (Ps. 94, 12.) 
Happy is the man whom Thou admonisheth, 
Lord, and teacheth from Thy Torah; and 
the other holds that such affliction which 
does not prevent one from praying is one 
which comes from love, for it is said (Ps. 66, 
20.) Blessed he God who hath not removed 
my prayer nor His kindness from me. 

R. Abba, the son of E. Chiya b. Abba, said : 
"Thus said my father (R. Chiya) in the 
name of R. Jochanan; 'Both of these afflic- 
tions are the kind which come from love, for 
it is written (Pr. 3, 12.) Because whomsO' 
ever the Lord loveth He admonisheth; But 
what do we learn [from the passage] Thou 
teacheth him of the Torah. Do not read 
Tlamdenu (that he should be able to study 
the Torah) ; but read it Tlamdainu (Out of 
Thy Torah, Thou teacheth us) i. e., we learn 
from thine Torah [that one who is punished 
by God should be happy] namely, through 
the rule of a fortiori ^* concerning the tooth 
and the eye ; that if the loss of a tooth or an 
eye [stricken out by the master] which 
affects only one member of the human 
body, frees the slave, ^^ how much more then 

28) A TaT-mudic rule of Biblical interpretation (trom 

29) See Bnt. j>i »' 



□NT .unn^n "iminm n-" lino-in la's najn 

.n^ii^ 'n nns-" nc*N ns ""d (^ '^=^) idwc 
^3 sjiH 2-1 "IDS rmno :sn ins n2t now 
^mo-'n i«oiD 13 pn «in "iinn l^'^p^c 
'713'' '''7nn 1K3T I'sn 'm {>"^ "■nj-.-') nnsity 

n« (a=-) "yCs'b TiD7n n3nSD ^^3p n't 1'7"'SK: 

in-iDi ?!« nyi"? nc'H no .ic'Si dc'« D-'tj-n 
(0=-) Ti::^,' no n3n«D r"?!? D^3p dni nyn^ 
mn'bnc* s^s TiJ? n^i d-'d'' T'nsi ynr nNT 
n"'3 'n |*sm (°tt*) "idnju* n''3 n-'-'prin 
Nn« 'm ""TK "13 3pj?'' 13-1 n3 lai"?!] .n^x'' 
n3ns ^c* ^''TD'' en i^« ids in xrjn n3 
(ns □''7nn) nt:s:c* min '71123 cn'7 ]>^v ^3 
•]minoi iT" moTi nt:'« nsan •'-ic-x 
^3 n3ns '7U p-nc on i^s ids ini uiD'i'n 
-[TO, (ID DC) -io«:tt' n'rsn '71123 cn'7 ^Ntr 
.■•nxD ncni Ti^an T'on vH -it's D\n'7K 
«3« 13 K-'-'H ""sm nn3 «3k ''3n n''^ nox 

^B* jniD"' I^KI 1^« pm"" 1"N N3S -IDS ^3n. 

3n«^ ntt'« ns* ^3 (j '''cb) nnsjc' p nsHN 
iminni noi^ iio^n no s^s n''3i^ 'n 
"13T mn^n «^n i:iD^n mpn '7N i:iD'7n 
na pyi ]C'a -inini ■?? ma^n imina m 
13^ Dis ^tt' in3S'a ms Nine* pyi jb^ 

Minor to maJorA* 



12 



n 1 3 n 3 



y* 



them? i. c, ihe (ablets of stone, refers to the 
ten commandments; the Torah, refers to 
the Bible; the commandments, refers to the 
Mishnah; which I hare ivrittcn, refers to the 
Prophets ami Ilagiographa ; to teach them, 
refers to the Gomara ; whence we infer that 
— all were given unto Moses on Mt. Sinai." 

K. Simon b. Lakish said : "Wlioover stud- 
ies the Torah will prevent affliction from 
coming upon him, for it is said (Job 5, 7.), 
And the sons of fire take up their flight. By 
Uf (flight) is meant notliing else but the 
Torah, as it is said (Pr. 23, 5.) When thou 
letteth merrhj thine eye fly over it (i. e., if 
j'ou study the Torah by merely glancing over 
it with your eyes), it is no more, (you will 
easily forget it). And Reshef (fire) 
means nothing else but affliction, as it is 
said (Deu. 32, 24.) Devoured with evil spir- 
its."-' "Aye."' exclaimed E. Jochanan, "even 
the school children know this ! for it is said, 
(Ex. 15. 2.5.) And he said, if thou wilt deli^ 
gently hearl-rn unto the voice of the Lord and 
wilt do irhnt is riqht in Hi's ej/es, etc. But it 
means thus: Upon him who is capable of 
studying the Torah, but does not do so the 
Holy One, praised be He ! will bring repulsive 
suffering which will greatly disturb him ; for 
it is said (Ps. 39, 3.) / was dumb in deep 
silence, I was quite still even from speaking 
good, but my pain greatly disturbed me. By 
tob (good) is meant nothing else but the 
' Torah, for it is said (Pr. 4, 2.) For good 
doctrine do I give, etc." E. Zeira, and some 
say, R. Chanina b. Papa, said : "Come and 
see that the custom of the Holy One. praised 
be He! is not like the custom of mortal men. 
The custom of mortal men is that if a man 
sell a valuable thing to his fellow-man, the 
seller is sorry and only the buyer is happy; 
but the ciistom of the Holy One, praised be 
He! is not so. He bestowed the Torah on 
Israel and He rejoiced, for it is said (lb. 4, 
2.) For good doctrine do I give thee." 

Eaba, and according to others K. 
Chisda, said: "If a man see that 
troubles are coming unto him, let 1 im 
search his deeds, for it is said, (Lam. 3, 
40) Let us search through and examine our 
ways and let us return unto the Lord. If he 
has investigated and found nothing wrong, 
then let him attribute it to a neglect of the 
study of the Torah. for it is said (Ps. 94. 12.) 
Happy is the man whom Thou admonisheth. 



: laDD ni:'07 unj c'7"',3C 
nT.n3 pD-.yn ^s rv"^ I- \'V^'<^ '"> "i^" 
-.J31 (n 2'.'N) nasjt:' udvt ]vn3 ;mD"' 
nD«Jty mm s^s p;:; ]"«! ,rpy •.n"'3:' pp^ 
r,i:n ]^ni .".:r«'i u T^"'y 'T'^nn (j; '^tro) 
: r,t:n ••n-.n^i U^ o'l^^) now:; imD-* «^« 
b^ n-pirri i^^s« «n pn-f •'31 n-"^ id« 

-lOK^T (le mat?) nDXJB' ims ]''>m"' pi r\^2 

vi''y2 nc'-'m -|''n7« 'n 'rip'? yctyn VDty d« 
r;T,n3 p".Dy^ ^'? ntrsst:' ^3 n7« .ui ntt-jjn 
]i-iy.3n p-i',D"' v"?]! s-'SD n"3pn po-.y "ijvs" 
•'nn'7S3 (a'' o'^nn) "itswc •,n",s insi^'i 
3it2 ;''S"i .•~i3v: ''3N31 3*.t:n Ti-'a'nn n^^'.i 
Tin: 2',\i np? •'3 (i ''?=^) ncsjti' m-.n n7s 
sj-'an ■'3-1 scrT'S'; ^n''T '^ ics .'"ji c3'7 
7^3 v^-!pn r\-v2Z «'?::• ns-i", k"i3 «bs in 
"1310 m« DTI nc3 mo .cm ■Ty:'3 mo sin 
:3S .nctr np-^'. 3xv -1310 •T'3n^ yzn 
nosit? nocn min on'? ]r\: p irs n"3pn 
S3-1 itts .im:! 03'? Tinj 3ia np'b ""s 
p'lCiy CIS ns'n ck snon sn som-'Ki 

(i nr«) -lONiiy .T'tt-yon CBCB"' V^JJ |i«l 

int:»K (•.:s D'S-:,i) 'sr^' nmn '711230 n^n*" 



2T) Beshef is placed between "Hunger" and "Brll spirits," it therefore refers to both, (RaaU). 



15 



n p y ^ p y 



la 



rule of analogy] from the word, 'iniquity' 
(Avon). It is -RTitten here: Through kind- 
ness and truth is iniquity {Avon) atoned 
for, and it is written (Jer. 32, 18.) Inflicts 
the iniquities {Avon) of the fathers unto the 
hosoms of their children after them. [Just 
as the former Avon refers to atones, so does 
the latter]." 

E. Jochanan said : '^Leprosy and [bury- 
ing] children are not to [be considered 
among] tlie aiflictions which come from love 
[of God]." And is not leprosy an aifliction 
which comes from love? Have we not been 
taught: "Whoever is afflicted with one of 
these four forms of leprosy should deem it 
nothing else but an altar of forgiveness." 
^2 "Aye," E. Joachanan answered, 'it is true 
tiiat it is an altar of forgiveness, but it is 
not an affliction which comes from the love 
of God; and if you wish, you may say that 
one statement refers to those who dwell in 
Babylon, and the other refers to those who 
dwell in Palestine ; and if you wish, you may 
say that one statement deals with leprosy in 
a hidden place, and the other deals [with 
leprosy] in an open place." And [death of] 
children, you say, is not from the affliction of 
love ? How shall we construe this case ? Shall 
we say that he had children but they diec?, 
then my objection is, that R. Jochanan him- 
self said, "This is the bone of my tenth son 
whom I have buried." [Should we then be- 
lieve that the affliction of such a great man as 
E. Jochanan was not affliction caused by the 
love of God ?] But the statement of E. Joch- 
anan refers to the case where there were no 
children bom, and the latter deals with a case 
where there were born, but died during the 
parents' lifetime. 

R. Jochanan once became ill, and R. 
Chanina came to visit him. "Do you love these 
afflictions?" E. Chanina asked him. "I de- 
sire neither them nor their rewards," he 
answered. E. Chanina then said "Give me 
your hand." Thereupon E. Jochanan gave 
him his hand and he [E. Chanina] made 
him well. Why did not E. Jochanan make 
himself well without the aid of E. Chanina? 
[Did it not happen that] when E. Chiya b. 
Abba once became sick, he was visited by R. 
Jochanan, who asked him, "Do you love the 
afflictions," and when the answer came, "[I 
love] neither them nor their rewards," R. 

32) The affliction is for his benefit. 



icna Nsn Dins \\y ]ij; s"»ns ''xm'' p 
{■± mm') cnn n-TiDi jiy nan"' nnwi 

•Dnnns n.T:n pm ^« nns j-.j? d^b^di 
"7^ ]n iD"> p-iN D''J3i D1JJJJ pm"- inn no« 
tyic •'D '73 ,N''jn sm n'? cy^ji .nin« 
«7s jrs i^7n d''5;j: msiD 'id inx n 
nans I'll' pniD'' nn maj nnra msa nsra 
sn N"2si in'7 sm \'7 sn n"2n nn «^ 
'K IDT i3"'n S7 Dijai .«''Dmsa Km xv^xi 
jn i^ni'' ■'m nosm inioi n-''? nm sa"''? 
n*"^ nn s*'7T «n s^s T'n nsT'ii'jjT kd-i5 
: irriDi n''^ nm sm '7^3 

wjn '1 n''2J'7 ^«y c'7n pm*' •'m (="?) 
\T\ vh ni^ nDS jmo"" t''7V ]''a''3n ni^ idx 
niT n''^ an-i it ■''7 an n^^ ids pDa* «^i 
Km n">t:'2a7 pnT* 'n cpi^ ""koki n^DpiNT 
pnr ''m maj'? '7Kyi tr'7n Kas la K"n '•m 
K'7 n"''7 -iDK pniD'' ^^y pa-'sn n-i^ idki 
KTi n*!^ nn"! p-" •'^ an n''^ idk pas' >?^i p 



14 



n 1 3 1 3 



V 



are afflictions, which affect the whole human 
body, capable of cleaning one of evil.' " ^Vnii 
that is meant by E. Simon b. Lakish, for he 
said: "It is said Convetiant {Britli) in 
connection with the word salt, and it is said 
Convenant (Britli) in connection with the 
word affliction. Covenant by salt — as it is 
written (Lev. 2, 13.) Thou shalt not suffer 
the salt of the covenant (Brith) ! Covenant 
by affliction — as it is written (Deu. 28, 49.) 
These are the words of the covenant. 
(Brith) Just as tlie covenant of the salt was 
made to sweeten meat, so the covenant of 
affliction was made to cleanse man of all 
iniquities.'' 

We are taught that E. Simon b. Jochai 
said: '"Three precious gifts the Holy One, 
praised be Ho ' bestowed on Israel, and none 
of them was bestowed without affliction. The 
gifts are, the Torah, Palestine and the world 
to come. How do we learn that the Torah 
was given with affliction? It is written (Ps. 
94, 12.) Happy is the man whom Thou ad- 
monisheth, Lord, and from Thy Torah, 
Thou teach eth him. Whence do we learn that 
Palestine was given with affliction? It is 
written (Deu. 8. 5.) Thou- shalt considrr in 
thy heart, that as a man chasteneth his son, 
so the Lord, thy God, chasteneth thee. Im- 
mediately following are the words For the 
Lord, thy God, bringeth thee into a good 
land, »" Whence do we learn the world to 
come was given with affliction ? It is written 
(Pr. 6, 23.) For the commandment is a lamp, 
and the Torah is a light, and the way of life 
is to administer correction." 

A disciple recited before E. Jochanan: 
■'Whoever occupies himself with the study of 
the Torah and with the practice of loving 
kindness and (lb. b.) buries liis children 
[during his life] will have all his sins forgiv- 
en." "It is right," said E. Jochanan to him, 
■"in the cases of the Torah and of charity ; for 
it is written (Pr. 16, 6.) Througt hindness 
is inir/uily atoned for. Chesed (Kindness) 
means the practice of loving kindness as it is 
said (lb. 21, 21.) He that pwrsueth right- 
eousnejis and Kindness (Chesed). Em eth 
(Truth), means the Torah, for it is said (Tb. 
23, 23.) Buy the truth (cmeth) and sell it 
not, ^^) but a? to the one, who buries his chil- 
dren whence do we learn it ?"' An old gentle- 
man taught E. Jochanan, in. the name of E. 
Simon b. Jochai : "We infer this [through the 



nOKT y^VTi ir"«m pV '73 «'? D1« '75? 

nns iDSJi n'?D3 nn3 nn«: V'2'Z'^ 
(3 KipM) 3in3T n^D3 nna idnj imo-'s 
j'mD"'3 nn3 iDNJi nn3 n'7D n"'3B'n k^i 
nns no nin3n nsi n^K {n= nnan) ain3i 
fl« nirsn ns npnon n^o ,n^D3 T,o«n 
^3 I'^pncD p-i'.D'' ,pT,D''3 n:2«n ni-i3 

tt'^tr nDi« ■'sm'' p ]i>'Dt? •'Si «^:n 
«^ c^",3i ^tntt'i? n"3pn ]n: msits mjna 
ps .r^Tjn ■■ ]n "i'7« .pmoi ■•t' ■?*; «^k ]ir\i 
,nD«:tt' r"'3o n-nn .K3n D^iym ^«niy^ 
in-nriDi n*- iJio^n ic'S n3:n ''ncK 
13 (n Dnm) n^"l3^ ,?^?■lw•"' "ns ;i:io^n 
.^iD^D i^n^s 'n us ns c'-'S ■id"«'> nii'ss 
p« '?« "is"'3D ^n^x 'n •'3 ,nnn3 3^131 
13 12 (1 ^'ivQ) 3in3i ,K3n D'?ijjn ;n3iiD 
:nD*,D mn3"in w'Ti inn tin mim mxn 
pmvn ^3 ,]jn',^ ^3ni n^np s:n ':n 
v:2 ns n3-p-. (="") cnon ni7"'nJ3i mini 
^in-i"' ''3-1 n^'7 nn« .-.''mrr; '73 '75; -,'? ^^^ma 
(T Dtr) n">n3i c"'^D^ m'7"'oa"i m-.n Ko'ba'a 
nnon n'','7"«n3 n ion ]ij? nsis"* nasi ions 
n^n ssa'' nom npT^f cinn («= =«•) "lasr^ 
(j: Di') las:*.:' mm ",t nas .t,33i npi-:i 
•.■«:3 ns n3:p S7S T;:an '7S' r>:p nas 
]iyB'^ '1 mcB S3D Sinn n-"^ sjn ^"'ja 



so) The girirtr of thp ti"1t- TjSTid 
31) Beterring to the ToralL 



thus condlUona! • apon suffering. 



17 



T' 



vinegar turned to wine again, and according 
to others, the price of vinegar rose to the price 
of wine. 

It is taught that Abba Benjamin says: 
"I was always sorry for two things, that my 
prayer should be in front of my bed, and 
my bed should be placed between the north 
and the south." My prayer should 
be in front of my bed. What is 
meant by 'in front of my bed' ? Shall I say it 
means to pray near the bed? Has not 
E. Juda said in the name of Eab, and 
according to others it was E. Joshua b. Levi 
who said: "Whence do we learn that he 
who prays shall have nothing between him 
and the "wall? It is said (Is. 38, 2.) Then 
did Hezekiah turn his face to the wall, and 
prayed unto the Lord." [Hence we see, that 
a man ought not to pray before his hed.] Do 
not say 'Before the bed,' but say 'Immediately 
after rising.' ^^ And what does he mean by 
'My bed shall be placed between the north 
and the south'? This refers to what E. 
Chama the son of E. Chanina and according 
to others E. Isaac said: "He who places his 
bed between the south and the north will 
have male children ; as it is said (Ps. 17, 14.) 
And whose belly thou fillest with thy hid- 
den treasury they will be satisfied with sons." 
Eab. Nachman b. Isaac said: "It wUl also 
prevent his wife from having a mis-carriage ; 
for it is written here. Thou fillest their belly, 
and it is written there (Gen. 25, 24.) And 
ivhen her days to he delivered were fulfilled." 
It was taught that Abba Benjamin says: 
"Two entered the synagogue to pray; one 
of them finished his prayer first and went out 
without waiting for his friend ; will his prayer 
be torn to pieces, as it is said (Job 18, 4.) 
He teareth himself in his anger: shall for thy 
sake the earth be forsaken? And moreover 
he causes [by his action] the Shechina to 
depart from Israel, as it is said (lb. ib. ib._) 
And shall the tzur move away out of His 
place? And the word Tzur, refers only to 
the Holv One, praised be He! as it is said 
(Deu. 32, 18.) Of the Rod- {Tzur) that 
begot thee thou wast unmindful." And if he 
waits for his friend what shall his reward bo? 
(Fol. 6a) E. Jose the son of E. Chanina said : 
"He will be worthy of the following blessings 
which are said (Is. 48, 18.) Oh, that thou 
hadst but listened to my commnndments! 
Then would have been as a river thy jyiere.^ 
and a.5 the waves of the sea, thy prosperity." 

^ Ti) Samuch mesms "n!gh" or "immediately after." 



K?n np"'^s nDST n^-'S"; xnon mm N7n 

•Di-n? psi" p3 njinj snn*^' Tma r;\ tidd 
■':s^ •'NO intan 1:3^ snna' Ti^sn ^y 

^75nn7 piD V'2''-[ NDTi-'si 31 nas nmrn 
iDSJt:' ^non p3^ i:''3 |-:;,n n3T sm xr^ 

I'lDD ND''K N'7N TltSD •'JS'7 SDTl «'? .'H '7N 

]iDi in njinj «nnc' tiud 't^t •tiud'? 
n^ nDNi srjn 'n3 sen ■'3n laNT nm^ 
^■;s:k ;''3 intan \r\Mr\ ^3 pnx"> i3n nos- 
c'^nn) noxjt:' DnsT W'1'2 r\<i i"nn urrH 
pn: 31 .C133 lystr"" nit33 x^nn ^jisxi (" 
c^Bj n'?SD inc'K ^-iK !^N nD« pni"" "13 
□nn 3"in3i cjt23 N'7Dn -jJisiiT S3n 3''n3 

«3N N':n .m^'7 n-'C 1N'7D''1 {J\2 ntrNi:) 

'K mpi '7'7£3nn'7 iDJ3Jt:* Cit" naiN jiqijs 
lisiiQ n''3n'7 iTion vh^ x^fi ^'7snn^ ono 

mUC N'7K Tiy N'71 pN 3Tyn 1JJ}D'7n 13K3 

(DB*) iDsr^ '7N-iti'''D p'7nDnc* nji3tt'^ 
n"3pn s^K ms |''si .icnpna mx pny-ii 

^TlCn EST .^BTl 11^^ "lis (3^ Q'lai) '«JU' 

srjn '13 •'DT' 3n nt2« (i =n) Tisty no i^ 
«>'7 (no ''jTB") 'sj^t i'7'7n m3-i3'7 n3ir 

/i:i lyiT '7in3 



16 



n 1 3 n :: 



TQ 



Jochanan asked for his hand and made liim 
well. [Why coiild he not do tho same for 
himself?] 1 will tell thee. A prisouer can- 
not liix^rate himself from his prison. 

11. Elazar once became sick. II. Jochanan 
came to visit him and saw that he was sleep- 
ing in a dark room. Whereupon II. Joch- 
anan uncovered his own arm and immediate- 
ly the room grew light. "^ R. Jochanan then 
noticed that li. Ela/.ar was weeping. "Why 
art thou weeping?"' asked R. Jochanan. "Is 
it because thou hast not learned sufficiently 
of the Torah? Behold we are taught (in a 
llishnah) ^* 'No matter whether one [offers] 
much or little, only the intentions of his heart 
shall count for the sake of Heaven.' Is it 
because you are in need and poor? [Do you 
know that] not everyone deserves two tables 
(in this world ;md the world to come). Is 
it because of trouble from your children? 
Here is a bone of my tenth son [whom I have 
buried — hence you are not the only one who 
has such troubles]." "I weep,"' said R. 
Elazar to him, "for that beauty which will 
decaj' in the earth." "For that," said R. 
Jochanan, "you really ought to weep," and 
hoth wept. "Do you love the afflictions?" 
E. Jochanan meanwliile asked of him. "[I 
love] neither them nor their rewards," an- 
swered R. Elazar. "Then give me your 
hand." E. Elazar did so and was made 
well. 



R. Huna had four hundred barrels of wine 
which had turned into vinegar. On hearing 
of his misfortune, R. Juda, brother of R. 
Sala the pious, accompanied by Rabbis, 
or as some say, R. Ada b. Ahaba, accom- 
panied by Rabbis, came to visit him. "Let 
the master," said they, "investigate his af- 
fairs." "What !'" said he. "Do you believe me 
to have been guilty of wrong-doing ?" "Shall 
we then," responded they, "suspect the Holy 
One. praised be He ! of executing judgment 
unjustly?" R. Huna then said, "If you have 
heard aught against me [don't conceal it] tell 
it to me." So they said to him, "We heard 
that the master allows his tenant no share in 
the wines [when thev are pruned]." "Aye,' 
said R. Huna, "he has stolen all the produce 
of mv vineyards and has left nothing for me." 
"There is a maxim." they replied, "that who- 
ever steals from a thief smells of theft." "If 
80," said he, "J promise to give him his 
share." Thereupon according to some the 

83) R. Jochenan waa Tery handsome. S«e Baba HJetBlA 84*. 
S*) MenBchoth. 110a. 



mm «Tn ]3m^ '•s-i .t-d;^ ^xy t-^n nTj?^« 

iT? in« nry^s ""sn '•33 wp n\r\-i m^^n 
na'sjs N'JT min dib'd ""s n-iaa «p "»«»« 
nn^2i Q''j;acn ins'"^ n^inn ins u-ijir 
bo S7 •'J1TQ D'.tyn •'NT .D''Dtr^ n^ jv^^tr 
]n •':3 L'Z"Q •'S n-ijn'?*^ ti'^'^ hdit ctn 
••^31 siDit:* ■'sn'? y'N .-i"'3 nsT'cyi saiJ 
«p ■'SIT «i ^y n^b ins sras «p vnsyo 

tnru- N71 ;n n7 ni? nns ^mo'' yr; j"'3"'3.n 
an •n-'cipisi nn"" n'»^ nn^ it" -"^ an y'« 
■jsj; Niam ''ii nsa yanx iT'? "is-'pn sjin 
.]33-ii sTon «'i'D nm mn« min^ 'n n-inj? 
Tias pa-n nor^iii 12 tn« m nb naKi 
s'iTB'n ''ai in'7 nas .T^an la p^y^ iT*? 
Ti-in «t?nip Tityn -^a ni^ naw iD-'-'rys 
S3"»« ••« in'? nas .sjn «^3 sri n^nyi «"n 
n-''? "'"las sa""? sn^-ia I'ry va'^n |Ka 
n'»Dn«'7 Ncnv^ na ^nt" S7T |'? y^aty ""an 
«p «n n-ira n-'a i'? p''3i? sp "^a in'? -ib« 
•>B'3''K ^nasT ir'^n n*'': nas n^'bo n^^ 3^:a 
*,n'7 na« n-iya sayai 2133 N3i: ina 
mn '«-iasn «3''K n^'? «j2"'nn ""^ Kj'b''ap 



19 



npv i^jj 



tsi 



KTixi nj-iSB' «Dip mB-v .N"';'n''D mtr; 
ai na pas ■'an now 



n"3 trnp-t:' pjo pnx'' 



need the inference concerning ten? Because 
in the case of ten people, the Sheehina pre- 
cedes, but for three, the Sheehina does not 
appear until tlie three are together. 

R. Abin b. E. Ada, in the name of E. 
Isaac, said: "Whence do we learn that the 
Holy One, praised be He! lays Tephilin? It 
is said (Is. G2, 8.) Sworn liath the Lord by 
His right hand and hy the arm of His 
strength. By His right hand, is meant the 
Torah, for it is said (Deu. 33, 2.) From His 
right hand, He gave a fiery law unto them; 
and by His strength, is meant Tephilin; as 
it is said (Ps. 29, 11.) The Lord will give 
strength unto His people. How do we know 
that the Tephilin are a strength to Israel ? It 
is said (Deu. 28, 10.) And all the tiatiuns of 
the earth shall see, that Thou art called hy 
the name of the Lord, and they shall be afraid 
of Thee; and we are also taught that E. 
Eliezer, the Great, says 'This (the above 
verse) means the Tephilin of the head.' " E. 
ISTachman b. Isaac said to E. Chiya b. Abin : 
"What is written in the Tephilin of the 
Sovereign of the universe ?" "It is written," he 
answered, ''IF/io is like thy people Israel, the 
only nation." (I Chr. 17, 21.) "And does the 
Holy One, praised be He ! praise himself with 
the glory of Israel?" "Yea, for it is written 
(Deu. 26, 17.) Thou hast this day acknowl- 
edged the Lord, etc., and the Lord hath ac- 
knowledged thee, this day, i. e., the Holy One, 
praised be He! said unto Israel 'You have 
made me the only object of love in the world 
— as it is written (Deu. 6, 4.) Hear, Israel, 
the Lord our God, is one God; I will there- 
fore make you the only object of love in the 
world — as it is written (I Chr. 17, 21.) And 
who is like thy people, Israel the only na- 
tion'" R. Acha, the son of Eaba, said to E. 
Ashi : "You may be right concerning one 
section of the Tephilin, what about the re- 
maining sections ?"^'' "In the remaining sec- 
tions," [said E. Ashi] "are. For what great 
nation is there (Deu. 4, 7) ; And what 
great nation (lb. ib.) ; Happy art thou, 
Israel! (Ib. 33, 29) ; Or hath a God essayed, 
(Ib. 4, 34.) So that he may set thee, the 
Ugliest (Ib. 26, 19)." "If so then th'ere 
are more than four sections?" "But," [said 
he], "Or what great nation is there. And 
what great nation, both being practically [in 
meaning] alike, are one section; Happy art 

37) The Tephilin of the head consists of four eections, pach oontaJning a chapter from the Bible written on parch- 
ment ; The Tephilin of the hand contains of the same with the only difference that all four chapters are 
placed in. one section. , 



''m iDN Nis 
p'7''Dn n"':D 
ynrm la-ic^ 'n ]!2^i (no n-i-ty.) nDxjty 
(j^ D'w) 'Kjty nmn s^« ij-'d-' psi iny 
]''^"i3n K^N inj; psi id^ m c« irDia 
]''2T2\ .jni icy'? ny 'n (•-; c^nn) nosr^ 
(n: Dn:i) 3>n3T ^sni:"''i' CH T".y p^''2nna' 
T'^y «np3 'n c^ •'3 insn ■'oy ^3 i«m 
iniN 'bnjn nry^x ''m x-'jm .po ixnii 
13 pnj 3n iT*^ nns* .'.I'xnit:' |''7''3n i^s 
■•nsm ^-irsn ^jn p3N ns s^n 3n'7 pnxi 

(N"n-rin triTB 'e; r-^n) "^3 3TI3 HD «D'7y 

•'Di .ins -iij '7S-10"' pys ■'m (" «"■■") ^'n 
3^131 ps 'i's-itt'n in''''n3ti'3 n"3ip nscn 
nTiDsn 'm dim mnsn 'n ns ('= onai) 
\Vin">tyy nns 'i'snt:*"''? n"3pn cni ins D^^^ 
D3ns ncys i:si o^iys nns n3it2n 
n3"'t2n Tin-'^'y ons ,D^',y3 nns n3iDn 

(iniBs I'NB* i;jn in iai^2 o'jijrn nn« ti's 'is) 

7snty yoty (i qb") 3^131 o^iys nns 
ni-'tsn C3ns n'ui-ys '':si ins 'n '.jm^s 'n 
ins ''i: 7s-i*i"i py3 ""m 3T131 D'7iy3 nns 
•"trs 31'i' S3n nii3 sns 3i y's .ps3 
(n nnn) ^'s ind •»n3 is'^*3 sn''3 in3 nm 
inc's (j'? ns-) 'rnj ''i: •'di ^iij ■'i: •'o ^3 
-inn^i (1: Q«-) nM'7S noxi is {^ q--) ^snty^ 
••3 s^s Tis S3"iti in'7 ■'C"'s: i3n •'S p'l'^y 



18 



n 1 D n 3 



rr> 



We are taught that Abba Benjamin says : 
"The prayers of men are not heard [by God] 
save ouly when they come from the syna- 
gogue, for it is written (I Kin. 8, 28.) To 
lijsten, unto the song of Thy praise and unto 
Thy prayer, i. e., in the place where songs of 
praise are said, there should bo the place of 
prayer."' 

Rabin b. R. Ada said in the name of R. 
Isaac: "Whence do we Icam that God fre- 
quents the synagogue? It is said (Ps. 83, 
1.) God standeth in the Congregation of 
God; whence do we learn that when ten men 
are praying together the Sheehina rests with 
them? It is said (lb.) God standeth in the 
congregation of God; ^^ whence do we learn 
that when three are sitting and discharging 
judgment, the Sheehina rests with them? It 
is said (lb.) In the midst doth He judge. And 
whence do we learn that when two are sitting 
together and studying the Torah. the Sheeh- 
ina is with them? It is said (Malachi 3, 
16.) Then conversed they that feared the 
Lord, one with another; and the Lord lis- 
tened and heard it, and there was written a 
book of rememhrance before him for those 
who feared the Lord and for those who re- 
spect his name." What should be under- 
stood by the words. And for those tvho respect 
His name? R. Ashi said: "Even when one 
intended to observe a commandment but was 
accidentally prevented from doing so, it is 
credited to him as if he had actually observed 
it." And whence do we learn that even if one 
sits and studies the Torah, the Sheehina is 
■with him? It is said (Ex. 20, 24.) In every 
place where I shall permit my name to be 
mentioned, I will come unto thee and I will 
bless thee. Xow let us see, since we know 
that the Sheehina is even with one, why is 
it necessarj' to infer that it rests with two? 
Because if two study together the Sheehina 
inscribes their words in the book of reniem- 
■ brances ; for one, however, it doe? not in- 
scribe his words in the book of remembrances. 
Since we know that when two study, the 
Sheehina is with them, why do we need any 
inference for tlirce? Because we should not 
tliink that discharging judgment is merely 
bringing peace and nothing else, and the 
Sheehina therefore is not with them. It in- 
forms us then that discharging judgment is as 
important as the Torah : and since we know 
that the Sheehina is with tliree, whv do we 



d'd'td) ntDKjc noajn r\''22 «?« nyncj mvt 
c-,pD3 nvsnn ^ki n:-in ^« yiDc*^ ('n 'k 
«ns 3-i na j-iai ids nisn snn ci? ni-\ 
a"3n3a ina n"3pn*^' j-'jo pm'' ""an id« 

.^« mj?n 3X: C\n7N (ns o.^nn) •)Qm\ff 
rntyrty D^l^'? PJDI .DISti'"' DNn^N 3np3 (Dtr) 

(J ':N7a) -lONJty Drrov nrotyty nmns ppDivi 
Votyi 'n atypii inyn in ty-iN 'n •'kt' nnj tk 
•iDU' ••atyin^i 'n •'NT'^ rja"? jnst nsD onoM 
3trn i'7''Bs ""CN m nos loty ■'3U'in*7i ■•xq 

Dtyvt:' nns^ pirn .nscT? -.^ikd mnan 
(2 nint?) nosjti' 1DV ri:>2t'u mini pDijji 
I^^N «n« •'Di:' riK T'otk itr-K Dipon ^33 
.«'«V3"'D ''-in nn ""sst inso isi Tin3n3i 
^'^ in mjnsrn n3D3 W"''?o pna-io ""nn 
inND -"Di .mjn3in nsD3 n-''?© ]3n3''D 
wn XDTn ino .niv3o «n^n nn '^stn 
^"op nrsty n'tis «'71 «in «d^3 WD^ty 
Kn^n i^isNT insn ""si .n-nn u^\n "»d: jm 



an) Kifa (congegatton) applies to ten men as it is Bald (Num. 1(. ZTMlmo long shall this evil Eda, etc., referring 
to the sspies, who, without Joshua and Kaleb, having disagreed with the others, were ten. , 



21 



3py^ ry 



K3 



them), and it is written (Chr. 17, 9.) [of 
the same thing] Leclialotho (to destroy 
them). At the beginning the wicked merely 
afilicted Israel but later they tried to de- 

^ Btroy Israel." 

E. Chelbo in the name of E. Huna said : 
'''He who leaves the synagogue should not 
Tiurry." "This," says Abaye, "is only When 
jhe leaves, but on going to [the synagogue] 

' it is meritorious to hasten, as it is said (Hos. 
6, 3.) Let vs know and hasten to, serve the 
Lord." E. Zeira said: "At first when I saw 
the Eabbis hurrjnng to the sassion [of learn- 
ing] on the Sabbath I thought to myself, 
'The Eabbis profane the Sabbath.' But after 
I heard of what E. Tanchum said in the 
name of E. Joshua b. Levi : 'Always shall a 
man run to study, even though on the Sab- 
bath, as it is said (lb. 11, 10.) They shall 
follow after the Lord when, He will roar like 
a lion,' I, too, began to run." 

E. Zeira said: "The [chief] reward for 
attending a lecture lies in running'' [to it, 
i. e., anxiety to hear it]. Abaye said: "The 
[chief] merit in attending the public lec- 
ture before a holiday [when the laws con- 
cerning the holidays are explained] lies in 
being pressed [on account of the crowd]."' 
Eaba said: "The [chief] merit for studying 
Halacha is in obtaining a full explanation of 
it." E. Pappa said: "The [chief] merit of 
attending a funeral is the silence."^" E. 
Zutra said: "Tlie [chief] merit for observ- 
ing a feast day is charity."*' E. Shesheth 
said: "The [chief] merit of a funeral ad- 
dress is in the lifting u;p [the voice in 
lamentation]." E. Ashi said: "The [chief] 
merit in attending a wedding festival is the 
words [of cntertanment] ." 

E. Chelbo in the name of E. Huna said : 
"Whoever prays with his back turned to the 
synagogue is to be called wicked, as it is 
said (Ps. 12, 9.) On every side do the 
wicked walk."" Abaye said: "This refers 
only to one who does not turn his face to- 
wards the synagogue but if he does turn his 
face towards the synagogue it does not mat- 
ter even if his back is towards the wor- 
shipers." 



n^nsi im:j;^ 'ins •'on «:in ai niic'«-i3 
: im^D^ c]iD3^i im:j?^ n7nna \n^'7D'? 
s^irn sr.n an "io« u^n ^ai noK 
^■"as IDS .noj njj^DB nv^Dsi '?« D":3nnD 

njn^ nsiij nvn:i (i I's-in) -idsjb' uimD'? 
Njnn mn ''3 ma «T'T ""a-i ids .'n ns 
WDN Knncn «pn3^ ""tim «pi pan^ in^ 
«n^ KJVoti't I'i"'3 «^3tt' j:n •'^'rnD «p 

iDSJts' nntt'n i'7''Sni n:)'?r\ im'? m« }>n^ 
^o: «JK jstt'^ nn«3 la^"" 'n nn« («' ov) 
KpnsT «i:i« «-in im ids .siD-im (mn) 
nDK .spnn n^3T Nn^s ''''3K nD« .stann 
KES 31 IQS .N-I3D Nnyctt'T Nias «m 

«"lt21T 31 IDS .SmpTltr «iDt2 iSI NnJ« 

sn:« nctr 3i nos .Nnpns «n''jjjm k-iji« 
«^i^n '>3T Kn:« ""tyx 3~i nos /■•i^t mson^ 

:i^in 

n-is mns ^^snnn "73 win 3n id« 
n"«3D (3' c'^-in) noNjc- j?ti»-i N^pj nDJ3n 
-iD« Di« i:3'7 m^t 0113 ps'bnn'' D-'y^rn 
•'3^ niss mno n^t n^« pns s^ ii3« 
ni^ «ntri:3 •'3^ n-^ss mno ^3S sncjs 
^3 ■'mn« ■'^so NpT Nn3j «inn .n3 j^ 
r,^n «nty''J3 13^ n^ss -nna k^i Knty^js 

^ 40) isom'e refer enence to the TisitoTR, namely thiA Bil«nce is the main part of condolence. Others eay this 
refers to the mourner to whom reward is due becaujse he accepts the judgment of God with resignation as did 
Asron when his oona were burnt See Ijev. 10, 3. . ■ o t cc o o 

•«i) It is cuatomarr to girc cierlty to the poor on fast days: See Is. 5i>, s-9. 

42) The passage is thus explained: 'If on every side,' [a man prays.] the wicked do this. See I Kings 8, and 
ee« further folio 30b — All the entrances to the Babylonian synagogues were at the Bast, bo that the rear wall 
oonrtainjng the ark faced the West toward Jerusalem which was west of Babylon : Europe is to the west of 
JTerUBalem. and tiierefor* th« arrangement of our Eynagoguea is the oppcBite from that of Babylon. 



20 



n 1 3 n n 



thou Israel, and For what part of a nation, 
are another section j Or hath a God essayed, 
is the third section; and So that He may set 
thee the highest, is the fourth section; and 
all tiiese verses are wTitten and [put to- 
gether into one section which is] placed also 
in the Tcphitin of the hand. 

Eabin b. R. Ada in the name of E. Isaac 
said: "Whoever frequents the synagogue 
[daily] and misses one day, the Holy One, 
praised be He ! inquires about him ; for it is 
written (Is. 50, 10.) ^Yho is among you, that 
feareth the Lord, that hearkeneth to the voice 
of His servant? Though he has walked in 
darkness and had no light, let him trust in 
the name of the Lord; i. e., if he went to per- 
form a meritorious deed [and was therefore 
absent from s}-nagogue] there will be light 
unto him ; but if his absence is due to person- 
al business, then there will be no light unto 
him for he should have placed his trust in 
God." 

R. Jochanan said : When the Holy One, 
praised be He ! enters the synagogue and does 
not find ten [men] ^* present, His an- 
ger is immediately stirred, as it is said (Is. 
50, 2.) Why did I come and no man was 
there, did I call with none to answer." 

R. Chelbo said, in the name of R. Huna: 
"The God of Abraham will help him who 
chooses a regular place for his prayers and 
when he dies, people will say of him, 'Woe, 
humble one ! Woe pious ! one of the real dis- 
ciples of our father Abraham !' And whence 
do we know that Abraliam had appointed a 
certain place [for his prayers] ? For it is 
written (Gen. 19, 27.) And Abraham rose 
early in the morning to the place where ha 
had stood before the Lord. And the word 
Omad (stood) refers to prayer, as it is said 
(Ps. 106, 30.) And Phineas stood and pray- 
ed."^^ R. Jochanan in the name of R. Simon 
b. Jochai said: "He who designates a cer- 
tain place for prayer, will cause all his ene- 
mies to fall before him. for it is said (II Sam. 
7, 10.) / have procured a place for my people, 
Israel, and I have planted them, that they 
may dwell in a place of their oum, and be no 
more troubled; and that the children of wick- 
edness shall not afflict them any more as 
heretofore." R. Huna raised the following 
contradictory question: "It is written (in 



ina ]'<•?]} inn?! ,sn''3 inn ,c\n:s r\D:n ik 
: n''>ms2 ""a^na in^iDi Kn^a 
pnsi ■'31 "ION Nis m na i^iai ins <.-"'j) 
ins m"* «3 «'7i nojan n^z'? «3^ 7'':nn '?o 
033 •'D (3 n'vtiM) "iDsy^ 'a ^•'StT'o n"3pn 
D"'3B'n -pn -ic'N "-3V ^"p3 yoiiy 'n XT' 
□SI ^'? nrj ^n msD n3i^ cs ",7 n:i: p«i 
'n wz'2 ntas-" ^'7 nai: ]•>» ■i7n mcnn nan^ 
'n D'js mQ3'7 1^ mm ctjd snyu ^kd 
S3 n"3pn'^' nvtt'3 pn T' ■•3-1 ids •nt23 s^i 
sin TO mti*y n3 s^in s:: nnirn n''33 
CIS ^"'Si Tiss ynD (°s') nosr^* .d';"i3 
: nr,v |"'S", Tisip 
ynipn '73 sjin 3-1 ncs is'i'n 'n nns 
.nTV3 (n''ni) nmns -"n^s in^an'? o'.po 
VTD^nD Ton ""s v:v "'« i'7 r"ioi« riDti'3i 
p sjn i:"'3S Dm3Si .ir3s nn-i3S ^r 
nn"i3s Dstyi («' ^^vk-^^) 3^131 c.po j;3pn 
.'n '':s ns cii* lav Tu-s n"prn ^s np33 
{•p D'Snn) 's:t:' n'7sn s'?s m-'ov ]^si 

^"K (nt piB3 ]':nb iij?) ^'7B"'1 Cni'^Si IIDJTI 

•n'7sn^ mpo vnipn '73 "•"sb'-i Ditrts pm^ 
^no'^i (' ^''o") "ioK35i' vnnn n-'^sij r3"'"is 
s^i "i-Tinn \y^^ vnynji 'i'ST^i "-oy? cpn 
■itt'S3 ■;mjy'7 rft:y •'33 is-'cr s*7i my tj-ii 



1^ men are require according to tradition to recite Barctu, Keduscha. and Kadlsh for the dead. 
39)" Here tlie wort Omad ia used in connection with preyer. 



23 



npy^ py 



33 



if he does cheer him, what will his reward 
be? E. Simon b. Lakish said: "He will 
merit the Torah, which was given with five 
voices, as it is said (Ex. 19, 16.) And it 
came to pass on the third day, when it was 
morning, that there were thunders, ^* and 
the voice of the cornet, etc.. And the voice of 
the cornet was, etc.. And God answered him 
with a loud voice." R. Abuhu said: ["To 
cheer the bridegroom is considered meri- 
torious] as if he brought a thanksgiving of- 
fering; for it is said (Jer. 33, 11.) Of those 
that bring thanksgiving offering unto the 
house of the Lord." R. Nachman b. Isaac 
said: "It is as if he had rebuilt one of the 
ruins of Jerusalem, for it is said (lb.) For 
I will cause their captivity to return, as at 
the first, saith the Lord." 

E. Chelbo in the name of E. Huna also 
said : "Whoever has fear of God, his words 
will be heard;" as it is said (Ecc. 13, 13.) 
I'he end of the matter is, let us sum up the 
whole; fear God, and keep His command- 
ments, for this is the whole [duty of] man-" 
What is meaut by For this is the whole duty 
of man. E. Elazar said: "The Holy One, 
praised be He ! said 'The whole world would 
not have been created if not for him [wha 
fears God].'" E. Abba b. Cahana said: 
"This [fear of God] is equal in importance 
to that of the whole world put together." E. 
Simon b. Azai, and according to some, E. 
Simon b. Zoma said: "The whole world 
would not have been created if not for the 
purpose of being host to him (who fears 
God)." 

E. Chelbo in the name of E. Huna further 
said: "He who knows that his friend is 
accustomed to greet him, shall try to greeb 
him first, for it is said (Ps. 34, 15.) SeeU 
peace and pursue it, and when one responds 
not to a greeting he receives, he is to be call- 
ed robber, as it is said (Is. 3, 14.) But y<o 
who have eaten up the vineyard; the plun- 
der of the poor is in your houses." [What 
have the poor that they were plundered of? 
Nothing but their greeting.] 

(Fol. 7a) E. Jochanan said in the name of 
E. Jose b. Zimra : "Whence do we know that 
the Holy One, praised be He! prayeth? "^ 
It is said (Is. 56, 7.) Even these will I Iring 
to my holy mountain, and make them joyful 
in my house of prayer. It does not say in 

44) Koloth means two voices and three more times Eol, 
46) See mote 7. 



.'i:i "isic b^p'\ .'i:i m'bip •'nil 'iji ^tr-'^tt'n 

.nn nmn po nnpi mrip ims .m'i'ipn 
nt2«Jiy min ^'^-i^n i^-ixd nms innw ^m 
-;2 pn: 2-\ 'n ^"^2 min cs-'no (^ -tdt) 
mminD nns n:a 1*7^x0 "idh pns> 

: 'n noN n:ity«n2n p«n 
a"'t:* DIN '73 sr.n m idn m^n 'i noNi 
"iDNitt* cjJDrj mm CDtt' nsT" n 
□in'7Nn n« yocj '7rn im rpo (2' n^np) 
•"ND .Disn ^D nr 13 motr vrntfo nsi «n' 
n"2pr] IDS ■iTy'?s 't "ids cisn ^3 ht ij 
^3T nt ^^itra s^« «-\2: «'? i^id n^iyn ^d 
Q'T-.j/'n ^3 i:j3 nr 'bipty nos sjina nn «i« 
sc-.T p ty"-! n'7 nam "'stj? p t?"-i i^id 
r,T,x^ N7S sia: «^ i^"o D7i>'n ^3 nam 

jjT.-'t:* ^3 win m ids in^n ""m no«i 
1^ nnp'« ci'7B' 1^ p"'^ ^"i:"! «inv iTana 
insm Di^tr cpn (^^ Q'^nn) "ins'Jty m'bty 
now::' .|'7TJ «"ip: nnnn s^i i'? p: c«i 
•«:j?n n'7T: m3n Dmv3 cnsi (j rnvB") 

]3 IDT" ^31 Diii'a pn^ ^31 ins O1-) 
{•■•' CS-) -insity '7^2nD n"3pnt:' r^o ^'"iot 
n-isi cnno'^'i •"tr'ip in '7s □in'',s''3m 
Ti^En s^s ins: s'b cn'7Dn Ti^sn 

are mentioned in tMs verse wUch make the total of five. 



22 



n 1 3 1 3 



33 



There was one man who prayed with 
his back turned to the synagogue; Elijah 
happened to jpass by. It seemed to l>;iijah 
tbat the man prayed in the manner of an Ara^ 
biau merchant, and he said to him: "Art 
thou standing before thy Master as if there 
were two dominions?'' Thereupon Elijali 
drew his sword and killed tlie man. 

R. Jochanan and R. Elazar both said: 
"When a man must apply for help to his 
fellow-men, his face changes like [the worm 
calledj^erum; as it is said (Ps. 13, 9.) 
Like a worm, so is the cheapness of the 
sons of men." What is Eerum? AVlien E. 
Dimi came he related that among tlie sea- 
coast towns, there is a certain worm, the 
name of which is 'Kenim', and when the 
sun shines upon him, he changes into various 
colors. R. Ami and R. Ashi both say: ''lie 
[who has to apjjly for charity] is as if two 
judgments wore passed upon him — those 
of fire and water, as it is said (Ps. 66, 
12.) Thou hast caused man to ride on our 
heads; we entered into fire and into water." 
R. Chelbo in the name of E. Huna said 
further: ''A man shall always be strict in 
the observance of the Mincha service, for 
Elijah, the Prophet, was answered only at 
the Mincha service, as it is said (I Elin. 18, 
36-37.) And it came to pass at (the time 
of) the- offering of the perpetual evening- 
sacrifice (Mincha)" that Elijah the Prophet 
came near, and said: Answer me, 
Lord, answer me, i. e., answer my prayer 
that a fire descend from Heaven, and answer 
me that they shall not ^ay it was an act of 
magic."" R. Jochanan said: "In the evening 
service also [shall a man pay heed], for it 
is said (Ps. 141, 2.) May my prayers he 
valued as incense before Thee; lifting up 
of my hands as the evening offering." R. 
Naehman b. Isaac said: "To the morning 
service also [shall a man pay heed,] for it 
is said (Ps. 5, 4.) Lord, in the morning 
do Thou hear my voice." 

Further said R. Chelbo in the name of 
R. Huna: "He who does not cheer the 
bridegroom, whose wedding feast he has en- 
joyed, transgresses against the five voices 
(the passage where voice is mentioned five 
times) (Jer. 3.3, 11.) The voice of gladne-'is, 
the voice of joy, the voice of the bridegroom 
and the voice of the bride, the voice of those 
who say Praise ye the Lord of Hosts." .\nd 



ncv 13 HD y'« KV"n3 r[<7 idth ■in"'7« 

rni^tapl «TD£5D fpV IID '»Df> 

3"n33 nuntt'D vjb mnn'? dik •]nxjB' p^D 

«ns 13 nna ""Sd dik i:^'? m^r nnj 'hw 
•D'^'i n\T 13-122 c'l ins cjiy nc« -"Dn 3t 
nD3'7 -|snnD •,''?>• nn-iit nnnt:* p.iDi ctid 
iniimn innNi ^dn "«3m ics lan .pjna 

c'xn MH2 i:a's-i7 cuK nasnn (id dv) 

•■ Dion 

n^sjnn ons -inf ob^y'? Nr,- m ids 
n^snn s^s n:j?j «^ ini^s nnt:* nnjon 
nn^on m'Tyn Mil (nr K"a) insja' nmon 
My; 'n ■•jjj; 'ui nnsii N">2in in^^s ty:'«i 

r\'?sn2 ci« "IDS ]:m'* ^a-i .on Disstrs ncya 
iDTSn Jim («ap Q'^nri) nositt* nimj? 
pnj m 3t; nn^o iss ns'^-n y:^'? miap 
nnsjty rcnnc n'rsna fjs ids pnx^ -ii 

: i'71p VOCTI np3 'n (n D») 

nanan '73 sr.n 3-1 nns inrn i3n -idn": 
m'bip 'nn nmy inct-a irst ^nn rrnyoD 
^ip nnot? "bipi pcty '7ip (J^ n'OT) nnsjtr 
inns'D CNi .n-,n nntsix '7ip n^3 ^ipi ]nn 



43) The Hineha service takes the place of the perpetnalerenlng-sacrlflce. See firrther, Pol. 26b. 



25 



apj;^ py 



r- 



sand eight hundred and eighty-eighth part 
of an hour; and tliis is meant by the word 
Regga (moment) ; and no creature is able to 
determine that exact moment [when the 
anger arises] except Bilam the wicked, for 
it is written (Num. 24:, 16.) A7id knoweih 
the knowledge of the most High. How is 
it possible? If he did not know even the 
temperament of his animal, how could he 
acquire a knowledge of the Most High ? We 
must therefore say that he knew how to de- 
termine the exact hour in which the Holy 
One, praised be He! is angry. And this 
is meant by the prophet who said to Israel 
(Micha 6, 5.) my people, do hut reinem- 
her ivhat Balak the king of Moab resolved 
in order to know the gracious benefits of the 
Lord. What is meant by The gracious bene- 
fits of the Lord. E. Elazar said: "Thus said 
the Holy One, praised be He ! unto Israel. 
'Do but remember how many gracious bene- 
fits I bestowed unto ye, that I kept myself 
back from becoming angry during all the 
days of Bilam, the wicked; for my anger 
might have inflicted a great misfortune up- 
on them [in that generation].' And this is 
meant by Bilam when he said. (Xum. 23, 
8.) Eoiv shall I denounce, whom God hath 
not denounced? And how shall I defy, 
when the Lord hath not defied f A n d h o w 
long endureth His anger? A 
Regga (moment). How long does a 
Regga last? E. Abin and according to some R. 
Abina said : "A Regga lasts as long as it takes 
to utter it.'' And whence do we learn that God 
is angry? It is said (Ps. 30, 6.) For His an- 
ger is momentary, (but) life rests upon his 
favor. And if you wish I say from this (Is. 
26, 20.) Hide thyself but for about a moment, 
until anger passeth away. And when is He 
angry ? Abaye said : "During the first three 
hours of the day, when the crest of the cock 
becomes white and he stands on one leg." 
But the cock stands like that all the time? 
At all times it has red stripes [in the white 
crest], but in that particular hour there are 
no red stripes whatsoever. 

A certain heretic was in the neighbor- 
hood of R. Joshua b. Levi, and annoyed him 
exceedingly, questioning him about various 
passages. One day E. Joshua b. Levi took 
a cock, tied it to his bed and watched 
it, thinking that as soon as he would notice 
the sign, he would curse the heretic. But 
before the time came, sleep overtook him. 



nni« y^•2'7 yiv nvnc- to^o k^k vt ^in 
in^ iDNT i:"'''m .ni dj;id n"apntr nysy 
{>>•■> no Nj nsr ">Dy (1 n='D) ^mts'"'^ «i3j 
""KD 'n n-.pis n>n jjjd^ .3«in "]^o p^i 
noK iT^j^N ■'3T nns 'n mpis nj?T jyo^ 
\"T'c*y mpnx no: \^y^ 'i'snt:*"'? ^''I'^^in urn 
ycnn u^bi icia TiDp n^c dddj? 

Dj;^s n^"? "inspT "•,:•'^^^ ta-i^si Tnty ^tnty^ 
noi bvi r]:ip «'? mp« nn (« i^ma) p'73^ 
K'b D"'D''n cms ^3ty iD'i'a 'n nyr «'? Qivt« 
•"m noN v^i noDi .yjn loyt noDi .dj?t 
nnn''D3 jjjt xj-^ns ""m so^n ••m pax 
pi 13 o'-'i'i) '«Jtt' nm jjjni i'? kjdi 
«3nD KD''S n-iyn ""ni i:iinn n"n i£3«3 

.DJ?T Tiny TV >'-"! tiyos ■'^n (1= n'VB") 

'«j;b' n'^n i^na •'•'3K nox nm nD-iKi 
^Kpi K^uj-im sn^anD «nnn ""d sn^op 
lan ""Kp ^oj snyci ^nviy ^d Kjna inK 
N-inna ^poiD •'p-'mtr n-^a ni« Knvty ^3 
nsj-'o s-,nn .^-ijo-id •'p'>''mtt' n^n n*"^ «nj?B> 
n*'^ nyxo «p mn y'nm n"'m3D''C'3 mm 
mnp'iSi «'7iJj-in '7pD* in kdi^ "'Kipa «mta 
Ntao ^3 -13D n^3 r'Vi «°^y^ "'^^ t'^ 



24 n 1 

their [house of] prayer, but in my [house 
of] prayer. We learu from this that the 
Holy One, praised be He! prays."' What 
doeth He pray? H. Zutra h. Tubia, 
in the name of Rab, said: "[Thus He 
prayeth] 'May it be my will that my 
mercy overcome my anger; and let my 
compassion rule over my attributes [of Jus- 
tice] that I may deal with my children in 
attributes of kindness; and out of regard to 
them may I overlook Judgment.' " It is 
taught that Rabbi Ishmael b. Elisha said: 
"Once, when I entered tlie Holy of Holies to 
burn the incense, I saw the Lord of all Hosts 
sitting on a high and exalted throne, and 
He said to me 'Ishmael, my son, bless me 1' 
I replied, 'Sovereign of the Universe ! may 
it be Thy will that Thy mercy overcome Thy 
anger, and Thy compassion may overrule 
Thy other attributes ; let Thy conduct toward 
Thy children be with the attribute of lov- 
ing kindness and enter inside the line of 
justice; and, out of regard to them mayest 
Thou overlook Judgment !' The Lord shook 
His head at me" [as a sign confirming my 
prayer] . By this R. Ishmael wants to teach 
us that the blessing of a common man shall 
not be lightly esteemed. R. Elazar said in 
the name of R. Chanina: "Xever shall the 
blessing of even a common man be consider- 
ed insignificant in your eyes; for two great 
men of their generation were blessed by 
simple men and their blessings were fulfilled. 
They are: David and Daniel — David wa^ 
blessed by Aravnah, as it is written (IE 
Sam. 24, 23.) And Aravnah said unto the 
king. May the Lord thy God receive thee 
favorably. Daniel was blessed by King 
Darius; as it is written (Dan. 6, 17.) May 
thy God whom thou dost worship continitr- 
ally, truly deliver thee." 

R. Jochanan in the name of R. Jose said: 
"Whence do we learn that we must not at- 
tempt to appease a man at the moment of 
his excitement? It is written (Ex. 33, 14.) 
My presence shall walk before you, and I 
will give thee rest^ i. e., the Holy One, praised 
be He! said unto Hoses. "AVait for me until 
my excitement shall subside and I shall then 
give thee rest.' " *" Is wrath [to be ascrib- 
ed] to the Holy One — praised be He ? Yea ! 
As it is taught; And a God who is angry 
every day (Ps. 7, 12). And how long does 
His anger last? For a moment. And how 
long lasts a moment? One fifty-eight thou- 

46) Panai has two meanings, "my presence," 



:: -i 3 



13 



''7XD ''«D .■''7XD «in ins cnpntt^ ik2d 

■"sm i7i:m 'Dys n« ""Dm 'ib'22"«b' '•:£5^d 
D"'Dmn mna "'ja cy :injnKi Tmo 'by 
noN K''jn .jnn mitro caa? en? c:2«i 
TiDiSJ nns Dys yty^'rw p ^syaa-^ ■"m 

CI «D3 "ry at^•'l'' n",«ax 'n iT" ^xnnrs 
Tncs ■':3n2 "^2 7syt:ty **'? idhi «ty:i 

cy :njnm "cnnD 7y -[■'Dm irj-'i pyD 
c;js'7 en"? Djrm cnmn mnn yn 
«pi iti'N-in "^'7 n:yji pin m-B'D 
n'^p Dinn n3-i3 xnn s^r p ya^'a 
f^r^n ''ZT nas nryTs ""ii las •T'ryn 
T'rya n'7p \:iVin nann Nnn ?« C7":y7 
camn •'jc oiDni nnn ''bin '•r^ nniy 
^N'^m TiT ]n i^K cnni cn^ na^pnj: 
-iaK"'i h: 3"tt*) a-TiaT n:n« .Tsnm nn 
'7S"'ii -ixT "i^n^K 'n i^an ^k n2i-\i< 
"jn^K (1 ^«'") nTiai «3'7a nm n"'2nm 
: imTiy xin ST^ina n"«'7 n7£3 n2^? n 

|"'«a' p:a •'DI'' •'m oica lim"" ""m lax 

niotr) TnST ".DyS nyrs C1K7 *.^ \^^-\D 

n"2pn .T^ nas -i^ •'mn':n". 'cb'^ ijs (" 
cyt ^tr D^:3 nayt? Ty "''7 ^nan ntra^ 
Kcmpi n-iap Nnnn K2"'« ^bi --i^ n^:«i 

'723 Cy",T '?«! (' o^^nn) K^jm ]^H «"n im 

ntr'ana ins y:-i nasi .yan layr naji dt» 
cr.a'^n msa n:",ar"i c"'S7« nj",atyi win 
-■'■12 ^2 psi y:i «''n "iTi nya'2 nracT 
ytrnn cy^2a 5'",n ny^n nmw j-'O? nbi2^ 

and "my wrath. " 



27 



npj;^ pv 



rs 



righteoiis one that suffers is righteous him- 
self but the son of a wicked one." Is this 
60? Behold! It is written (Ex. 20, 5.) 
yisiting the iniquities of the fathers upon 
the children; and it is written (Deu. 24, 
16.) Fathers shall not be put to death for 
the children, and we have asked the question 
as to the contradiction of these two passages, 
and answered; there is no difficulty. One 
passage refers to those who continue the 
[wicked] deeds of their parents, and the 
other passage refers to tliose who do not con- 
tinue the [wicked] deeds of their parents. 
[Hence we see that a righteous man, even if 
the son of a wicked man does not suffer?] 
But we must say that He said thus to him: 
"A righteous one who prospers, is one who 
is perfectly righteous; a righteous one who 
suffers, is not a perfectly righteous one; a 
wicked one who prospers, is one not really 
wicked; a wicked one who suffers, is one 
grossly wicked." And this [saying of Eabbi 
Jochanan] differs from that of K. Meier, for 
E. Meier said : "Two requests were granted to 
Moses and one was not granted, for it is said 
(Ex. 33, 19.) And I will be gracious to whom 
I will be gracious, although he does not de- 
serve it; And I will show mercy to whom I 
■will show mercy, althoiigh he does not de- 
serve it." 

And He said: Thou, canst not see 
my face. (lb.) E. Joshua b. Karcha 
said: "Thus said the Holy One, praised be 
He! unto Moses: 'When I was willing [to 
reveal myself] thou wast unwilling (didst 
hide thy face) ; ** now when thou art willing 
[to see me] I am not willing [to reveal my- 
eelf ] .' " And this differs from the opinion 
of E. Samuel b. Nachmeini who quoted E. 
Jonathan ; for E. Samuel b. Nachmeini said 
in the name of Jonathan : "On account of 
three things Moses earned the merit of the 
following three things; viz., for And Moses 
hid his face, (lb. 3, 6.) he earned the merit 
of A shining face;*^ for He was afraid 
(lb.) he earned the merit of, And they 
were afraid to come nigh unto him (lb. 
34, 30.) ; and for To look up to God (lb. 3, 
6.) he earned the merit of. And the similitude 
of the Lord doth he behold (Num. 12, 8)." 
[Hence it shows that he was rewarded for 
hiding his face and differing with B. Joshua 
B. Karcha]. And Oien I will re/move my hand, 
and thou shall see my back; but my face 
shall not be teen (Ex. 33, 23). E. Chama b. 

48) See Hi. 3. S-«. 

49) See Bx. 34, 29-35. 



p^QT. .(j"B imnjD) rnns ^ iddt x^ 
rtmsco NH s^B'p N^ irjiyoi ."'TrnK -"inp 

1'? ym pnx iiDJ pns 1^ niBi p-'ix •n*'^ 
ijiKto- yen i'7 men yen .iidj ij-iKt? p-'ix 
i3"-n sr7£n .niDj van ^'7 ym ytn .nw3 
S7 nnsT 17 i:nj DTity T'SD •'an idht 

-icx ns Tionm \Mn i:''«t:* >s ^y :]« pnx 
: \Mn ijiNtr s"y« nniK 
mDw) 1JB ns m«n^ '73in n'? -los^'; 
nmp p ytyin^ ""am n-iDD'o n:n .(^"^ 

''2-i -iD«T pJTi "i"« ^Jan: -in '7«iDt!* 

(3"3S a"o Dnp'if) ('j Dts-) -|3tyn 'j^ nDT 

latrn .CJB nnD'7p^ nst viq ntyn nriD-ii 
natya .ti^k ntr:in ixn^''!^ nsT sn^ "'3 
(;fy dbo .ta-^Dt 'n nJiDm'7 hdt ninno 
m IDS imn« n« rr'sm isd hk Tn-iiom 
iQ^D trfon K'""i no« xifia in son 



26 



n 1 2 1 3 



13 



So he said: "I leam from this [incident] 
that it is not proper to do such a thing: 
And he is beneficent in all His work, it is 
■ftTitten (Ps. 145, 17.) and it is also written 
(Pr. 17, 26.) Punishment, even to the just, 
is not good." *' It was taught in the name of 
K. Meier: "At the time when the sun rises 
and all the lieathen Kings of the East and 
West, with their crowns upon their heads, 
prostrate themselves hefore the sun, there- 
upon the Holy One, praised he He! imme- 
diately becomes angry." 

Further said 1{. Jochanan in the name 
of E. Jose: "One chastisement in the heart 
of man (self reproach) is better than many 
lashes, as it is said (Hos. 2, 9.) And she 
will pursue her lovers, then will she say, 'I 
will go and return to my first husband; for 
if was better with me then than now.'" 
Ecsh Lakish said: "It is better than one 
hundred stripes, as it is said (Pr. 17, 10.) 
A reproof penetrateth more deeply into a 
wise man than a hundred lashes into a fool." 

Further, said K. Jochanan in the name 
of E. Jose : "Three things did Moses request 
of the Holy One, praised be He! and they 
•were all granted unto him. He asked that 
the Shechina shall dwell in Israel and it 
was granted, as it is said (Ex. 33, 16.) Is 
it not in that because Thou goest with us? 
He asked that the Shechina might not dwell 
with heathens and it was granted to him, as 
it is said (lb.) So shall we he distinguished, 
I and thy people. He asked that tlie Holy 
One, praised be He ! make known His ways , 
and it was granted to him, as it is said (lb, 
ib. 18.) And he said, let me see, I beseech 
Thee, Thy glory, i. e., he said before the 
Holy One, praised be He! 'Sovereign of the 
universe, why is there a righteous man who 
prospers while another righteous person suf- 
fers? Some wicked person prospers while 
another wicked person suffers?' He answer- 
ed him: 'Moses! the righteous person that 
prospers is righteous himself, and the son of 
a righteous one; the righteous one that suf- 
fers" is righteous himself but the son of 3, 
wricked one [he suffers for the sins of his 
parents] ; the -wicked person who prospers is 
wicked himself but the son of a righteoiis 
person, and the wicked person who suffers is 
■wicked himself and the son of a wicked 
one.' " The ^faster said aliove, "The rijrht- 
eous person that prospers is righteous him- 
self and the son of a righteous one; the 



KVi« rniK "iK^ n^ro y::u nns C"': 

p''!:*'? tt'liV DJ (" '^e-o) 3TID1 3'n3 ^B^'D 

nj?rn T'SD ""am nictro KJn oic «'? 

: Kin ^ns v'npn dvi3 

no2D -\r\v ms ^c* in^a nn« nmo 
ni^nsn ns nsiii (^ ve-.n) nosr^ m''p'7D 

nn-,'' ins tr-'p'? cm .nnya tn •«'7 21:2 •'3 
my: nnn (" ''?='o) -insjt:' ,n",ip'7t2 nson 

.1'? ]nji n"npn *':s^d nra tr-pn cim 
'«iB' 1^ ]^\i^ '7K-1B''' by nj''Dt:' mcna' rpa 
«'7B' tt'pa .uay >"i3^3 «i'7n (^^ mots-) 
\n:) ^3313 nnsy ii3iy ^y n:i3i5' mm 

iDKyj 1^ ]n:-\ n"3pn ^b* T'3m lyiin'? 

1J13T rJS'7 ICN .13-11 ns KJ "•jyiin (DB') 

pnS B'''l 1'7 31l!" p-'nX tt*"" mD ijsd D'7iy '7ty 

.1'? yni y^n wM i^ 31121 ytrn t:'"' .i'? ym 

.pns p pilS ",'7 3';t21 pns H'^'D 17 1t3S 

yt:n i'? 31121 yan .y^n ]3 pns i"? yni p-'T.f 
112 new .y^n p yirn i? yni ytyi .p^ix p 
"i'7 yni p"'ix .pns p pns 1: 3Vl2i p-i-s 
npis (: fi-=-0 3\"i3 «ni i:'s .ytrn p p'^is 

^331 (^: c-irn) 2^131 ^33 '7y ni3S ^iy 



<7) This pa-ssage Is eiplained: 'Tunlshment" [to others] "eren to the Just is not good" fto bo Its cause!. 



29 



a p y ^ P y 



Bj:- 



read it Shamoth (desolation), but read 
Shemoih (names)." 

Further said E. Joehanan in the name of 
E. Jose: ''Every utterance which came forth 
from the mouth of the Holy One, praised be 
He ! for good purpose even when upon condi- 
tion, was never retracted." Whence do we de- 
rive this? From our Teacher Moses, as it is 
said (Deu. 9, 14.) Let me alone, and I may 
destroy them, and blot out their names from 
under the heavens, and I will make of thee a 
nation mightier and more numerous than 
they; and although Moses invoked mercy con- 
cerning this thing and succeeded in annuling 
that decree, yet it [the promise. And I will 
m,ake thee a nation mightier and more numer- 
ous] was fulfilled to his children, as is said (I 
Chr. 23, 15-16.) The sons of Moses were 
Gershon, and Eliezer, and the sons of Eliezer 
were Rechabyah, the chief, the sons of Re- 
chabyah became exceedingly great in num- 
ber, and E. Joseph taught they were moro 
than sixty myriads. This is inferred from 
the two similar words, Rabu, Rabu: It is 
■written here. They were exceedingly great in 
number (Rabu), and it is written there (Ex. 
1, 7.) They were fruitful and exceedingly 
great in number (Vayirbu). 

(lb. b) Further said E. Joehanan in the 
name of E. Simon b. Jochai : "A degenerate 
child in a man's house is worse than the war 
of Gog and Magog,^^ for it is said (Ps. 3, 1.) 
A song of David, when he fled from before 
Abshalom, his son. Immediately after this 
is written. Lord! How numerous are my 
assailants! 11 ow many that rise up against 
me, while of the war of Gog and Magog it is 
written (lb. 2, 1.) Wherefore do nations 
rage and people meditate vain things? But 
How numerous are my assailants is not stat- 
ed [in connection with the war of Gog and 
Magog]." 

A song of David, when he fled from .45- 
shaalom his son (lb.) It should have been 
said, A lamentation of David? E. Simon b. 
Jochai said: "TJnto what can David's inci- 
dent be likened? Unto a man against whom 
a large note was brought forth to be paid; 
before he paid it he felt grieved and sor- 
rowful, but after he had paid it, ll^ rejoiced. 
So wnc David — siucft the Holv One. praised 
be He ! said to him (II Sam. 12, 11.) Behold! 
I will raise up against thee evil out of thy 



^3 'Dr "im Dic'D ]:nv tan nasi 
-.^^SK nait:^ n"2i:n ^so Ni"«D' nmi -iut 
M^2-\ nroD ^7 s:d .n nrn s^ is:n 'by 

.i:d!3 mi cii"y "<',:'■? -^n-is nc'ysi nnty n« 
n^t22", sn?m n^y ■'om na-n •«ym y'ysi 
•"jm (j; !<"m) -insr^ n^yirn n^opis n"s« 

•n^m nm ^^n^? .sm 'dd nbyo^ c^dv 3t 
(N mor) cnn n-Tiai n7yD^ i2i san aTi3 

in-,'' CIS ^t:' :r\'<2 y.nn nyn nmn 
TiDTs (i c'Ti") 'saty r,jai j-,: non^ca 
nnr.j n-ri^i 1^3 ci^tt'^s "ijEa imna in'? 
"•aa i'7«i ■'7y cap cnn nx m na 'n 
ICO"! na"? (2 D!r) n-^riD jijai Ji: nan'ba 
K'7 ns "131 na ibsi pn un"' caw'?! ci:. 
1J3 m^t:*3« "<j2a im33 nn'? niara .3^n3 
-i"« .n^'7 '''■y3>a nn'? nrp in'? iiara 
Els'? nan -i3in na'? m'7C">3s j3 jiyats^ 
3xy nM ".ynsi:' onp 3in itsc i'''7y sx"'ty 
naxr j-i-'D in ^S3 tjs nar lyifltt* nns? 



nyi T'7y cpa ■'ijn 



") n"3pn -.7 



52) According to some tradition. The war of dno and Magog, -which will precede the coming of the Messiah, 
will be the most horrible war in h'uman history. That period is often described as Cheblei Messiah (the pains of 
Ueasiah). 



n 1 3 "1 



na 



Bizua in the name of R. Simon the Pious 
said: "Tliis means that the Holy One, 
pi-aised be lie ! showed to Moses the knot of 
the Tephiliu (I'hilacteries)." 

(lb. b) K. Jochauan in the name of R. 
Simon b. Jochai said : "Since the day the 
Holy One, praised be He! created the world 
there was no man wlio called the Holly One, 
praised be He! 'Lord' (Adon) until Abra- 
ham came and called him 'Lord,' for it is 
said (Gen. 15, 8.) And lie said Lord God, 
whereby shall I knotv that I shall inherit 
it?" Rab said "Daniel also would not have 
been answered were it not for the sake of 
Abraham, for it is said (Dan. 9, 17.) And 
now listen, our God! to the prayer of thy 
servant, for the sake of the Lord; — "for Thy 
sake' he [Daniel] ought to have said? But 
[he prayed] for the sake of Abraham, who 
called you Lord." 

Again said R. Jochanan in the name of 
R. Simon b. Jochai : "Since the day when the 
Holy One, praised be He ! created the world, 
there was no man who thanked the Holy 
One, praised be He ! until Leah came and 
thanked Him, as it is said (Gen. 29, 35.) 
This lime will I thank the Lord." 

What is the meaning of being called 
Reuben ?=° R. Elazar said: "Leah said, 'See 
the difference between my son and the son 
of my father-in-law (Esau) ;°^ whereas my 
father-in-law's son sold his birthright to 
Jacob of his own accord, as it is written 
(Gen. 25, 33.) And he sold Ms right of 
first-horn unto Jacob, yet what hai)pened? 
As it is written (lb. 27, 41.) And Esau hated 
Jacob, and it is also written (lb. ib. 30.) 
And he said, hath he been therefore named 
Jacob, because he hath supplanted me these 
two times; but my son, although it was 
against his will that Joseph took from him 
the birthright, as it is written (I Chr. 5, 1. ; 
But when he defiled his father's bed vnft his 
hirth -right given unto the sons of Joseph: 
yet he never envied him, for it is written 
(Gen. 37, 21.) And when Reuben heard it 
he delivered him out of their hands.'" Why 
was she named Ruth ? R. Jochanan said "Be 
cause she merited that from her shall come 
forth David, who satisfied the Holy One, 
praised be He ! with songs and praises." AncI 
■whence do wo derive that the name is the 
cause? R. Elazar said: "It is said (Ps. 46, 
9.) Come, tool- at the deeds of the Lord, who 
hath made desolation on the earth- Do not 






lai 



uMpni i«npD' 






12-1 IDK (:"V) 



]•,!« iNipi omaK K3tt' ly jnK «in ^na 

nD2 CnTN ins nCSi", {-^ n'2-«-i:j 'ny^ 

njyj K^ ^Hi:! cjk sn ids .njtynix 13 yis 

nnyi (q ■?«':!) ncwa* nrnzN ^la'^o «?« 

ism v:^:n^\ ^«'. -p2V n'7sn 7S -.rn^s yntr 

i:ya^ ijis |ya^ coti'n T^npn ?« y:2 

■ ]",!« iN-ip'^' cmns r;2^ s^s ni^ lyniD 

sn3C' c-iiQ •'"atin D".t:T2 pmi 121 idsi 
m-inc* CIS r^"":: k^ "iD'biy ns n"3pn 
iDSJC' ".rnim ns'b nsas* ij? n"2pn'? 
T's p",s-i .'n ns mis cysr; (-= r^^vn^) 
",sn ns7 mcN nryTS 



I - 



r;:3T 


ninyin- .r 


"VK 


inn p '.^NT ion 


ns -nrnii 


(" 


nr) 


3in3T 


nin"ni33^ 


(T3 est' 


) ni^ 


2^r\2 


nn 


nn 2; 


;yi? •m:33 


-IDKi"! 


toe-) 


3Ti; 


r, 3p 


yi ns 


".c-y c-i2rii 



i^K', cicy2 nr i23pyi". 3pyi ictr sip i3n 
FD11 n'7pc nim3 ^yi 33 ^y tiK lia 

■,'7'7n31 (n «"m) 3in3T niJiD nini-|i33'7 

i3n •,'i'iSK ^D-,1'7 imi33 n:ni3 V3S lyxi 
yntt'i'i (''' ri'B-Ki:) sinri ni3 N:pis k^ 
mi ISO (p"s =":) mn .ctd in7ixi" pi«n 
imint? TIT n:Dn si'v nnsTtt* ]:mi -i"k 
KDtt'T ^'7 N:n' n"n3tr'n' n",n*t:*3 n"3pn'7 
(IB D''?nn) Kip nnsT nTy'?s i3n nes .cna 



Th« rea«m giving in the Bible. (Gen. 29. 32.) explains only the firrt part of the name Reu. 
Beu meaalng "to see," and Ben, "son," also "between. 



3i 



npy^ PV 



»^ 



righteous than htf How can it be poflsible 
that a Tricked man should swallow Tip a 
righteous man? Behold! It is written (Ps. 
37, 33.) The Lord will not leave him in his 
hand, and it is written (Pr. 12, 21.) No 
wrong can come unawares to the righteous! 
.We must therefore say: "One, more right- 
eous than he is, the wicked person does 
destroy, but he cannot destroy the perfectly 
righteous man." And, if you wish, you may 
say that when fortune smiles upon a man, 
it is different [and even one perfectly right- 
eous should not fret at him]. 

Again said E. Jochanan in the name of 
R. Simon b. Jochai : "The obedience [to the 
law] is more important than the study; for 
it is said (II Kings 3, 11.) Here is Elisha 
the son of Shaphat, who poured water on 
the hand of Elijah. Poured, is said, not 
Studied; from this we infer that obedience 
[to the law] is more important than the 
study." 

R. Isaac said to E. Nachman : "Why did 
not the master come to the synago.siie to 
pray ?" "Because I was not feeling well," an- 
swered E. Nachman. "The master should 
have gathered ten in his house and then 
prayed," said R. Isaac. "It was too hard a 
task for me," said E. Nachman. "If so," 
remarked R. Isaac, "then why did not the 
master direct the Sexton to inform him when 
the public pray? [so that he might pray 
at that time?]" "Why are you so particular 
about it?" asked R. Nacliman, "Because," 
said R. Isaac, "E. Jochanan in the name of 
R. Simon b. Jochai said: (Fol. 8a) 'What is 
meant by the passage (Ps. 69, 14.) But as 
for me, I direct my prayer unto Thee, O 
Lord, in a time of favor. When is it a time of 
favor? It is when the community at large 
prays.'" R. Jose, the son of Chanina said: 
'^e infer it from this, (Isa. 49, 8.) Thus 
hath said the Lord, in the time of favor have 
I answered thee." E. Chanina said : "We de- 
rive it from this, (Job 36, 5.) Behold, Ood 
is mighty and despiseth no one, ^' and it is 
written (Ps. 55, 19.) He delivered my soul 
in peace froiu the hattle against me; for in 
multitudes are they (contending) with me." 
We have also a Baraitha to the same effect, 
R. Nathan said : "Whence do we know that 
the Holy One, praised be He! despiseth not 
the prayers of a community? It is written 

«») Kaiir iHeafis "miglit," and' also "many." Tlie passage Is itlioretope explained : "Behold, God doM not 
despiae," (tho prayer of) "manr." 



pi)i 3/713 )}v-\ •'Di .UDD p-'-s yxn y^ns 

5TI31 ITS '.jntV «'? 'n ('^ D'^nn) aTlDHI 
pns N^« ;iS '73 pnX^ n:iNi K^ (3' '^9-0) 

K"n"'«i .v"?"!! ■i:"'N "IiD: pnx y^u mdo 

ntyiD''ts* n^nj """nttn oico pnr 'i idni 
ytri^« ns {> ^"o) 'kjd* nT;n'70 -.m'' min '7ty 
«? iD^ in"*^ •'"j; CD px"" nvN tssts' p 

: miD^D 

na« ''ii^x'7 NntyjD ■'d^ id tim s^ TOyie 
mrj; iD^ iDJD'7 ni'7 noK kj^-is^ n'7 n^i 

n""^ «D''71 «n^D '•'7 KnnU iT'? ids .'''7X^'71 

•"^iD i«D ni^ nDN .Knnx •'^xm xjT'yn 
"1 Dittos pnT" ■'m -iDKT n""^ nos .•'Nn 

1JS1 (CD Di^nn) T'D (n it) ixnT" ]2 J-,j;Dr 

nyts'n p^i ny tid'^s jixi ny 'n ^'7 Ti^sn 
"iDK wjn 'nn ^dti 'n .D"''7'7snD -nn^fntr 
."^•'n"'jy jm nya 'n -idk na (" n-vr-) sdhd 
jn (1^ 31'K) K3nD -IDS sji^n in khs ^sn 

ms (nj DtSnfl) 3in31 .D«D'» X'71 T^na ^K 

.^■my Tin D^ma "-d ""^ D-ipo ""sys: Di^tya 
p«?y pjD -1D1S |nj ■'3-1 •'n-i •'sn "idj sijn 
jn ■iDK:ty .Q''D-i '7B' ^n^fins Dsit5 n"3pn 



80 



n *. 2 n 3 



^ 



own hoiisf; he felt grieved, for he feared it 
would be a slare or a bastard who would 
have no mercy on him. But when he saw it 
was Abshalom [liis own son] he was f^lad and 
composed a song." 

Further said R. Jochanan in the name of 
R. Simon b. Joehai : "It is permitted to 
quarrel with the wicked in this world, bo- 
cause it is said (Tr. 28, 4.) They that for- 
sake the Torah praise the wicl-ed, but those 
who observe the Torah contend with them." 
We also have a Baraitha to the same effect. 
R. Dostai b. Mathun says: "It is permitted 
to quarrel with the wicked in this world ; as 
it is said (Pr. 28, 4.) They that forsake 
the Torah praise the wicked, but those who 
observe the Torah contend with them; and 
if some one should whisper to you saying: 
*Behold ! it is written (Ps. 37, 1.) Of David! 
Do not fret thyself because of the evil-doers.' 
TeU him that he whose heart smites him 
[who has no clear conscience] says so, for 
the real meaning of the passage is: Do not 
compete with the evil-doers, i. e., to be 
among evil-doers; And neither be thou en- 
vious against the workers of iniquity, to be 
like them. And it is also said (Pr. 23, 17.) 
Let not thy heart be envious against sinners, 
but in the fear of the Lord (remain) at all 
times." Is that so? Behold! E. Isaac said: 
"If you see a wicked man upon whom for- 
tune smiles, do not quarrel with him, for it 
is said (Ps. 10, 5.) Prosperous are his ways 
at all times; and moreover, he always wins 
by law, as it is said (lb.) Far aloof (remain) 
Thy punishments from him; and moreover, 
lie sees [revenge] in his enemies, as it is 
said (lb.) All his assailants, he puffeth at 
them." There is no difficulty [in under- 
standing this] ; one deals with secular affairs 
and the other deals vnth. divine affairs, and, if 
you wish, you may say both passages deal 
with divine affairs "and there is no difficulty ; 
for one deals with a wicked man upon whom 
fortune smiles, and the other with the wicked 
man upon whom fortune does not smile ; and, 
if vou wish, you may say both deal with a 
wicked man upon whom fortune smiles; yet 
there is no difficulty, for one deals with a per- 
fectly righteous man and the other with od(» 
who "is not righteous throughout ; for E. IIu- 
na sa'd: "What means the passage (Haba- 
kuk 1, 13.) Wherefore wilt thou look upon 
those that deal treach eromhj : be silent when 
iht wicked swallows jn him that is more 



«:n -iTt2D IN ']2-; nq*^ noN 3X>' -''n -n^an 

idk:::* mn d'7v;3 cyc'ia nn:nn'7 nmo 
noit:": >'*^i ",77n"' min ^any (n: ''?!«=) 
•^snon •'m t- ■'d: s"':n .en nan"' min 
cycnn nn:nn'7 imn -id",n ]",nD in 
ytri ^b'?r['' min '>2V,]! nnsja' nrn D'b'iys 
^T? D>7nn) 3in:m nm? cis "itt'n'i? dni 
ii^ty in \'? n-iDS cynnn nnnn '?« in^ 
nvn'7 D-'y-iDi nnnn 7s s'7N p -idi« ispii 
nT'n'7 n^iv nt^Tya «jpn '?«! cynoa 
-p'7 sjp"' ^N {i: '^BT3) -itsiNi n'b.j; na^iyD 
sn- ■»j''« .c^^^ ^3 'n nsT»3 ck ■'3 nisonn 
r.-;'ZTi'2? Vttn n-'sn cs pnx"' ""ST ids 
i> n'?nn) nDKity 13 mjnn ^« :b npnis'a 
n3iTC' «'7S iiy k'71 .nv '733 vdm i^^n' 
K^i .n:jo •^''csct: nino (ov) ids:!:' ^na 
^3 (o*) nosj'^ ■.nx3 nsnt:' s'bs ny 
nnn •'7"'n3 sn s-'^'p «'? .cn3 n-^i:^ m-nx 
sm sn NO"'S n''y3 ■>«i .n-'Qct •'7''D3 kh 
nyc'iTLT ytn3 sn STp «^i s^ntyT '''7'»D3 
npHB'a nyti'n ^•'sc* yann Nn i^ npnt?D 
ny^nc yty-13 sni sn nd'^k n^y3 ^ki a'p 
sn t,d: pni"3 sn s^rp s?" *,? npnB'D 
"Kn KJin 3T i2«T -nc3 irsc p^TfS 
rnnn cun B'3n no'? (•« ?i?=n) stist 



33 



3py ^ ry 



i'} 



22.) Whoso hath found (Matza) a wife hath 
found happiness; Motzei, as it is ^7ritteIl 
(Ecc. 7, 26.) And I find (Motzei) the icoinan 
more hitter than death. E. Xathan said: 
"L-eth Metzo, refers to the Torah, as it is 
■nritten (Pr. 8, 35.) For he who findeth me 
(the Torah), findeth life." K. Nachman b. 
Isaac said: "L-eth Metzo, means [the time 
of] death, as it is written (Ps. 68, 21.)The 
escape from death." We have also a Baraitha 
to the same effect: There are nine hundred 
and three kinds of deaths in the workl, as it 
is said (lb.) The escape from death (Totza- 
oth). The numerical value of the word Totza- 
oth, amounts to nine hundred and three ; the 
hardest of all deaths is croup, and the easiest 
of all is the divine kiss ; croup is like a thorn 
in a ball of wool, wliich [if one tries to tear 
loose] lacerates backward (in the opposite 
direction of the knots) ; others say as the 
gushing water at the entrance of a canal 
[when the sluice bars are raised] ; the kiss 
referred to is like the extraction of a hair 
from milk. 

E. Jochanan said : "L-eth Metzo, refers to 
the grave." E. Chanina said: "Where is the 
Biblical passage to prove it? (Job 3, 23.) 
Who would rejoice, even to exidting, who 
would he glad could they hut find a grave." 

Eabba b. E. Shila said: "Thus it is that 
people say : 'Man ought to pray for peace 
even to the last clod of earth thrown on his 
grave.' " 

Mar Zutra said: "L-eth Metzo, refers to 
the necessity of living in a place where there 
are sanitary conditions." The sages of 
Palestine [upon hearing all the opinions in 
explaining the above passage] remarked 
that Mar Zutra's opinion is the best of all. 

Eaba said to Eafram b. Papa: "Speak to 
us, Master, of those excellent things you said 
in the name of E. Chisda in reference to the 
synagogue." "This is what E. Chisda said," 
said [Eafram] to him : " 'What is the meaning 
of the passage (Ps. 87, 2.) The Lord Inveth 
the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings 
of Jacob. The Lord loveth the gates that are 
marked with the signs of Halacha (laws) 
more than the synagogues and the houses of 
study.' °^ and this agrees with E. Chiya b. 
Ami who said, in the name of Ulla: 'Since 
the destruction of the Temple, nothing has 
remained to the Holy One, praised be He! 
in His world, but four cubits of the Halacha 

55) zion and ZUin (sign), both are spelled alike, the 
adjective. 



pn^i"" -ia ]Dn: an •ci''n nsd •'NS'd id (n 
(no D'-jrin) nosjty nn"'o it «isd ny'? nos* 
nn-iD ''rn ;"pnn -"Dn 'dj N-i^n .m«:iin n',D'' 
m«xin .m«xin mo^ nosr^' n'7ij?3 isnaj 
niDDS n^i3ity m'p .mn ■'jn Nint2Di:a 
xnfHD ■'Di niDDH •np-'tto D^ianc sn*': 

sn-^jn 'bnti'riD «ioi np^tr: .tatri ""sa 
n^^^p it nixd nyb noH pnT" im .sn^no 
'''7S D-'nocn (j 2TN) sip ind sjijn n"K 
z^ nn nai nos .-inp isxc •'3 ^^"<z"' ^■•: 
"'Dm i5"':''N lys'''? "'trrs •"Idnt ^J''^^ «'7ib' 
sntsiT no .Nn^tr Nn''"'nnn «'7nn ny '^sk 
sniVDn nos .SD^n n-in it sixa njj'? nns 
:in^i3D Ksnj; siun nm sn 

ND"|'7 «ss nn Dnsn^ san n^'b ids 
moHi «ni'''7yD i^iD ^:nD nn p «o^^ 

aniK (« D'^iin) -T"o «iDn n noN ""on n""^ 
'n ams .npv' mjstyo '7jd ^t^s nyty 'n 
Tiao -im"' na^nn cj-'-'itfon nnyty 

vans «^H iD^iva n"2pn^ :'? r« P"»^^ 
nin trno i"'3« noNi -na^n ns'i'n ^b' mos 

former is used as a proper noun and the latter as an 



32 



n 1 3 n 3 



3^ 



(Job 36, 5.) Behold God, many He doth 
not despise, and it is ■written (Ps. 55, 19.) 
He delivereth my soul in peace from the bat- 
tle against me; for in multitudes, etc., i. e., 
the Holy One, praised be He! says: 'When 
any one occui)ies himself with the study of 
the Torali and the practice of loving kind- 
ness I consider as if he delivered me and my 
children from the nations.' " 

R. Levi said : "Whoever has a synagogue 
in his town, and does not go there to 
pray, is to be called a wicked neighbor, as it 
is said (Jer. 12, 14.) Thus hath said the 
Lord against all my wicTced neighbors; more- 
over by his actions he causes exile to himself 
and his children, as it is said (lb.) I will 
pluch them out of their land, and the home 
of Judah will I pluch out from the midst of 
ihem." 

They told E. Jochanan. that there are 
aged people in Babylon, and he remarked 
wondcringly, "It is written (Deu. 11, 21.) 
In order that your days may be multiplied, 
and the days of your children in the land 
which the Lord swore unto your fathers, but 
not outside of Palestine." But when he was 
informed [of the fact] that they come early 
to the synagogue, and leave it late, then he 
said: "Aye, it is this which helps them, as 
K. Jochanan b. Levi said unto his children, 
'Come early and remain late in the synagogue, 
in order that you may live long.' " R. Acha 
the son of R. Chanina said: "From what 
Biblical passage [do we learn this] ? Happy 
is the man that hearkeneth unto me, watching 
day by day at my gates, waiting at the posts 
of my doors (Pr. 8, 34), and after this is 
■written. For he who finds me, finds life." 

R. Chisda said: "A man shall always 
enter two doors to the synagogue." What docs 
he mean by "two doors"? He means that a 
man should wait as long as it takes to walk 
the length of two doors, and then begin to 
pray. 

For this shaJl every pious one pray unto 
Thee at the time when Thou mayest be found 
(Pr. 32, 6). R. Chanina said: "L-eth Metzo, 
(At the time when thou mayest be found) 
alludes [to the time when one is about to 
take a] wife, as it is written (Pr. 18, 22.) 
Whoso hath found a wife hath found happi- 
ness." ^* In Palestine, when a man married 
he was asked Matzah (found), or Motzei 
(find). Matzah, as it is written (Pr. 18, 

54) The wOTifl Matzah to found In erery following 



minn po-.yn ^3 n"2pn ids .'•:• ••^ mpo 
n7yo nusn cy b^tno', cncn n"'7''OJ3i 
D"i:y ]''2n "'ia^i '<'? ■'JNib "i7N3 ""'7^ 'J« 

ni3 1'? tt'-'tf ""0 ^3 ''17 •'3-1 nns 
«np3 ^^snn^ ctr D33: irsi •n^>'3 nD:3n 
^3 by 'n ncs n3 (2' .tot) ncs:a' yn ptr 
"in^nan ni:'« n'rnjs cyii^n D-^^-in ■'J3is' 
miitr «7S T,y S71 .'7S-1C"' ns •'cy n« 

nns .C3inD tyinx rn\n> r\-<2 n«i Dnm« 
nn«i ncn ^333 ''3D «3''n jjm"' ''31^ n""^ 

/y C3''J3 ■'D"''; CST!"' UT" ]y27 («' C'i2n) 

]i''3 .«'? p«^ nsin3 ^3K 3''n3 ni2-^nn 
-IDS .Nni:"'J3 ''3'7 •'3tynDi •'mpo n""^ nDNi 
''•^ 53 yD-'iH"' ■'3T nD«n3 in? 'jhnt u^^n 
^3 «ntt"'J3 "137 i7i''yi is-ityn', lonp i"'j3^ 
''3-13 sns "'3-1 nns ."n ";3''-nrn •'3\i 
yoiti' ens ■'-it:*N (n 'Va) nsnp ''so Nrjin 
nintD -I'.ct:'^ di"' uv Tiin'i'T 'tv T.pa*'? '>'? 
.c-'n si'D •'N^i-.a ''3 n''-in3 3"'n3"i inns 
cnns '3 CIS CJ3'' cr.y'? sion 3i idk 
SDis n'7N i"d c^nns '3 nD:3n n''33 
: ^^sn"" 13 nnxi D-'nns '3 -iiya' 

■i-'^K T'Dn ^3 '77Dn'' nsT 'by (2^ c^nn) 

nc« IT «-A'a ny'7 sr:n n"s nisd ny'?' 

niD^i) .3«,t2 «X0 ntt'S KSD (n' '"Js-o) '«J{y 

ncs «nnK cts 3''d: ''3 Nsnyns (n"B 
Kxn 3''n3T «XD sxin "ik ksd ••an n-*^ 
3''n3T «s".t2 ."no pxn pB''i 31d «xd nt^K 



35 



3py^ ry 



n^ 



refused and said to her: "I shall not sit on 
it unless thou wilt lift up the bed and show 
me what is under it." She did so and he 
noticed a dead child was uader the bed. 
Since than the sages said : "A man shall not 
sit on the bed of an Armenian." "Do not pass 
the rear of the synagogue while the com- 
munity is praying;" this supports the opin- 
ion of R. Joshua b. Levi, who said : "A man 
has no right to pass behind the synagogue 
while the community is praying." 

We are taught that R. Akiba says: 
"For three things do I admire the 
Medians: when they carve meat, they do it 
on the table ; when they kiss, they do so only 
upon the hand ; and when they keep counsel, 
they do so only in the field." R. Ada b. 
Ahaba said: "What Biblical passage indi- 
cates [that consultation should be held only 
in the field] ? And Jacob sent and called 
Rachel and Leah to his flock (Gen. 31, 8)." 
(Fol. 9a) R. Abba said: "All agree that 
the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt took 
place in the evening, as it is said (Deu. 16, 1.) 
Did the Lord, thy God, bring thee forth out 
of Egypt by night; and [they also agree] 
that they did not leave [Egypt] before the 
next morning, as it is said (Num. 33,_ 3.) 
On the morrow after the Passover sacrifice, 
the children of Israel went out with a high 
hand, but they differ as to the meaning of 
Chipazon (In haste, Ex. 12, 11). R. Elazar 
b. Azariah holds that Chipazon (In haste), 
refers to the Egyptians who [after realizing 
the plague of the first-born] hurried the 
children of Israel to leave ; and R. Akiba holds 
Chipazon (In haste), refers to the Israelites 
[who were in haste to leave] ." We have also a 
Baraitha to the same effect: Did the Lord, tliij 
God, bring thee forth out of Egypt by night 
(Deu. 16, 1). "Did they really go out at 
night? Behold! it was in the morning, for it 
is "said (Num. 33, 3.) On the morrow after 
the Passover sacrifice, did the children of 
Israel go out with a high hand. We must 
therefore say that the beginning of the de- 
liverance was in the evening." 

Speak. (I beg thee) in the ears of the 
people (Ex. 11, 2). It was said in the school 
of R. Janai: "The word Nah,'^^ means noth- 
ing else but request; the Holy One, blessed 
he He ! said unto Moses. 'I pray thee go and 
tell them (Israel) that I request of them they 
ehall ask from the Eg}'ptians silver vessels 



ac'^'b -lies CDan nos |S2o .r,!: pi^'^n Dty 
riDjrn no •'T.ns nayn vs", .n-niK nun iy 

mnw mnv^t:' msb ^'? mow ^"nn insn 

-trnn n« □'•amnca □^nDn ns ''js 
^■'ptt'uco .^n^cn 3; ^y «bs pDmn ]•>« 
ps pxyvo'Di •i\T 3: ^ sbs l^T^'J ]''« 
nans nn sn« 2-\ nns .mi:*n «b« psyi'' 

«ip''1 2py< nbtyi («^ nts-Nia) sip iKD 

: uss ^« mtt'n nsbbi ^m? 
i^sjjirs nmn ^an S3N 'i nos (q -ii) 

D1"'l K^K 1«S'' «^ ISSityDI .n^i^ DnSDD 

^i2 iK^"- nosn mnno (^^ ^^^o^) nnsjts' 
|-,isn nyc '7J? ip^nj no 'by -noi i^a 'bsnB'i 
Dn^m piTsn j-Tsn "•sn nao y"2 «"m 
x-i^n .^sntriT p.ran prsn ""nd nsD j?"t, 
••Di nb^b onsnn -fnbs 'n >"'sin i3n ■•oi 
-iDSJiy D'iO «:S ISS"" s^ N^m INX-' n!?i^3 

non T3 'bsntyi ••is ixx"" noan mnoo 
: myno nbis: cnb n^innnty td^d s^« 

•'■TOS 'uT cyn "-iTW sj -13-r («' ""28') 
nn« nir-pn ^Vw^ «^« «^ r« '«^' ''^'^ '^^ 
cn^ TiDSi "p po nvp22 n'ro^ n"3pn i^ 



M) Nan, 



of "Now," an< "I pray." 



34 



n 1 J -1 3 



[where it is studied].' " Abaye said : "At first 
1 was accustomed to studj in the house and 
pray iu the synagogue, but since 1 heard 
what li. Cliiya b. Ami said iu tlie name of 
Ulla, that since the destruction of the Temple, 
nothing has remained to the Holy One, 
praised be He! in his world but four cubits 
of the Halacha, I nerer prayed but where I 
studied.'" K. Ami and li. Assi, although 
tliey both had twelve synagogues in Tiberia, 
stdl did not pray elsewhere but between the 
pillars where they had studied. 

R. Chiya b. Ami, in the name of Ulla said : 
"A man shall always live in the same place 
where his teacher lives, for as long as Shimi 
b. Geira lived, solomon did not marry Pha- 
raoh's daughter." '"^ Behold, we are taught 
that a man shall not live in the same place 
with his teacher! This is not difficult to ex- 
plain, for the former deals with a disciple 
who bends before (obeys) his teacher, and the 
latter deals with a disciple who does not bend 
before (obey) his teacher. Another thing 
said R. Chiya b. Ami, in the name of Ulla: 
"He who enjoys life through the labor of his 
hand, is greater than he who fears God, for 
concerning the man who fears God, it is 
written (Ps. 112, 1.) Happy is the man who 
feareth the Lord ; wliile concerning the man 
who enjoys the labor of his hand, it is WTitten 
(lb. 128," 2.) When thou eateth of the labor 
of thij hands: {then) wilt thou he happy, 
and it shall he well with thee. — Wilt thou be 
happy, in this world. And it shall be well 
with thee, in the world to come; but con- 
cerning the one who fears God it is not said, 
And it shall be well ivith thee." 

(lb. b) Raba said to his children (by way 
of advice) : "When you cut meat don't cut it 
on your hand." — Some attribute this to the 
danger in cutting into the hand and others to 
the spoiling of the meat. — "And you should 
not sit down on the bed of an Armenian, and 
do not pass behind the synagogue at the time 
the community is praying." Regarding the 
bed of an Armenian, some say is meant 
not to go to sleep without the Sh'm'a " 
which resembles an Armenian bed, and ac- 
cording to others, it means not to marry a 
proselyte. And, according to others, it means 
a real Armenian and refers to the incident 
that happened to R. Papa. R. Papa visited 
an Armenian and she brought him out 
a bed bidding him to sit on it. R. Papa 

5«) Sre I TClngs 3. 

57) Brery Jew is obliged to read the Sn'm a t>eror« 



1DN 12 «"'''n '-\ "iDHi «n'7 «jvnn y.^s 
]■>« vipr^r] iT'a mnti' Di"'n w\)!i n^nuo 
n^in bv mcK 't «^k TO7iy3 n"2pn'7 ^'? 
.KJD''-i:i «3^n «^s Nj"'7XD mn n? 13^3 
''3 nD''7n in'b nm a"ys ■'Dk 3-n "^dn 3n 

^DS 13 «''in ■'3n iDN ."'Di: nm «3''n 
131 mpa3 Di« -in-' u'?^v'^ «^"iyi n-'Diyn 
no'7iy strj «^ D^p «na p ^vca'C ]t2T 731^ 
sn s'^u'p s'7 Tii"' ^s s-'inm .rn;-iD n3 n« 
s-'-'n •'3-1 "icNi .n"''? r,i"'3 s^i sn n'>'? r,i'>3T 
ly-'i-'D njnjn '?^•^i N71VT n-^tac'D ••d« "13 

3in3 CD^kT' XT' ■'3J l'7NT D-iDtT KI^D -\nV 

^32 I'i'Si .'n ns XT' r-'S na-s (='? a») 
^3 "i"'S3 y:'' (n:p av) 3"'n3 "iVJ"'D n:ni 
ntn □'71^3 inc's --p 3it2i y-\^H ^3Kn 

Ki D"«Dtt' XT' '•3:71 .S3n D7iy^ 1^ 31Q1 
: 17 3",D", nU 3\-13 

n-'smn cnsa's n-'js^ N3"i in'? ins (3"i-) 
DicT) i"s •T'n 3J '7J? i3nnn '7K ntt*3 
^«', .rn-yo '7ip7p c-ia'D i"si .n:3D 
mns ",-i3yn ^si .rcons nuo 'by iscn 
"?« .]"''7^£3riD ni3sna' nyt?3 nojs- n-"! 
^::n k^ "incN- sr-'S .iT'rris ncD r; 132^1 
•;"«"i .«mv: i3D:n «^i T'si .t:'"p «^3 
3-n .N2S 3nT ^l^•yQ cvj'di trtjo n^D-\s 
ncD 1^ ns-'sin rriDns "•3:7 '7Ts ssb 
■ry 3tyr ""rK n"? ics .3*^ i^. mcK 

Eolnc to bed. 



37 



3py^ ry 



t^ 



Let us see: The passage (Ps. 19, 15.) May 
the words of my mouth he acceptable, can be 
explained in the past tense, and it may be 
explained in the future tense. Why then 
have the Eabbis decided to say it after the 
Eighteen Benedictions and not before? R. 
Juda, the son of R. Simon b. Pazi, said: 
■"Because David did not say this verse until 
after he had said eighteen chapters, there- 
fore did the Rabbis decree [to say it] after 
the Eighteen Benedictions." Is it after 
eighteen ? Behold ! it is after nineteen ? Aye ! 
the first two chapters, viz., Happy is the man, 
and Wherefore do heathens rage, are only one 
chapter, for R. Juda, the son of R. Simon 
b. Pazi, said : "One hundred and three chap- 
ters were uttered by David, and he did not 
say Hallelujah until he had contemplated the 
downfall of the wicked ; as it is said (Ps. 104, 
35.) Let the sinners be talen completely out 
of the earth, and let the wicked be no more; 
Bless the Lord, my soul. Hallelujah! In- 
stead of one hundred and three, we ought to 
say, one hundred and four ? but we infer this, 
that Blessed is the man, and Why do the 
heathens rage, are hut one psalm. (Fol. 10a) 
As R. Samuel b. Nachmeini in the name of R. 
Jonathan said: 'Every chapter that was be- 
loved by David, he began and concluded it 
with the word, Happy; It began with Happy 
is the man (Ps. 1, 1), and ended with 
Happy are all they that put treir trust in 
Him (lb. 3, 10).' [This proves that the first 
two chapters are one]." 

There were some highwaymen in the 
neighborhood of R. Meier who annoyed him 
s6 much that ho once prayed that they should 
die ; but his wife Baruriah said to him : "How 
do you justify this? [such prayer?] Is it be- 
cause, it is written (Ps. 104, 35.) Let sin le 
consumed [which you understand to mean 
that the wicked should be destroyed] ; behold 
is it then written The sinners? It is written 
sin! Besides, read the last part of this verse 
And the wicled will be no 7nore. Pray, there- 
fore [on their behalf] , that they may be led 
to repentance and the wicked will be no 
more." He did pray for them and thereupon 
they were led to repent. 

A Sadduce once asked R. Abuhu: "It is 
■written (Ps. 3, 1.) A psalm of David when he 
fled from his son, Ahshalom, and it is written 
(lb. 57, 1.) By David a Michtam, when he 
fled from Saul. Let us see, which event oc- 



]i:in'7 irn"! (u' c^nn) i«n ■'lan 

nns7 pan irpn ND'>'tD i«d •nn-'C^ P"'J?3T 
ni=tBD £)''?> .n'j'DT p<:) msnn mc'V njinty 

(N"t!'inD .Nip'jro naiN'j 'ca tsb- n'rsn'? n^isA 

••n-n nnn m-ini an nos •Nnp''j;D inn*''? 
nnw^ N'7N T,n -innN n'7'i '7''Nin nii p pynti' 
nnx^ pan i:"'pn -jD'^s'? nrcns nn'^'j? nJiOB' 
inDti'n no •'inn ••an .nonn nntr'j? nrioty 
snn D'^iJ "iCJin nn^i c-'sn ••nc'S .j"in 
•'3m iT'na ni'ir]'' ""nn ncsn .s-'n Nntsns 
i«7i nn nos nv^-iQ 'ji n:sT3 ns p pyois' 
cytrn '7ti' ;n'i'£Dn nsnc nj; n-'i'p'pn nn« 

I'nsn p CNUn -iDn"' (^P D''?nn) nOSJB^ 

.n-'i'i'^n 'n ns icsj ""sna d^n mj? cv^m 
s'7K .p-^nn yy^n) nsn c^ci nsD ■'jn 
Kin itt'n nn^i c^sn nc'N nra yaty 
•inn nas :"ntt'n (' ii) nnsn .«"in ntyns 
nns iM ^j? HDinn nn\nc' nrns ^3 pm"» 
nc'sa nns .•'nrNa nn cim ""ncsa na 
ntt'^n n''"'Di .c'-isn ncs (« o'^nn) iinai 
: '.3 ''D-.n "ra ntr'S (= qc) stist 

nm n"m nTn33t:*3 nm ijrna -imn 
••cnn D"n •'y3 «p mn «3iu n^^ inyso «p 
inn''3n n"'mn3 n^'? nnnn .imD''^n }n'''>'?y 
.D-'Nnn inn"" (ip Qt-") 3in3n mu-n ■[•'nyn ■'Sd 
'i'lBty myi 3in3 cxnn csmn stis ""d 
lann I'lO DJ1K T.j; cyii'm snpn n"'£3"'D^ 
••Dnn ■'y3 n^n c3''N my o-iyrm d'^sdh 
.Dr« my cyii'm n3iii'n3 •'mn'?n •.n''''^y 
.n3ic'ri3 mm ini'<7v ■'onn i^2 

(i D-'mn) 3T13 •in3« 'n'7 ''pns Sinn y'N 
•ij3 Di^ttos •'jan inn33 mn^ motD 
1JSD im33 cn3D nn^ (" ov) airm 



36 



n 1 3 -I 3 ^<y 

''721 Pp3 ■'^3 Cn^DD lasts' D30 HCpD^ 

■(la fi'trNin) pns iri-;« ncs"' N7tt' ant 
p '«nnNi (D-O cna o-'-'p cms uyi cnayi 
1^ noN .cnn n"p n^ ^hj ciana Iks'" 
a^un n\nty am'? >^'d .ijctiv'n sxjt:* •'si^i 
C7S ■':3 17 Dnms rm an-Dsn n-i^a 
cimji nniDsn nian nnn'? ^ms ^^wtfiD 
C3D nrpan en'? nnsi nsin j-.cd ^^ 
(1' mot!') .m^3 rpao -"rsi i^d ■•j';s"<i",n 
Di^''«trntr to^d "»ds lan ids Di'7"'Ktt'M 
!"«•! .cnxm cn-i3 ^ya n"« .cmj "jya 
Dn:fm Dma "byn i"d .'bsnu-n cma ^ya 

|N01 .'7^ty p'7nn mn mJI (no a-Snn) aTlDT 
moir) .'(■iBtD nitTO 'i'K'ltt'n DmD ^yi nONT 

^DK an nD« (s"y 'b) .cisd ns i^sj'«i (3' 
'7"m .]:t nn ]ikc misna msrya' no'7D 
: DiJT na I'lNi:' n'bisDD mNt^'y nns 
n"3pn y'« HMK "ityK n%-i« .(j nio») 
\'T'''n ""iK '7Nntr'''7 cn'7 t.ds -j^ nc'D^ 
nnny nvns ■'jsi nt niay^r'n dddj? 
mx'7 nn y"c3-i T'Js'? idn .mi^j nny-w'a 
(DB-) cn'7 "nD^? -p n"2pn i7 ids .nnyj^ 
''jjy 'n "liiv ("' «"o) .cd-'^n ""an^tr n\nK 
'n ijjy w^H -ioK nn^ inas ""a-i now 
n"3pn ■'js'7 ini7N nDNs* id^d .coya 
CDiyn p c'N innc* '':jy c'i'iy '7^' i:m 
n^cna* ''::-;^ .nnTon ^ nc's '?2 ^3«m 
en CEJir-D ncyn ncN> H^ty nD cnyi 
03'7 n« rraicn nnsi (ot?) nnsy^ 



and golden vessels, lest that rigliteous oiio 
(Abraham) shall not say, Aye, tlie decree, 
(Geu. Id, VS.) And they will malic Ihem serve 
and Uu'ii will afflict them, was indeed ful- 
filled for them; but [the other half of the 
decree] And afterwards shall they go out 
with great substance was not fulfilled.' [When 
Moses informed Israel of this] they said to 
Him: '0 that we might go out ourselves.'" 
This may be likened unto a man detained in 
prison, who when told by the people tliat he 
would be set free the next morning and 
would receive a large sum of money, said to 
them: ''I pray of you, take me out im- 
mediately ; that is all I wish." 

And they caused to give unto them, what 
they required (lb.). R. Ami said: We infer 
from this, that it was given to them against 
their will." Some say against the will of 
the Eg}'ptians, and others say against the 
will of the Israelites; those who say against 
the will of the Egyptians, infer this from 
(Ps. 68, 13.) Yet she that tarried at home 
(Egypt that tarried at home), divided the 
spoil; and those that say against the will of 
the Israelites, because of the burden of car- 
rying them; And they emptied out Egypt. 
(lb.) R. Ami said: "We learn from this that 
they left her (Egv'pt) like a net without 
grain," and Resh Lakish said: "They left 
her like a depth without fishes." ^^ 

/ will be that I will be (Ex. 3, 14).'"» 
The Holy One, praised be He! said unto 
Moses, "Go and tell Israel that I was with 
vou during this subjugation and I will be 
with you during the next subjugation." So 
Moses said unto Him: "Sovereign of the 
Universe, is not the affliction terrible enough 
when it is really present [without telling of 
it beforehand] ?" Whereupon the Holy One, 
praised be He! said unto Moses: "Then go 
and tell, 'I will be,' sent me unto you." 

Answer me, Lord, answer mr (I Kings 
18, 37). R. Abuhu said : "Why did Elijah say 
twice. Answer me? We infer from this that 
Elijah said, before the Holy One, praised be 
He ! 'Sovereign of the Universe, answer me 
that a fire shall come down from Heaven and 
consume everything that is upon the altar; 
and answer me, to remove from their mind 
that they shall not think it was the result of 
sorcery,' as it is said (lb.) Thou hast turned 
their hearts bach again." : n^iTlHX 

59) The letters '.W. JT, and L, D. are Interchanablo according to ^ammatloal rules, Natzlu (empty) can there, 
fore be changed to either Mrtsula (depth) or Metzuda (net). 

eo) To the question put by Moses : "If the children of Israel ask me icho sent you unto us, what shall I 
anawert" God answered In twc different ways: first, / icill he that I will be, second. Tell them 'I will be' sent 
me unto you. 



39 



a p j; ^ r y 



0^ 



"what I Intended to ask was this : Five times 
did Da\-id say Bless the Lord, my soul; in 
reference to what was it said ?" "He said it," 
[replied R. SimoQ b. Pazi] "in reference to 
the Holy One, praised be He! and in refer- 
ence to the soul, for just as the Holy One, 
praised be He! filleth the entire world, so 
does the soul fill the entire body; just as 
the 'Holy One, praised be He ! seeth, but can- 
not be seen, so does the soul see, but cannot 
be seen ; just as the Holy One, praised be He ! 
feedeth the entire world, so does the soul 
feed the entire body; just as the Holy One, 
praised be He ! is pure, so is the soul pure ; 
and just as the Holy One, praised be He! 
dwelleth in a place secret from all, so does 
the soul dwell in a secret place; therefore, 
let that (the soul) which possesses these five 
attributes come and praise Him, to whom 
these five attributes belong." 

R. Hamnuna said: "Wthat means the 
passage (Eec. 8, 1.) Who is like the wise? 
And who knoweth {as well) the explanation 
of a thing? i. e., who is like the Holy One, 
praised be He! who kuoweth how to com- 
promise 'between two righteous men, between 
(King) Hezekiah and Isaiah? Hezekiah said, 
Isaiah ought to come to me for we find that 
Elijah went to Ahab, as it is said (I Kings 
18, 2.) And Elijah went to show himself unto 
Ahab; and Isaiah said Hezekiah ought to 
come to me (to pay me a visit), just as we 
find that Jehoram, the son of Ahab went to 
Elisha. *^ What did the Holy One, praised be 
He ! do ? He brought affliction on Hezekiah, 
and then said to Isaiah: 'Go and visit the 
sick,' as it is said (Isaiah, 38, 1.) In those 
days Hezekiah fell sick unto death; and there 
came unto him Isaiah, the son of Amotz, the 
Prophet, and said to him: Thus hath the 
Lord said. Give thy charge to thy house for 
thou Shalt die and not live." What is meant 
by Thou shalt die and not live? [if he will 
die, he will surely not live]. Thou shalt ^e 
in this world, and thou shalt not live m the 
world to come. "Why so severe a punish- 
ment?" asked Hezekiah. "Because,' said 
Isaiah, "thou hast not married." "Aye," said 
Hezekiah, "it was because I foresaw through 
the Divine Spirit, that bad children will come 
forth from me." "What have you to do with, 
the secret of the Almighty ? Whatever vou are 
commanded to do, you ought to fulfill, and 
whatever pleases the Holy One, praised be 

63) i»e II Kioo« 8. 12. 



n"2pn 1233 «^N ]-\DS «'? .nn pns ■'O 
fis D^ij?n '72 H'7a n"2pn no .rrotr: 12:31 
n«Ti n"3pn na .rp^n ^3 ns n«^n nottu 
no .n-iKi: nr«i nxn noc: cjs ,n«-iJ irni 
n:t nnc'j fi« i^id o^iyn '73 n« jt n"3pn 
nntyj ?|S T.ntD n"3pn rra -pn '73 n« 
PiN nimn •'mns nci^ n"3pn no .mints 
13 B'-'t? ■'D sai cmnn mna nscp nnc'j 
ntyan u vu ""a^ nstyi I'r'rn onsi ntrnn 
:i^^n anan 

rf^np) 3^131 ""KD «JliOn 31 1D« 
n"3pn3 ■'D .131 ICS VIT* ''01 D3nn3 •'D (n 

^••s □•'piis 12':; p^ •"'"''^s niw'V'7 y^T't^' 
iniyty Ti^'i' IDS in''ptn .iniyty^ in^ptn 
3sns •'3:'? ^nsi in''^«3 tn3t:'K ''3ni ■'N3J 
.3«nN '?« m«in^ in^'7« i^^i (n' x"^) lONJt:' 
■«3m ''«3: in-^pTn *'n"«^ id« m^ys''' 
.Vtr-i^K 12:'? ^n«i 3Kn« p nnnu in3irM 
iniprn 'by r"'"'^'' ^"'^" n"3pn ntyy no 
iDWiy .n^inn n« ip3i -p in^yti'^'? i'? id«i 
niD'7 invm n^n onn d"'D"'3 (n'? .-ryir.) 
n3 iD«'i s'SJn I'iDS p in^yty^ t^^s «3^i 
«^i nns no ^3 •\n^2'? ts m«3S M idk 
na n'^nn sbi nns no "•3 ^«d 'ui n^nn 
iDK .N3n nbiy'? n-inn «bi nrn n^iy3 nns 
npDV «^i nitt'o n^^ id« ^sn ^'713 ^«d n^^ 
nns ^'? ^«mi oiti'D V's -n^sn n>is3 
n''^ ia« ••''i'ya «^t T^^ "'^^° 'P^^"^ ^"^ '?" 
mpsDi ^«o 1"? nt^'? «^»"^"' '^'^^ '■^^- 
«t:nip n^op sn"-:! nai inya^ -p ^y3« 
^7 3n «ni:'n n^^ ibk .i^3y^ «in 713 



38 



n 1 3 1 3 



n^ 



curred first? Was it not the incident with 
Saul? Wlij then is it written last? "Aye," 
R. Abuhu said to him, "jou, who do not rec- 
ognize the rule of ronii<juous paxsagea,"^ 
find this difficult, but to us who recognize the 
rule of coiitiyuous passages, it is not at all 
difficult; for K. Jochanan said: "What is the 
Biblifal proof lor the rule of contiguous 
passage? It is said (Ps. Ill, 8.) The;/ are 
well supporltd forever and eternally they 
are framed in truth and uprightness. Wliy 
is the story of Abshalom placed near the 
chapter of Gog and Magog ? '- If one should 
ask you, 'Is it possible that a slave {Gog 
and Magog) shall rebel against his master 
(God) ?' answer him : 'How is it possible that 
a son shall rebel against liis own father ? Yet, 
it did so happen (with Abshalom) ; so is 
this also possible.' " 

R. Shimi b. Ukba, and some say Mar 
Ukba, frequented the house of R. Simon b. 
Pazi., who was accustomed to arrange Agadah 
before R. Joshua b. Levi, and asked R. Simon 
b. Pazi : "What is the meaning of the passage 
(Ps. 103, 1.) Praise the Lord, my soul, and 
all that is within me (praise) His Holy 
name." "Come and see,"' said R. Simon b. 
Pazi to him, "how the custom of the Holy 
One, praised be He ! diifers from the custom 
of frail man ! The custom of frail man is 
to form a shape on the wall but he can 
put into it neither breath nor soul, nor en- 
trails nor bowels, but the Holy One, praised 
be He ! is not so. He forms a shape vrithin a 
shape (creates a body within a body) and 
puts into it breath, soul, entrails and bowels, 
and it is this that Hannah means when she 
said (I Sam. 2, 2.) There is none holy like the 
Lord; for there is none besides Thee, and 
there is not any rock like our Lord. What is 
meant by Ein Tzur Keloheinu? It means 
that there is no shaper like our Lord." And 
what does it mean by For there is none he- 
sides Thee? R. Juda b. Menassya said: "Do 
not read Ein Biltecha (none besides Thee), 
but read Ein Lebalaihecha (nothing coidd 
wear you out), for the nature of the Holy 
One, praised be He ! is not like the nature of 
frail man. The works of frail man wear out 
their maker, but the Holy One, praised be He ! 
is not so. He wears out his work." "You 
did not quite understand mv question," said 
R. Shimi b. Ukba to R. "Simon b. Pazi, 

81) A rule of Interpretation based upou the Mqveooe of 
plain aach otlisr. 
•1) 8«e Dot« 52. 



.Ntt-nn mna-'^ wcna mn ^is'jt ntrye 
«''B*p D131CD ^-.niB'm K'i'T ^-.ns n''^ ncK 

nn'? nc'v nnxn c^iti^ D'bij;^ tj;'? d^didd 

r|N m3 mnt:' 13V b*' C"^3 cik -p -io«^ 

«^s TisKS "mDc* p B"" Di'i'3 '.'? TiDS nnx 

: mn ■•aj N3n .mn 

mm nD ]z |",j;db* 'm n^T2p n-^^v mn 
V'n •'"i^ p vein-' 12m niQp «m:« moD 
n« imp ^31 'n ns itrsj "«3n3 (jp cf) n"n 
n"apn dig^ x^b* nsm S3 y'« .ityip D*>y 
^m3n ■'a: "rj? mix nx V'3 mo i"3 mo 
1331 D">3-ip nnc'JT mn i3 ^■'on'? '713'' ir«"i 
tynp ;"•« (: «"~) n:n mosn ir-im .D^yti 
l-iN i«n .',rn'?s3 mtf r^' T'^^ T''^ "'^ '^^^ 
]■<« '>3 •'sc .-.rn^sa -i"x ^•'M ii''n'7S3 mx 
■•3 •'npn ^« N''D3D "13 mm-' 3n -ids ."in^i 
rno3 N^r .-im'737 ]ik «^« nn^3 t^s 
p'73n rn^ mrvn i"3 mn .T'3 nnr) n"3pn 
«3K n-"^ ~iD« ■T'a'VQ n^3D n"3pm "im« 

iBiblloal i>as9aees ; the passoees pVaced near each other ex- 



41 



npv py 



»Q 



of Ws own merits, as it is said (Ps. 106, 23.) 
lie therefore spoke of destroying them, had 
not Moses, his chosen, stood in the breach be- 
fore Him. Hezekiah depended upon his own 
merits, as it is written (Is. 38, 3.) Remember 
now that I have tvalked before Thee, but was 
[finally] raised through the merits of others, 
as it is said (II Kings 19, 34.) And I will 
shield the city to save it, for my own sake, 
and for the sake of David, my servant." And 
this is [the interpretation] of R. Joshua b. 
Levi. For R. Joshua b. Levi said : "What is 
the meaning of the passage (Is. 38, 17.) Be- 
hold, for in peace I had great bitterness, i. e., 
even when the Holy One, praised be He! 
sent peace unto him, yet he felt bitter [since 
it was done because of the merits of others] ." 
Further said R. Jose, the son of R. Cha- 
nina, in the name of R. Eliezer b. Jacob: 
"A man should never stand upon an elevated 
place while praying, but upon a low place shall 
he stand and pray, as it is said (Ps. 130, 1.) 
Out of the depth have I called Thee. Lord." 
We have also a Baraitha to the same effect: 
"A man should never stand either upon a 
chair or upon a bench nor upon an elevated 
place while praying, but upon a low place 
shall he stand and pray because pride cannot 
exist before the Lord, as it is written (lb.) 
Out of the depth have I called Thee, Lord, 
and it is also written (lb. 102, 1.) A prayer 
of the afflicted, when he is overwhelmed." *^ 
Again said R. Jose, the son of R. Chanina 
in the name of R. Eliezer b. Jacob : "He who 
prays should keep his feet straight (one near 
the other), ^* for it is said (Ez^ 1, 8.) Their 
feet were straight feet." And R. Jose, the 
son of R. Chanina, in the name of R. Eliezer 
b. Jacob, said further : "\Miat means the pas- 
sage (Lev. 19, 26.) Ye shall not eat upon the 
blood? Ye shall not eat before ye pray on be- 
half of your blood (life)." R. Isaac said in 
the name of R. Jochanan, who spoke in the 
name of R. Jose, the son of R. Chanina, 
who in turn, quoted R. Eliezer b. Jacob: 
"Concerning one who eats and drinks, and 
then prays, of him the passage says: (I Kin. 
14, 9.) And me hast thou cast behind thy 
back. Do not read Geivecha (thy back) but 
read it Geiyecha (thy pride), i. e., the Holy 
One, praised be He ! said : 'Only after this one 
had become haughty [through eating] he took 
upon himself the Heavenly Kingdom.'" 

87) When afflicted a man always seeks a low and not an 
es) This refers to the prayer of the Eighteen Benedic 



«: nor (n^ n've*') n-TiDT ^^2:£^^ mrTa n'i'n 

nstn n-^vn '?« Tnjri (-' ="») -rasjc' D"«-in« 

(n"? n^vv) 3TI3T iSD ^'sn noNT '7"a''-n 
^'? n^ictt' nyca I'jisjs .in •'^ no m^r'7 njn 

-iTV^w ''2n mtyn Kjijn 'in '•dt' ^n "insi 
(7p D''7nn) nn«:t:* Y7Qr\^^ T'^j Dipoa «^n 

''b'7 ,^'7sn''i 11DJ DipT33 «^« ^^sn'^i n",3J 

.ciiDV •'3 •'jy^ rUsn (:p o^) stidi 'n T'ninp 
^^Dnnn •'"3«n mira «rjn 'na ■'DT« •'an ioni 

(K -jupm') noKjB' Ti^:-i ns po'c ins 
Win '-\2 ''D1"' -"an nnsi .ma"' b;i nn^'bam 

HIPM) 2in31 "iKD np>"' ta ITV^S ''31 DItS'D 

mip i^DKn K^ .mn ^y i?3sn «^ (q' 

'1 nt2« pnX"' ^3T IDS .D3DT '7^ l^^iSDnt^ 

•'"a«n mt:'D «j''in '•ma ^dt" -lan nas pni"» 
mnan r7j? '7'i'snn 2"n«i nmn ^3iKn ^3 

-ins^ n"2pn nns .-i^n:i s^s -ju •'ipn 

: CDtt* n",3^D T''7y '73p HT nS^rUty 

elevated place, 
lions and the Eedusha. 



40 



J 1 3 



lie! let llim do." "If so,"' said Ilezekitih, 
"then give me tliy daughter, i'erhaijs thy 
merits tombiued with mine will prove eli'eci.vo 
to bring forth good ciiiidren." "But," said 
Isaiah, "it has already been decreed that you 
must die." "Aye, son of .\iuotz," exclaimed 
Hezekiah, "finish thy prophofy and go forth! 
for thus have I a tradition from the liousc 
of my father's father (David) : 'Even if the 
sword already touches the throat, yet should 
a man not refrain from praying for mercy.' " 
It has been taught that R. Jochanan and R. 
Elazar both say, "Even if the sword already 
touches the throat, yet should a man not rc^ 
frain from praying for mercy, as it is said 
(Job 13, 15.) Lo, though he slay me yet will 
I trust in Him (lb. b)." Soon after this it is 
said Then did Ilezel-iah turn his fare 
toward the Kir, and prayed to the Lord 
(Is. 38, 2). What is meant by Kir? 
R. Simon b. Lakish said: "It means from 
the chamber of his heart, as it is said (Jer. 
4, 19.) My bowels, my boivels! I am shaken 
at the very chambers (Kiroth), of my 
heart." R. Levi said: "It means con- 
cerning the chamber; he (Hezekiah) said 
before the Holy One, praised be He ! 
'Sovereign of the Universe, if for the 
Sliunaniith who prepared only one little 
chamber [for Elisha], Thou hast saved the 
life of her son, "* then how much more 
[should ynu help me], for the sake 
of my father (Solomon) who covered the 
whole Temple with silver and gold ?' " *^ 

Remember now, that I have walked be- 
fore Thee in truth and with an undivided 
heart and have done what is worthy in thine 
eyes (lb.). What means And have done ivhat 
is worthy in thine eyes? R. Juda in the name 
of Rab said : "He was always careful to say 
the Eighteen Benedictions immediately after 
the benediction of Ge-ula." "" R. Levi said : 
"He hid the book of remedies [so that the 
sick should pray to God to invoke His mercy, 
and not depend merely on medicinal help]." 

E. Jochanan said in the name of R. Jose 
b. Zimra: "He who depends [for God's help] 
upon his own merits will [finally] be raised 
through the merits of others, but he who de- 
pends upon others' merits will [finally] be 
helped because of his own merits. Moses, who 
depended upon the merits of others, as it is 
said (Ex. 33, 13.) Remember Abraham, Isaac 
and Israel, Thy servants, was raised because 

e<) See IT "Kings 4. 
85) See I Kings 7. 
88) See Note 17. 



•'psji "inm nn Kmsr Konan ib'bk ^ma 

li^j; mui 133 n""^ now .i^j;di •'jn ''k:d 
-p «xi insu: n^3 fins p ni^ ids mn 
mn 3nn I'pias n3« i3n n''3D •'j'i'aipD 

^jj nmiD mn 3nn i^^ss in^nn nnKi 
cinmn p iDxy yjo"' '?« din "tc n«ix 
-■•n {2"i-) .'7n''S 1'? '•j^tap"' jn (j' ^tk) nD«jjy 
772nM -{''pn 'i'N v:s i.Tprn sci (n'j mve") 
n-T^pc t"'p'? [3 pj.'Dti' n"i< .T'p "iND .'n '?« 
niTip n^-ims ""yo "lyo (t n'OT) las:::' 13^ 

ICN .T'pn ""pDj; 7J? "IDS "'l'? '•3-1 .'ui 12'? 

N7ty n-'DJiB' noi a'7iv ^b' 13131 rja'? 
n:3 ns n^nn nicp nn« ■i"'p N7K nn-^'j? 
3-n r|D33 i'73 '73\in ns nanB* n3n ^3K 
n« k: n3T (n'j n-j-tr') .nD3i noD nns '7y 
3112m n'7ty 3'73i nDN3 i"'3s'7 TisSinn -ity« 
.Ti-'trT; T':"'y3 3it2m ■'no .''n''t:'y T^'Vi 
.n^3n'7 n^isa "poty 3n ion min-' ■'31 idk 
: ni«isT nsD TJJiy nD« ""i^ 'n 

m3t3 1^ ]''b^^\ iDxy nists n'jinn ^3 
','7 p^in cnnN ni3T3 n^inn '731 .onns 
ids:::' nnns ni3t3 n^n ncD .idxj; ni3T3 

/K-ltyi'71 pnS'<'7 Cm3N^ 1137 (2^ moB') 

(ip Dt^nn) -iD«:e> iD:fy m3T3 17 i7n •T'i3y 



43 



rj^jy \ 



XQ 



(Jer. 23, 7.) Therefore, hehold, days are com- 
ing, saith the Lord, icheii they shall no more 
say, 05 the Lord liveth, who hath brought up 
the children of Israel out of the Land of 
Egypt J But as the Lord liveth, who hath 
brought %ip, and who hath led forth the seed 
of the house of Israel out of the north country, 
and out of all countries whither I had driven 
them." "This," said the sages, "is intended 
to mean, not that the memory of the re- 
demption of Egypt will be removed from its 
place (entirely extinct), but that the latter 
redemption will be the principal considerar 
tion and the redemption of Egypt the second- 
ary. Just as it is said (Gen. 35, 10.) Thy 
name shall not be called any more Jacob, but 
Israel shall be thy name. (Fol. 13a.) It 
means not that the name Jacob will entirely 
fall into disuse, but that Israel shall be the 
principal name and Jacob the secondary. 
And this is meant by the passage (Is. 43, 18.) 
Remember not the former things, and ancient 
events regard no more. Remember not for- 
mer things, alludes to the present subjuga- 
tion, and ancient events regard no more, 
refers to the redemption of Egypt."_ Behold, 
I will do a new thing; now shall it spring 
forth (lb. ib. 10). E. Joseph recited a Ba- 
raitha that this alludes to the war of Gog 
and Magog.'" It is likened to a man who 
while walking on the road met a wolf from 
whom he escaped, and as he was exulting 
over the miracle of the wolf, he met a lion 
and also escaped him. He exulted over his 
escape from the lion, forgetting the miracle 
of the escape from the wolf. He then met 
a serpent and also escaped. He forgot all 
the former escapes and exulted over the 
miracle of the serpent. Thus it is with 
Israel; the later troubles make them forget 
the earlier ones. 

Abram, the same is Abraham. (I Chr. 
1, 27.) i. e., at first he was the father 
(progenitor) of Aram but later he became 
the father (progenitor) of the entire world. 
And Sarai, the same is Sarah (lb.), i, e„ at 
first she was a princess of her own nation 
but later she became a princess of the entire 
world. 

Bar Kappara recited : "Whoever calls him 
Abram instead of Abraham transgresses a 
positive commandment, for it is said (Gen. 
17, 5.) But thy name shall be Abraham." 

70) See Note 52 



D«j □•'sn D-'C r\:n (" n'OT) now 133 
■«:3 n« n^yn ntrw 'n "»n niy nD«> k^i 'n 

n'i'vn nti'« 'n ••n d« '•o w^^ia jn«a '7«na'» 
n:isx j'nsD ^snty n-in pr n« M-ian ntywi 
•f! inns .□B> □"'nmn it^N msnsn ^3di 
«7« iDipDD cnya nK'«x"» npjjriiy x^ 
ns^s-'i npij; nra^Q to:;c snnty 
nDi« nns la sttT-D .i^ ^sta on^fo 
n« ■'3 npy nij; -pv^ wnp"* «^ (n^ n'c«ia) 
3py np];"'B' K^ (J' «n) ."job' n%n"' ^isnty^ 
pi .1^ ^sta apyi np-ij; ^mt:"' n^k laipnn 
niJit?«n nsTn ^k (^so n'jje") nois «in 
mjitt'K-i nDTn ^s ur.ann ^« nwimpi 

ij:i3nn ^s nrrimpi ,nr'7Ji TDyty it 
nny nc'in no-iV '':in (ce-) .oniia ns'^i"' ir 
^'.yo .r,:Qi r.: ncn^t: *,t TiD-'' m "':n .nai'n 
nsT "2 v^Ei ima i^nn nviir- ms^ i"na'7 
•asT nc**;n ir.m nEco hmi uao ^is'':'i 
I'rim 12D0 nini urns ^i:j'':i nw ia v-3 
nzu UDD ^•.i"'Ji tyn: u y:3 -nN ncyn 
tt'm n*>i'vc i^'.ni "isdd hmi cn"':B' ncyn 

: mjwNnn 

.(K K"m3 Nin piDB) Dn-in« Kin D-i3« 
3« na^jJ rjion^i ms? 3n ntrjjj n^nna 
n^c'yj n^nnn ms' «Nn ntr .i'?d n^iyn ^3^ 
^3^ mu' n-'tt-ya ciid3^i nnoiK'? nc 
Dm3«^ snipn ^3 snsp nn ^in .i^i3 D^iyn 
n<im (" ri'trtns) nD«3ty .ni^ys nniy di^" 



42 



Diana 



ya 



(Fol. 12b) Rabba b. Chinena, the Senior, 
in the name of Rab, said further: "Whoever 
is able to pray for mercy on behalf of his 
friend and does not pray, is to be called a sin- 
ner; as it is said (I Sam. 12, 23.) Moreover 
as for me, far be it from me thai I should 
sin against the Lord by ceasing to pray in 
your behalf." Raba said: "If he who is 
the sick be a great man, his friend should 
pray for him until he himself is worn out." 
What is the reason? Shall we say be- 
cause it is written (lb. 22, 8.) And there 
is none who sickens for me nor informcth me? 
Perhaps this refers only to a King? But we 
learn it from this, (Ps. 35, 13.) But as for 
me, when they were sick, my clothing was 
sackcloth. 

Further said Rabba b. Chinena, the Senior, 
in the name of Rab: "He, who after com- 
mitting a transgression, feels ashamed, will 
be forgiven of all his sins, as it is said (Ez. 
16, 63.) In order that thou mayest remember, 
and feel ashamed and never open thy mouth 
any more because of thy shame. When I 
forgive thee for all that thou hast done saith 
the Lord God." Perhaps a community [to 
which that refers] is different? But we 
learn from this, (I Sam. 28. 15.) And Samuel 
said unto Saul, Why hast thou disquieted 
me? And Saul answered, I am greatly dis- 
tressed for the Philistines make war against 
me, and God has departed from me and hath 
not answered me any more, neither by the 
agency of the prophets, nor by means of 
dreams: therefore I have called thee, that 
thou mayest make known unto me what I 
shall do. And he fails to mention the Urim 
and Tummim ; ^^ he was ashamed to mention 
these because he killed all the priests of Xob 
who performed that rite. And whence do we 
learn that his sins were forgiven by Heaven ? 
It is said (lb.) And Samuel said unto Saul, 
to-morrow shalt thou and thi/ sons be with 
me, and R. Jochanan said: "With me, means 
in my abode." And the other Rabbis say from 
this [it is derived that God forsave his sin], 
(II Sam. 21, 6.) And we will hang them up 
unto the Lord in Gibas of Saul, the chosen of 
the Lord. i. e., A Bath Kol (heavenly voice) 
went forth and said "The chosen of the Lord." 
It was taught that Ben Zoma said 
to the sages: "Is it truly so that 
the Exodus from Egypt will be mentioned [as 
a miraculous incident] after Messiah will 
come? Has not the prophet long ago said 
gg) ^ Bate 10 for the aeauing of tteee wordo. 



iT3n tiy D-'Dm typ3^ i'? itrsiKa' ^3 am 
D3 ('2> «"=•) '^y» «t:-,n «-ip3 '^'pan ir«i 
'7'7Dnn^ '7nnD 'n? sicnn ""? r^b-'bn ''d:« 
71X Min D3n i^D^n dn kit ids .cDiya 
mtyD «D''^"'N Ncyti "'WD .'i'''7y in^fj; n^n^tf 
n'i'ij I'Ni •''75; cm n^in j^ki (=3 or) nTiri 
o'7nn) s;nD s^K .''j«e' i'7D «D'7i .''JTN ns 
ns nan idsi .pi:' icu^ cm^na ""Jitn (n? 
nai n^v;r\ 7d am n"'Qt:*D «aD «a:''n 
i^nuiy ^a "bj? i^ j^'jma na e-i^anm nTiay 
«'7i riB'ai inain jvd? (i* ^Kptn-) nnsjc 
n£3aa yyab2 lisa na pnna niy -p n\n"» 
KD^T .D\n^N 'n D«j nitry ns'K ^a^ -p 

-|D«>1 (n: K"tr) sano «'?« .^^^^ TiaX 

••ms m^jjn^ -"jnTinn nn^ ^iKtr ^n '7kidu' 
DTity^si isD •'^ ns ^isc nD«ii 'iji 
T'a d: mj? ^jjy k^i •'^yn no 'm ""a ccn'?: 
""iynn^ -p n«np«i mm^na 0:1 CN-iajn 
nD«p «^ D'»Qim D^m« i'7'«i .ntyjJH no 
l-iiDi .Dijnan n-iy aij'? ni^tspn Dire 
-IDS'"! (as*) ncsr^y «"'DC p n'''? ^'i^nH^ 
n"s'i .iny T'jai nns nnn 7iNty ^s ^siotr 
a"!?) «anD nnK ]iam .Tix'^nna ^ny pm^ 
.'n n^na 'biKC nya:a 'n^ D"i:ypim («= 
: 'n n'^na nnnwi '7ip na nn«x^ 
iai D-iDan^ «dit ]a cn^ non x-i^n 
K^ni n-itytsn n',t2'«^ Dnxia nx'^r on-'an: 



45 



3pjj> py 



na 



b. Abba noticed that lie prolonged it (the 
Echad) considerably; so he said to him: "If 
you prolong it enough to acknowledge His 
Kingdom in Heaven and on earth and at 
the four corners of the world, it suffices; it 
is not necessary to prolong it longer than 
that." 

(Fol. 14a) Eab said: "Wlioever greets his 
friend before he has prayed is considered as 
if he had built a heathenish altar, for it is 
said (Is. 2, 22.) Withdraw yourselves from 
man whose breath is in his tiostrils; for what 
is he to be esteemed. Do not read Bameh (for 
what) but read Bamah (a heathen altar)."* 
Samuel explains it, with what right didst 
thou pay thy regard to him [whom you greet- 
ed] and not to God? E. Shesheth raised the 
following objection : [We have been taught 
in a Mishnah] "Between the sections he may 
salute a respectable man and answer," ^ [and 
the Sh'm'a is before the Eighteen Benedic- 
tions and yet one is allowed to salute a re- 
spectable man]. E. Abba explained that 
Eab deals with a man who visits his neigh- 
bor for the sole purpose of greeting him 
before he has prayed [therefore it is wrong', 
but the Mishnah refers to one who hap- 
pened to meet his neighbor]. E. Jonah in 
the name of E. Zeira said: "Whoever greets 
his friend before he has prayed [is consid- 
ered as if he] has erected a heathen altar." 
Questioned by liis disciples whether he really 
meant 'a, heathen altar,' he replied : "I meant 
that 'it is prohibited,' " as E. Ide b. Abin, 
who said in the name of E. Isaac b. Assian : 
"It is prohibited to greet a friend and to go 
out to business before one has prayed, for it 
is said (Ps. 85, 14.) Righteousness will go 
before him." Further said E. Ide b. Abin, in 
the name of E. Isaac b. Assian: "For him 
who prays first and then goes to his under- 
takings, the Holy One, praised be He! will 
fulfill his desires, for it is said (lb.) Right- 
eousness will go before him, and will (level) 
til e way by its steps." 

E. Jonah in the name of E. Zeira said : 
"He who passed seven nights [in succession] 
without dreaming, is to be called wicked, for 
it is said (Pr. 19. 23.) And he (that hath 
it) shall abide satisfied: he ■<'linU not hr r/.i- 
ited frith evil. Do not read Sabea (satisfied) 
but read Sheba (seven)." ° E. Acha, the son 



"•am n''op nTi'' mn .T'd-i^ -im .n"''na 

S3",D insD mm iTinn S3n na «>^n 

ymN'i'i ntan^i n^;n'7 m\id"''7Dxt \'^2 ^"« 

: n::''-ix s'? ",n c1D•L^•n mnn 

nan'? Di^i:' imn i>2 m nos (t =n) 
n'jfB") nnsiti' noa iNti'j; i'I'nd '?'?siD'^u onp 
"IS i3«a noB': n^'K cisn ;j: c::^ i'7in (= 
.nD3 s'7s nD3 npn '?« sin nti'nj non 
.m'7«'7 K'i?i nrb in2tt*n non ids 'txidb'i 
nnan ■'jso '7Kic D'^p-iBn nwv 3i aTiD 
.inns'? DiacDn «3« ""ai sdjid .a-'tyoi 
c",'7c |m:n '73 Nin •'an nn« n:v •'an nns 
m^ nns .noa tncj? 'r^Bnia* amp ■.n"'an'7 
nma •NJ^'osp moN in^ now .nnoNp noa 
n"« j-ins na n^is an nnsn pas na •'TX 
T'xsn nm'j:'? nns^ i^ mos jn-'itn na pnx^- 
T'js^ pnii (HB Q'^nn) no«:tt* ^^sn^'ti' amp 
pas na ■'T'n n"«i .iinys ^m^ Ctt-'i -^^n^ 
yu'? «sii"i ^"rEnDn 'ba js-'tr'N na pn^i n"s 
■^^n"' T':s'7 pnx 'xjc rxan i'? nc'ij? n"apn 

nKnn 's) sin '•an nDN r::v ■'an noK 
Di'i'n N'ba D^'C nyatj' j^n 'ra (Ns-ino r"? 
■pa p'i'"' yatri (a' '^^o) nnsjty .j?n snpj 
n'''? nns -vac' «'?« vatr npn '?« .yn nps^" 
«as 'm n^'na N^\n •'am n-'na sns 'n 



4) Bameh aiwj Bamah, are spelled alike. 

5) The Mishnah refers to the Sh'm'a durint; the reading of which 
an occasion such as stated here arises he is permitted to conTerse. 

6) Sabea and Sheba are spelled alike. 



man is noft allowed to converse, but when 



u 



: 1 n 



*TD 



E. Eliezer said : "lie trans<jresses the 
pr;hibitory law which says: (lb. ib. ib.) 
Neitlier shall thy name any more be called 
Abraham." But accordinfj to this, if one calls 
Sarai instead of Sarah, would you also say 
[that he transgresses the positive law] ? 
Nay: In this case the Holy One, praise be 
He! said to Abraham only: As for Sarai 
thy wife, thou shall not call her name Sarai. 
hut Sarah shidl her name be. But according 
to this, if one calls Jacob "Jacob" instead of 
Israel, should we also say [that he trans- 
gresses the positive law] ? Nay: The latter is 
different because the Scri})ture it>elf repeats 
his name later as Jacob, fcr it is written (Ib. 
46, 2.) And God said to Israel in the vision 
of the night saying "Jacob, Jacob." K. Jose 
b. Abin and according to others K. Jose b. 
Zebida raised the following contradiction : 
Thou art indeed the Lord the (true) God, 
who didst choosf Abram (Xeh. 9, 7). 
[Henee he caU'; Mm Abram] ? There the 
prophet revvwed the praises of the Lord by 
referripg- to the past [when Abraham's name 
was <;TiU Abram], 

CHAPTER TWO 

E. Joshua b. Karcha said: "Why is the 
section of Sh'm'a recited before the section 
of V'haya im, Shamo'a?^ Because one 
should first take upon himself the yoke of 
the Heavenly Kingdom [Hear Israel, the 
Lord our God, is one God], and then he can 
take upon himself the yoke of the command- 
ments [referred to in the second chapter]. 
And why is V'haya im Shamo'a recited be- 
fore Vayomer? Because V'haya treats of 
meritorious deeds that are to be performed 
day and night, and Vayomer treats of [Tzit- 
zith] a religious act that is to be observed 
only in daytime."- 

(Ib. b) We have been taught that Sum- 
chus says: "AVhoever prolongs the utterance 
of the word Echad, ^ shall have his days and 
years prolonged for him." R. Acha b. Jacob 
said: [He should prolong the utterance] of 
the Dalcih [the D of Echad], E. Ashi said: 
"But he should not hurrv the utterance of the 
Cheth [the ch of Echad]." 

R. Jeremiah sitting before R. Chiya 

1) The flh'm'n consIsL<! of three aifferent chapters: Fh'm'n (Hear O Israel, etc. Deu. 7, 4-11); y'ha.voTi im 
Shamo'a (And It shaU come to paw. Ib. U. .'.-22). and Vayomer (And He -said. Num. 15 37-42). „ ^ ^_ ^ 

2) The second chapter deals with the Mc^uzah (the door-post inscription), and the study of the Torah whicb 
are to be obsened continually, but the third chapter deals with Tzitzith (show-fringes), which need not be observed 
at night. See Kedushin 29a. for the dltforence between the«e two forms of commandments. 

3) One. — The last word from Hear O Israel, the Lord our God Is One. 



•,S73 na"v nc'.N nty^^s "i^n .cmas ■p'j 
.D1DN pr ns T.y Knpi «'7i (ds-j noKjc 
cnn .■'c: ^-n na' ms'^ ViT.pn nnyo n^k 
^nw* (=-) cm3N^ ncN Nin -[nn ti-.ipn 
•nac* mc* 13 •'t^* nn^' ns Nnpn s? yiB'K 
•'j«B' .•'D3 ''on 2py 2pj;i^ i^-^ipn nnjjn k^k 
(10 Dv) a-inai Kip n>'\-[ni^ mm nnn 

KD^n-'N" p2N -\2 •'D1'' i^T ^TID .3p>"i 2pj;' 

'n Kin n;i« (1: n-on;) smf -i^ id>,i 2-\ 

■•KD sannm n^r\2Z''? moo «pT Kin k'2j 
: N-ip''j;o mm 

^2^ pis i^-y]^ n\n 

r]T:i'tp nc'? nn-p p ytr-.n'' 'i idk 

'?2piz D"nKi n^nn cct:' ma^n '?\y v^y 

n'7'''7a pa-i c""':: p^ :mj >";cu.' ex ■Tme' 
:in^a c^'«n k^s :n'.: irs -idkm 

nn sns 'i new .",'m:t:'i i-'d^ i? p^inKO 
Eimn"' K'7tr i3'7m 'C'k n"K .r,"^^i2i apy^ 



47 



3 p jj ^ r V 



TD 



Piaehael? But, it is because these are higUy 
notable [and deserve to be called fathers 
and mothers], but those succeeding them are 
not so notable. 

(lb. b) R. Elazar said: "What means the 
passage (Ps. 63, 4.) TMis I will bless Thee 
while I live; in Thy name will I lifl up my 
hands? i. e., Thus will I bless Thee, refers to 
the Sh'm'a, In Thy name will I lift up my 
hands, refers to the prayer of the Eighteen 
Benedictions; and for him who does so, says 
the passage (lb. ib. 5.) As with fat and mar- 
row shall my soul be satisfied, and moreover 
he will inherit lioth this and the future world, 
as it is said (lb.) And with joyful lips shall 
my mouth praise Thee." 

E. Elazar after he had finished his 
[daily] prayers made the following pray- 
er: "May it be Thy will, Lord, our 
God, that Thou shalt cause to dwell in our 
lot (midst), love and brotherhood, peace and 
friendship ; and Thou shalt increase our ter- 
ritory with scholars; that Thou shalt cause 
us to realize into a prosperous end and into 
hopefulness; that Thou shalt establish our 
share in Paradise, and direct us in this world 
liy means of good associates and with a good 
inclination so that when we rise we shall find 
the inclination of our hearts to fear Thy 
name, and all the necessities [of our souls 
and the requirements of our well-being] 
shall appear before Thee." 

R. Jochanan after he had finished his 
prayer made the following prayer: "May 
it be Thy will, Lord, our God, that Thou 
shalt see our shame and shalt look upon our 
misfortunes and shalt clothe Thyself with 
Thy mercy and cover Thyself with Thy 
strength and enwrap Thyself with Thy pity 
and gird Thyself with Thy gracefuln&ss and 
let come before Thee the attribute of Thy 
compassion and Thy meekness." 

R. Zeira when he had finished his [daily] 
prayer was wont to make the following 
praVer: "May it be Thy will, Lord, our 
God, that we shall sin no more and we shall 
not be shamed nor reproached by our 

parents." , -, -t -< 

Rab Chiya, after he finished Ins [daily J 
prayer was accustomed to say the following 
prayer: "May it be Thy will, Lord, our 
God, that your Torah shall be our occupa- 
tion and that we shall not suffer with our 
heart nor shall our eyes become darkened." 
Rab, when he had finished his [daily] 



: i3iB>n 
(ao D'^nn) a-iriDT ''KD ntj;'7« "lai nDN i^")!) 

,-p-ia« p -■'£33 «»*« ^DB'2 "i^na laiax p 
,n^sn n ,^sd kc'k iDw-n .ynt:' n«i-ip ir 
1D3 (0-") nms airiDn v'?y p ntyy d«i 
7pn:ty «'?« Tiy «?i ."«tt*3i y^cTi ]m 3^n 
iDK^ty «3n D'7ij?m nm D'i'ijjn ,D''a^ij? ^Jty 
.•'s '7ST' nun Tistri (ov) 

"iDK nim^s n-i-iDDT inn nrv'i'S lan 
p'^'ntt' i:m'7N 'n y:s'?vi psT ^^1 lan 
n3-im mym D^'?^ mnt?i n^nn imsia 
nnn« 1:210 m^xm D-'To'^nn i:'7na 
ujpni pj? pn ijp^n o-'cni mpni 
ksd:i d''3B'ji p'i'iya am -is-ii 3in narra 
T'js^ xnni inc ns nsni? 1:33^ ^in" 
c-iDDT ■in3 pm^ "'3"i..n3iQ7 utysj mip 
ij\n'7K 'n T':s'70 pn %T' 13.1 "id« n^nib's 
cn^nm i:nyn3 ts">3m uncon ]>^xnty 
innioni pi^v^^"' Tiy3 nDsnm ■i'om3 
pita mo •]'^:s7 «3ni inirjns -iT«nm 
n^ni^s Di-'om nn3 Knv i3n .-inumjjji 
«'7tt' irn^K 'n T'js^d psn %t' i3n idn 
inn .irm3«D D'733 «^i irn: xtii xton: 
7:3^0 psn %T» ""sn "IDS •'^xan -in3 K'^-'n 
nn-" "bsi i3m:DiK nmin SHnty uNn^K 'n 
now n-Tii^s -ini 31 .irry i3B'n'' '7«i US'? 



46 



n 3 



ID 



of R. Chija and the grandson of R. Ablia, 
said to him, "Thus had said R. Chiya in the 
name of R. Jochauiua: 'He who goes to sleep 
after he has satisfied himself wilh tlie words 
of the Torah will never be the recipient of had 
tidings, as it is said (lb.) And he [thai hath 
it] shall abide satisfied, he shall not be 
visited with evil.' " 

(lb. b) Ulla said: "Whoever reads the 
Sh'm'a without wearing Tephilin, is like 
one who testifies falsely against himself."' 
R. Chiya b. Abba in the name of R. Jorha- 
nan says: "It is as if he had offered a l)urnt 
offering without the meal offering, >* or a sac- 
rifice without the accompanying wine oiler- 
ing." * R. Jochanan said : "He who desires to 
take upon himself the yoke of the Heavenly 
Kingdom perfectly (Fol. 15a) must first ease 
himself, wash his hands, lay Tephilin, read 
the Sh'm'a and pray [the Eighteen Benedic- 
tions] : this is tlie perfect acknowledgment 
of the Heavenly Kingdom." R. Chiya b. Abba 
said: "Whoever eases himself, washes his 
hands, lays Tephilin, reads the Sh'm'a and 
prays [the Eighteen Benedictions], is con- 
sidered as having built an altar and offered 
a sacrifice upon it, for it is said (Ps. 26. 6.) 
I will wa.<!h in puriii/ mine hands, and I will 
compa.'<s thy altar. Lord." Raba said unto 
him (R. Chiya b. Abba) : "Does not the mas- 
ter consider the washing of the hands just as 
if he bathed? For it is written I will u>a.^h 
in purify [which indicates for the whole 
bodv], and it is not written I wash my 
hands." 

Further said R. Chama, son of R. Chanina : 
(Fol. 16a) "Why have Tents been placed near 
Streams? As is written (Num. 24. 6.) .4s 
streams are they spread forth, as gardens by 
ike river's side, as tents which the Lord hath 
planted, etc. To teach you that just as 
streams render an impure man pure, so tents 
[where the Torah is studied] lift up man 
from the scale of guilt to the scale of merit." 
Our Rabbis taught: "Only three arc 
called Patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob), and onlv four are called mothers 
(Sarah, Rebecca, Rachael, and Leah)." Why 
is this so? Shall T say because we do not 
know [after these] whether one is a de- 
scendant of Reuben or of Simon : if so then 
as to the mothers: we also do not know 
whether one is a descendant of Leah or 

,1 Ts-or the STi'm'a reads: And thou shalt bind a 
toy eyes, reJerrlog to the Tcph.dm 

8) In both places If either Is mdssing the sacrifice 



73 pnr ""^n -ic« K^n ''3-1 ids ^3n 
]''-i'l:'3D ]''N ;^t min nsiD -.^xy yDB'Dn 

«^3 j?nB> nsnp smpn ^3 «^ij? ins (3"y) 
^3m .iDxj?3 npr mny t'Vd •i'7"'N3 ^-'^^sn 
3npn "i^''N3 pn-,'« •'3n ins S3S ^2 «"n 
•<3n nc« .w^Di N'73 n3n nnjn s'73 n'biy 
CDtr n'z'^D r.y viy 'bsp-'ty nxnn pm^ 

CDtt* n''i3'?D «\T in Y7?in'>^ v"p x-ip""-! 
^3 pnTi ^2^ IDS S3N n3 N^n n"« .no^ts^ 
•yp snip", j"''7''sn n'<:Q^ vt' '701:1 n:53n 
nntD mn i^"'N3 3in3n vbv n^yo ^^anm 
}>mK (1= D'^jrin) nowty ]2'\p v'?]} nnpm 
iT'? nD« .'n -nsTQ ns n33iDSi •'33 \vp:2 

|*mK 3^n3T ^3Q l^-'SS 10 n? -13C X'7 «3-i 
: i£33 pmS 3^-13 K'71 l^p^S 

i3DDa nn^ nym '13 xnn ••3-1 insi 

(i: laioi) 2T\21 C'THJ'? .Di^HS (« 1i) 

.'\:^ yo: D^'7nN3 in: >'?■'; nu^s v^i D^^ma 

nsDiOD Disn ns c'ryn c^nj no ■^'7 nm'? 

ri30 msn ns ^'7^0 c^ns qs mnta^ 

:m3T q3'7 nnin 

nc'7C'7 N'7N ni3s pnip ps p3n un 
.t2"a ni3K .'17 «^N ninD« pup pw 

«p ]31K1D •'« p-'VT' S71 CIC'D Ka">7^« 

nincK ^3n ■<« .p'ns sp p.ycutj "is ]:tik 
nK'7a "<« p^ns sp 7nin "s p-'V'i"' s'? ^dj 

sign upon thy band, and they shall be as frontlets between 
Is null and void. 



49 



3py^ pj? 



too 



hands, and we shall return to perform the 
decrees of Thy will with a perfect heart."' 

Mar, the son of E. Huna, when he had fin- 
ished his [daily] prayer, would make the 
following prayer: '"0 my God! Guard my 
tongue from evil and my lips from speaking 
guile. To such as curse me, let my soul be 
dxunb, yea, let my soul be unto all as the 
dust. Open my heart to Thy Torah, and let 
my soul pursue Thy commandments. De- 
liver me from any mishap, from evil in- 
clination, from a bad wife and from evils 
which break forth and visit the world. If any 
design evil against me, speedily make their 
counsel of no effect, and frustrate their de- 
signs. Do it for the sake of Thy name; do 
it for the sake of Thy right hand ; do it for 
the sake of Thy holiness, do it for the sake 
of Thy Torah; in order that Thy beloved 
ones may be delivered; save [me] with 
Thy right hand and answer me; may the 
words of my mouth and the meditation of 
my heart be acceptable before Thee, O Lord, 
my Eock and my Eedeemer." 

Eaba when he had finished his prayer 
made the following prayer: "0 my God, be- 
fore I was formed, I was nothing worth ; now 
that I have been formed, I am but as though 
I had not been formed. Dust am I in my 
life, how much more so in my death ! Be- 
hold I am before Thee like a vessel filled 
with shame and confusion. may it be Thy 
will, Lord, my God, and God of my fa- 
ther, that I may sin no more; as to the 
sins I have committed, purge them in thine 
abundant compassion but not by means of 
affliction and sore disease." This was the 
confession (Vidui) of E. Hamnuna Zuta 
on the Day of Atonement. 

When E. Shesheth fasted after he had 
finished his usual prayer, he would say the 
following prayer: "Sovereign of the uni- 
yerse, it is known to Thee that during the 
time the Holy Temple was in eiistence, if a 
man sinned he was to bring an offering of 
which only its fat and blood was offered 
upon the altar, yet his sin was expiated ; and 
now I have been sitting in fast, thus causing 
a diminishing of my fat and blood ; may it 
therefore be Thy will that the amount of 
my fat and blood thus diminished shall be 
considered as an offering unto Thee upon the 
altar and acceptable as such." 

R. Jochanan, when he finished the book 
of Job, would say: "The end of man is to 
die; the end of an ai.'uial is to be slaugh- 



sr.n am nins no .d^c sa^n "j^ixn ■'pn 

Dnn itys: ■''b^pD'?! nmo nain Tiinstt'i 
-minn •'n'? nns nMn '7D^ nsya icsji 

i'7j; D"'3B'inn '701 ,d^ij;3 ku^ mu'jnnDn 
.nnuti'nD ^p^pi cnsy nsn mno nyn 
ms 'n T'js'7 ■'3'7 jrjm "isj no« jisi^ int 

: '''7N1J1 

iDim ^p ''•'na ^i« nsv Tnxi: «'? "i^Ni 

SDn« K^iy %n^« 'n T'js'i'D pxi nt nn^oi 
T'Dmn pnn yiB'? TiNDnir noi nj; 
•n^yn Q''K^m o-'mo'' n-' ^j? h^ 72K n-iain 

^lis^ ""i^j DiQ^iyn im ^3n now •'^xm 
3npm KQin mK o^p tripon n-'aty pn 
mm i3^n «^« ijdd pa-inpo ]'<w pip 

••mi '•n'Jn Hn''ty T':s'7d psn \T' idti '•a'rn 

••33 '7V T^s^ rnmpn i'7«3 tDVoruc 

: ''inm nsTon 

m^KT JTIBD n"'''DD HIH ""D lim** ^3"! 

nB-inipV ncns tiiDi mn^ dik tiiD isn noK 
■biar ID "nvu D'l'Trj'ij; an nn'^o'? iDi^ 



48 



n 1 2 1 3 



no 



prayer, would make the following prayer: 
"May it be Thy will, Lord, our God, and 
the God of our fathers, that Thou shalt grant 
us long life, a life of peace, of good, of bless- 
ing, of sustenance, of bodily vigor marked by 
the fear of Heaven and the dread of sin ; a 
life free from shame and reproach, a life of 
prosperity and honor, a life wherein shall 
dwell in us the love of the Torah and the 
fear of Heaven, a life in which the desires 
of our hearts be fulfilled for good." 

Rabbi when he had finished his [daily] 
prayer made the following prayer: "May it 
be Thy will, Lord, my God, "and the God 
of my fathers, to deliver me from arrogant 
men and from arrogance; from a bad man, 
from anv mishap, from a bad associate, from 
a bad inclination, and from a bad neighbor, 
and from the adversary' that destroyeth; 
from a severe judgment and from a severe 
opponent, whether it be a son of the cove- 
nant (Jew) or a son not of the covenant;" 
and although constables were at Eabbi's dis- 
posal [yet he prayed to God for help]. 

R. Safra when he had finished his [daily] 
prayer made the following prayer: '"May 
it be Thy will, Lord, our God, to make 
peace (Fol. 17a) in the heavenly household 
(the angels) and the household here below 
on earth ; between the scholars who study 
Thy Torah for its own sake and those who 
study, not for its own sake [but for selfish 
ends] ; and concerning all those who study it 
not for its own sake, may it be Thy will that 
they shall begin to study it for the Torah's 
sake." 

R. Alesandri when he finished his [daily] 
prayer was wont to say the following prayer : 
"May it be Thy will, Lord, our God, that 
Thou place us in the comer of light [honor- 
able position] and shalt not place us in the 
corner of obscurity and our hearts shall not 
suffer nor shall our eyes become darkened." 
Some say this was the prayer of R. Ham- 
nuna, and R. Alesandri when he finished his 
[daily] prayer said the following: "Sover- 
eign of all universe! It is revealed and 
well known to Thee that our desire is to do 
Thy will. What prerents it but the leaven 
of the dough (evil inclination) and the sub- 
jugation of the exile? May it he Thy will, 
Lord, our God, to deliver us from their 



c"n n3*,n ?::• c^n C)'?v ^ty c^Ti cans 
j-,^n '7ty C'n nona 'Jty c-in nana ^b' 
DNnM ctitt' nsn^ nna ty^c c'ln moxy 
'i'D* n^n nc'j'^i ncu nni psty w^n sen 

min nnnN ::2 sr:n>^ c">in t2di -it:'-,v 

n-'n'^'Dn prm jn pro jn nx"'D yn lano 
nna p sinty pa nup jn ^yaoi ntrp jno 

CB'nti' irn^K 'n yzs'?^ jisi •'n-' •'^n nns 
■rty H-i^Dsm n^'o ^b' «'''7DS3 (»' in) oi^a' 
pa ^m''.n2 cpciyn CTo'i'nn pm nno 
^Di nnc'^ s?B' cpoiy pa noty^ a'prnj; 

%Ti ■'an "IDS nTn'?^ nna m:D3^« ••m 
iiTiK ppa uT'Dyniy irn^K 'n T':s'7o jun 
■bKi un^ mT" '7K1 n3syn pps iJT«Dj?n 'jsi 
«jiiDn 31 sn no^n ko^m .irry ■DB'n* 
1DN HTii^s inn mjD3^« ^dti ,n'7 ••^xa 
•aixitr' ■j-'ifi^ yn>i ^i^3 DiQ^'iyn ]i3i .^an 
no^aty ni«ty asyo ^di iJixn mcT,*^ 
irn^s 'n -(■'JB^D pxn •«n"' .ni^^j nsytri 
nwy'7 aityii unn«Di ij-ija^o y^jsnty 



51 



npjj^ py 



K3 



Rab was wont to say: "The future world 
will not be like this world. In the future 
world there will be neither eating nor drink- 
ing nor multiplying nor business nor envy 
nor hatred nor competition; onlj- the right- 
eous will sit with their crowns upon their 
heads and will enjoy the Divine Glory, 
as it is written (Ex. 2-1, 11.) And they saw 
God and they ate and drank." 

Our Kabbis taught: "The promise which 
the Holy One, praised be He! made unto 
women is much greater than that which He 
made unto men. for it is said (Is. 32, 9.) 
Rise up, ye women that are at ease, hear my 
voice; Ye careless daughters, give ear unto 
my speech." 

Eab said unto E. Chiya: "Wherewith do 
women [who do not study the Torah] de- 
serve Divine Grace?'"' "Because," an- 
swered he, "they bring their children into 
school to learn and send their husbands to 
the house of study, and wait for their re- 
turn." 

When the Eabbis departed from the acad- 
emy of R. Ami, and according to others from 
the academy of R. Chanina, they were accus- 
tomed to say: "Mayest thou see (enjoy) thy 
existence during thy lifetime, and thy future 
[reward be reserved] for the life of the world 
to come, and thy only hope shall be [to en- 
dure] for everlasting" generations. May thy 
heart reason with understanding, thy mouth 
utter wisdom, and thy eyelids shall direct 
thee straight forward in the Laws, and thine 
eyes lighten in the enlightenment of the 
Torah; may thy countenance shine like the 
brilliant sky; thy lips utter knowledge and 
thy kidneys rejoice in uprightness, and thy 
feet run to listen to the words of the Ancient 
in Days." '" When the Rabbis departed from 
the academy of R. Chisda and according to 
some from the academy of R. Samuel b. 
Nachmeini, they were in the habit of saying: 
May our oxen be strong to lahor (Ps. 144-, 
14). Rah and Samuel, and some say R. Jo- 
chanan and R. Elazar, [explain the above 
passage]. One said: "Alupheinu (our oxen), 
alludes to the Torah and Messuhalim (strong 
to labor) , alludes to meritorious deeds ;" and 
the other said "Alupljeinu alludes to both the 
Torah and meritorious deeds, and Messuha- 
lim alludes to afflictions." (Tb. b) May there 
he no breach, (lb.) i.' e., that our following be 
not like that of Saul's company of whom 

91 The main reward is for studying the Torah and 
10) Beterring to God. See Dan. 7, 9. 



nDt?^ s'7t:' cc-iyn 'jdi nnc^ s^»' ciciy^ 
«^ nm n'^oiija s^jid .isin: «^t? en? nu 
\2 p« «nn D^iyn snn n'jiyn mn D^ijjnD 

nnnn «^i nwr K'bi r\i<ip n'ji jn»i xtyp 

n^n: -\"n .inr"'! i^an-'i c\n^«n n« 
p nnT" W'Z':'? n"3pn jnit22na» nnusn 
miiKiy ccj (2^ "'VB") nnwB' d^b^jkh 
njTsn mntsn m:3 ""^ip n:j;nty ,mD-,p 
•"Hnn n^v2 «"n ■'an'? m n*"^ ^D^? .Tnox 

insT ly in-'ina:'? pcjoi \:2-\ ""a i.T^na; 
''DK ""n •'3D pm •'nDSD ""s .pan >nD 
."'sn n'<i nDS «:'':n ""nn •'2D n^ noMi 
ni^yn ■'^n'? -nnnsi ^'•'na nsnn 'p'?'y 
nr.Dn nsiT* p'? n^'nn nn? >n',pm Nnn 
m3:n B-^inn^" iJiii*'?"! rnoan nnT" ^^^ 
m«D3 in^'S^ yi'v T" ""i''^'" T^vsy 
Trnnsc v\'?nn nniTD •in\nT"' ^jsi nmn 
705:31 cna'^'D n:n^yn T'nT'^ai nyn i>"'3' 
inasD v.n •'3 •fD-,-' pTijj •'nan yiDty'? isn'' 
lan •'3D n'7 inDKT xnon 3n ■'3D p3n 

(^ap m'rnn) ."»rn H"''? nD« ""JDn: n3 ^SIDti' 
3n .D^''731DD irSITK .C'^31DD U^SI^S 

.nTV^« ^3m pm> ^3n n^ ^nosi ^.s-.ntyi 
.mxD3 □•'^3iDDi nn"in3 irs-.'i'S nos nn 
3^^3-iDDi msD3i nmn3 irBi^« nos nm 
^:nv'n snn «^tr i*ns r« ^-"^'^ .]mD^3 

women are exempt from that ; ^ee Kedushin, 29a. 



50 



n 1 D ~i 3 



tered; all nro bound to die; happy is he who 
has becu brought up to study the Torah and 
put his energy in tbc Torah ; and is a source 
of pleasure "^to his Creator; he shall grow 
with a good name and shall depart from the 
world with a good name.'' It is concerning 
such a man that Solomon said in his wisdom 
(Ecc. 7, 1.) A good name is better than 
precious ointment. 

E. Meier was accustomed to say: 'TJearu 
with all thy heart and soul to know my (the 
Torah's) ways, and to watch upon the gates 
of my Torah; guard my learning in thy 
heart' and let my fear be before thy eyes; 
guard thy mouth from all sins, cleanse and 
purify thyself from all guilts and iniquities 
and I shall then be with thee in all places." 

The Rabbis of Jabnai were accustomed to 
sav : ''I am a human being ; so is my neigh- 
bor a human being. My work is in the city 
and his work is in the field ; I rise early to 
my work and he rises early to his work; as 
he cannot excel in my work, so can I not 
interfere in his. Shall I say that I am 
advancing the cause of learning more than 
he? We are therefore taught 'Wliether one 
[offers] much or little only the intention of 
his heart shall be for the sake of Heaven.' " 

Abaye was accustomed to say: "Man 
should" always be deliberate for the fear of 
God (consider in what manner he can serve 
Him best) ; replv softly ; try to pacify anger, 
and speak peacefully with his brethren, with 
his relatives and with every man, even with 
the heathen; so that he may be beloved in 
Heaven and below (on the earth) and ac- 
ceptable by men." It was related of E. 
Jochanan b. Zakai that never, was he greeted 
fir=t by any one, even by a heathen; for he 
always greeted people first. 

Eaba was accustomed to say: "The end of 
wisdom is repentance and good deeds, lest a 
man read and study and speak with con- 
tempt against his " father or mother or 
teacher, or against those superior to him in 
wisdom or exceeding in number. For it is 
said (Ps. Ill, 10.) The beginning of wisdom 
is the fear of God; a good understanding 
have all they who do God's commands. It 
does not sav F7(0 sttidy God's commands, 
liut Who do God's commands, i. e.. to them 
who do it for God's sake, but not to them 
who do it for their own sakes. And as for the 
man who dne« [study the Torahl not for its 
own sake, it would have been more satisfac- 
tory had hp not been created." 



nxT'^ nn nm nv^y^ rrnnn i^cyi mina 
.c'i'iyn ]n aiD dc*3 idsji mts cs'i 'jiji 
cr 3',t2 (' n'jnp) iriDDnn nc^c "id« v^vv 
N'7:nD .n^tn c\-'o man Drt did ptyo 
'{■^s: '722^ 1237 ^33 moj D""n iT'msa 
c:-' Tn-.n in?i 'ry Tip"^''7i ""D-n n« ny-rt» 

npi -inQ", .snn '73D t«s niDt? •Titn'' 
^33 icy -T'ns •'JS1 .]^]}^ notys ^3D -[DXV 
■»;« n:3''T p3ni in"Di33 «^jid .mpD 
hvm .n^y3 ''n3K^D ijs .nn3 i-i3m nins 
«im ••n3W'7D'7 n-'SB'D '•JS .mcs •in3N'?D 
nunc i:a"«« sine di:'3 .in3«^D'7 n^^va 
.in:K:D3 -n:nD "'J-'N ""JX p in3«^D3 
':'':v .cyoD sim n3iD •'as ncsn nci? 
]^'2''U 13731 niyccn insi n3ncn in« 
"Dxi n''D",s3 K^:nD .d-'db*? is'? riK 
•\-\ n^yo n«T'3 any ms nh'' c^-,y^ 
nyi ^nx cy D^'?^ "i31di nan iTOi 

(K"in v"v^ I'pun £"d) .ms 73 ayi V2'-\p 

sniii' ^13 pitt'3 D"'33"i3 n3"y ny i^iski 
by '73",pD xn"!! ntsn^ Tcn:"! n'rya'?. sins 
•'S3T p linv pn 'jy Ti^y i"io« .mnnn 
n3-y i'7''ss D7i5nD dt'jb' dis '\i:i'''\pn «'7t:' 
n"'73n «3m nimss s^;nD .pW2 d^ddo 
CIS Kn-" K7C' D''3';n c'^'yjDi n3v.rn nD3n 
•iS 13-13 IS TO«3T ■•."'3S3 t2yi3i nr,a*i «*np 
now!? ]^3D3'i nD3n3 UDD 'bnac' ■'D3 
3ita ^D'.? 'n nsv nD3n n-'tr-si («'p °'''n'i) 
cnnDi'7^ .Ty^ moiy inSnn cn-'tyiy ^s*? 
k'7t rroty^ ctriy^ .nn-ityiy^ n^k new «^ 



53 



npy^ py 



:i: 



WTitten (lb.) Whoso mocketh the poor, bias- 
phemeth his Maker." If he does take part 
what will be his reward? E. Ashi said, 
"'Of such a man, it is said (lb. 19, 17.) He 
ithat hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto 
ihe Lord; and also (lb. 14, 31.) But he 
that is gracious to the needy honoreth Him" 

(Fol. 19a) E. Joshua b. Levi said: "'He 
who whispers [with disgraceful intentions] 
behind the biers of learned men will fall into 
Oehenna, as it is written (Ps. 125, 5.) But 
as for those who turn aside into their crooked 
ways, the Lord shall lead them forth with 
the workers of wickedness; but peace shall 
be upon Israel, i. e., even when peace shall 
be upon Israel, yet shall the Lord lead them 
forth with the workers of wickedness." 

Further, said E. Joshua b. Levi: "In 
twenty-four crises does the court-tribunal ex- 
communicate [a man] for not having paid 
due respect to the masters of the law [by 
transgressing their ordinances], and all these 
cases are mentioned in our Mishnah." R. 
Elazar asked of him : "Where have tbey been 
mentioned?" "Go and find," was the reply. 
Thereupon E. Elazar went out and sought 
and found three. "He who whispers behind 
the biers of learned men; he who disre- 
gards the washing of his hands [before 
meals], and he who behaves haughtily to- 
ward ileaven." "He who whispers behind 
the biers of learned men." What does this 
mean? It is that which we are taught (in 
a Mishnah): "He (Akabia b. Mehallalel) 
also said that a female proselyte and a freed 
maid-servant are not given the bitter water* 
and the sages say they are. The sages said 
to him, 'Did tliis not happen once to a cer- 
tain Karkmith, a freed maid-slave in Jeru- 
salem, who was made to drink by Shraaya 
and Abtalion?' He answered them: 'It was 
for show that they made her drink.' There- 
upon the sages placed him under ban, and 
when he died the court stoned his cofBn." 
Wliere do we find the reference to one who 
disregards hand-washing [before meals] ? We 
are taught that E. Juda said: "God forbid 
[to think] that Akabia b. Mahallalel, who 
among all Israelites, when the doors of the 
Temple courtyard were closed, was un- 
equaled in erudition, purity and piety, should 
have been excommunicated. But to whom 
then was it done? It was R. Elazar b. Cha- 
noch that was excommunicated for contesting 
the rule of washing the hands [before 

1) See 1X7. 5, 11-27. 



•nDc na im'? dki sWB'ij; rinn s'-i'? y;i7 
(c}> DIP) noiK niDDH Ti^y ""Ds ''an nD« 
.li-isK jjin nnDDi (t cso ^t p-m 'n mra 

nns n£3DDn '73 -ii^ \2 ytt'in-' ""m -los (ta' ii) 
B>'?nn) n!2NjB> Diniai '7SU n"n ^c jntJD 
i^i?is n« 'n cs''^-,"' nm^p'rpj; D^DDm (n:? 
Di^tyc nytto i^^ss .^ktj'' ^y oi^ty jixn 
«:n .]"iXn ■'byis ns 'n □d'«^T' ^xnty'* ':y 
n^vB' n"n ni«T d« ^syoc'^ ""in '^y\ 
«Dti* D'.^n iinnK nmnn ^k n^i^n nT>3j; 
\STi K^K inyT Np^D SD'^ .naitt'D rmy 
cnaT K^« pes H^ nan ids .r\T::,'r\ nt'y 
noKi .n-'iD^ mnoT ny n:->i2D3 ^as isuaa' 

nty'i'K ""m iT^ "io« .unjc'oa i:'':i:* j^ioi 
.«n'7n nDtt'si pn ps: nDcn ■'3^ y'« H^^^ 
□"iDDn VTo^n ^c' ]nt2D nnw nsoan 

CDDn ^TiD^n ^ti' jntDD ins -isoon .n^yo 
«^ pptTD ]■>« iD-.K ^^^ win pm snt •'Xo 
D'DDm mnmcTin ns «7i mT'jn n« 
n^DDnDi n^D n^^ now .pptyo jnms 
mptrm D'«'7cn"'n n-nrntra nns'^:' nnN 
.mptyn Ka:n n-*^ nas •j-.-'^anNi n-'yatr 
,i3n« n« pi nin i^pm Tinia nai inn:i 
laK Jim x-in i«b n"iT« n^-iaja ^r^ran 
mini ^K^^no p «''3pyi? Vn min'* ^3i 
'7«iB''D Di« ^3 ^y ri^yjj mryn pst:' 
p H'Dpys «tDn nNTini mnam naDnn 
p iry^s n« na -"a n« k^« ^K^^na 



52 



n 2 



21 



Do'ag the Adomite was one." Xor land com- 
plaint (lb.), nor shall our following be like 
that of Eli.'^ha of whom Geichazi was one.'" 
In our girceis (lb.), i. e., that we may 
not have a son or a pupil that disgraces his 
education in public. 

Hearken unto me, ye stout heart- 
ed, that are far from righteousness 
(Is. 46, 1'3). Rab and Samuel, and 
according to others R. Jochanan and H. E!a- 
zar, explain the meaning of this passage. 
One said that this means that the whole 
world is supported only because of the Lord's 
righteousness, and those mentioned by Isaiah 
are sustained on account of their own merits ; 
[hence Isaiah addressed himself to the right- 
eous] ; and the others held that the entire 
world is sustained according to its own 
merits; and those [mentioned by Isaiah] even 
of their own merits cannot be sustained, as 
R. Juda in the name of Rab said ; for R. 
Juda said in the name of Rab: "Every day 
a Bath Kol (heavenly voice) goes forth from 
Mount Horeb and says : 'The entire world is 
sustained by virtue of Chanina my son and 
as for Chanina my son himself, one Kab " of 
Karob beans is sufficient for his maintenance, 
from one Friday to another Friday.' " And 
this disagrees with R. Juda, for R. Juda said : 
"Who may be called Stout hearted [referred 
to by Isaiah] ? The inhabitants of Gabaya, 
the fools." And R. Joseph said : "It may be 
proved by the fact that never was one of 
them converted to Judaism." R. Ashi said: 
"Those sons of Matha Mechasia may also be 
termed Stout hearted, for they observe the 
praise of the Torah twice a year, yet none 
of them was converted to Judaism." 



•••Dnxn :sn -.jcd kx-'c 't-nc '?ty iny^Da 

»'?':; nms ]"'K1 .7S':n'»nN "iJcd s^fa* in 
i:do hs^c j?b'"''7« '?v invDD •unyD Knn 

(ID n'l-:-') .L^2i2 i^itt'nn n'^ipDC' T'D'rn 
DT .npntiD D"'pimn 2'? iTins I'bs ^jjdb' 

cm npix3 ]^i'V3 i7n D'r'.yn ^d icn nn 
]^:\v: ^'?^2 D^iyn ^3 -idk nm .v^^^2 ]'<iM>i 
.pjif: jrs p:;y ni^Ta i^-isn cm .jnorn 

'7ip r\2 ci'i c,'' ^32 m IDS nmm m 

2'n «:i^'73i .nnt:' ny^ nno' mvo pann 
^«2"i3 3'? ""TiaK JSD nmn"" m ncsT nmn'« 
n'»"'3« «'? Km ynn p,d',^ si ics .■'nk'sd 
KDD ':3 ]^'7m ^tt'K 3-1 IDS •ini-'ja snvj 
Knntya irn Np Km inrj 3^ n'ss s-'Dno 



CHAPTER THREE 

(Fol. 18a) We are taught that, "A man 
should not walk in a cemetery wliile wear- 
ing Tephillin (Phylacteries) on his head, or 
carr3'ing a scroll in his arm and reading it: 
if he do so he transgresses against what is 
written (Pr. 17, 5.) }¥hoso mocketh the 
poor, blasphemeth his Maker." 

Rachaba said in the name of R. Juda 
who spoke in the name of Rab: "He who 
sees the [procession of the] dead and does not 
take part in it transgresses against what is 

11) S«e SaTiiedrln 106b. 

12) See II Kings 5. 20-27. 

13) A measure of capacity, one sixth of a S'ah. 



m"i3pn n-'ss mw ^^n"' S7 K'jn (rr «n) 
nCJ? 0«1 .KTipi "iyTlT3 n"Di itrsis p'7'Dm 
tjin v-\'7 r;:^ (»' '^«3) cira ^2:-; p 

'73 31 ncK mm"' 3-1 nos n3m icn 
(or) cv^t: -13";^ in^Tt: •!J''ni ncn ns m^-nr 



55 



:jpy 



••DS ■'nm n-'Dtt'D V'k ]''JDm ■'d« •'mi 

D">js xty «■? new (' o'l^"") iminn nTiD 
CJB «tt*i: nns K'bm .imty np"* «^i 

^Kntr-'^ n-iis «r« «*? ""ai nn^ now 
n^3«i ('n D'-i3'') nmnn cn^ ^ninaty 
^y ipnpT am ynbi^ 'n n« naiai nyam 

pTon ns-in'? p:n n-\]n'' m -ids («= 'n) 
n'73Ki (n D'lm) 'wt? m*,nn p nnn«^ 
ni:s^ nmnn nsnn^ rjo -risnm nynts'i 
Kips 'n nt:* ""d (=^ °b') iDWJty minn p 
:iiin^K^ ^n: inn 
^isty ^"'30 nans in sis 3t nns (-"j?) 
(33 K-ipn) nosjc ncnp nms T'n'^n 
ntynpnty nm ^3 ^snty'' ■'W iini ^na-np:! 
Sim .yott'D ^«» .mryn mnsn sni s^ 
"(in iin s^ns sns is s"n ■'am n-ns ''s:3-i 
iTiDi ^sit:''' "'Jn linn Titynpii san dtid 
nsrn myn -iino i^inn C i^ia^) cnn 
inn ny (c^) cnn 3Ti3t my my ntiki 

. « ^ K, trrwJitton from Mount SinaS for every thing edible ; Bating 

5) The .ize of an egs or an ""7 '==^^''7^6 aet It e^«ng whether the thing eaten is prohibited so tar as 
^rh:^'or^"?rn"oL;^%"a?:oncer''ned^ ^T. f^ ^^^^^:,T^^o ha^ chosen us tram all nations and given 
-HliErS"^H3gS:^HS'1?e'^^:?-o-;f the Eighteen Ben^.io. b. the .... 



other times speaking in the name of E. Assi : 
The ministering angels said before the Holy 
One, Praised be He ! "Sovereign of the uni- 
verse, it is written in Thy To rah (Deu. 10, 
17.) Who shows no favor to persons, and 
taketh no bribe. Behold Thou showest fa- 
vors to Israel, for it is written (Nviin. 6. 26.) 
The Lord will show His favor unto thee." 
"Why shall I not favor Israel?" answered 
He, ''for I wrote in my Torah which I gave 
to them (Deu. 8, 10.) And when thou hast 
eaten and are satisfied, then shall thou Mess. 
But they are so particular and careful that 
even if they eat only as much as the size of 
an olive or an egg, they also recite the after- 
meal grace.'"^ 

(Fol. 21a) E. Juda said, "Whence do 
we learn that the after-meal grace is a 
Biblical law? It is written (lb.) And 
when thou hast eaten and art satisfied, 
then shall thou bless the Lord, Ihj/ God. 
Whence do we learn [that to say] the bene- 
diction before beginning the study of the 
Torah" is a Biblical law? It is said 
(Deu. 32, 3.) When I call on the name 
of the Lord ascribe ye greatness unto our 
God." 

(lb. b) E. Ada b. Ahaba said : "Whence 
do we learn that a single man must not say 
the Kedushaf It is said (Lev. 22, 32.) 
So that I may he sanctified among the chil- 
dren of Israel; i. e., ever}thing holy should 
not be said by less than ten (men)." How 
does he prove this? Eabanai, the brother of 
E. Chiya b. Abba explained it : "We deduce 
it [first] from the words Toc/f, Toch: it is 
written here, So that I may be sanctified Be- 
toch (among) the children of Israel, and it 
is written there (Num. 16, 21.) Separate 
yourselves Mitoch (from the midst of) the 
'congregation (Eda) ; [as in the latter case 
the" word Toch in connection with Eda re- 
fers to ten, so in the former case, the »vord 
Toch, although alone, also refers to ten]. 
Atrain we deduce [that the latter passage 
where Toch is mentioned in connection with 
Eda refers to ten], from the words, Eda, 
Eda ■ it i? written (lb. 14, 27.) Hoiv long 
(shall indulgence he given) to this evil Eda 
(conqrcgation). as that passage [where Ma 
is mentioned alone] refers to ten (the spies, 



54 



n 1 3 n 3 



na 



the meals], and when he died, the court sent 
a stone to be put on his cofliii ; whence we 
leam that the coffin of him wli,. dies while 
under ban is to be stoned."' And what is he 
who behaves hauglitily towards Heaven 'i We 
ere taught that Simon b. Shetaeh sent 
[word] to lloni the Me'agel : "If thou- wert 
not Honi you should be excommunicated, but 
M-hat shall I do with thee? since thou art 
petulant towards God and yet He forgiveth 
and indulgeth thee like a petted cliild who 
is petulant towards his father and is never- 
theless forgiven and indulged ■' To thee may 
be appjieil the passage (Pr. 23, 25.) L&t 
(then.) thy father and thy mother rejoice, 
and let her that hath born thee be glad." 
(Fol. 20a) R. Papa asked Abaye : "Why is 
it that in the preceding generation miracles 
happened and no miracles happen to us? Is 
it because they studied more? Behold, dur- 
ing the years of R. Juda, all studied only 
tlie order of ISTezikin (civU procedure, or 
damages) while we stiuly all six orders.^ 
And when R. Juda reached in the Treatise 
Uktzin (Stalks), [treating with the law of] 
'The woman who pressed vegetables in a pot*, 
or, as some say [to the Mishnah of], 'Olives 
when pressed with their leaves are [ritually] 
pure,' he said: 1 notice here the argument 
of Rab and Samuel [which are beyond my 
mind].' Wliile we are versed in the treatise 
of Ulitzin in thirteen different ways, yet 
[when it comes to prayer] as soon as B. 
Juda had pulled off one of his shoes,^ rain 
immediately appeared, and though we afflict 
ourselves, and keep on crying [for God's 
help] yet none cares for us." "Do you know 
why? Abaye said to R. Papa, '''because, 
the former generations were ready to sacri- 
fice their lives to sanctify His naine but we 
are not ready to sacrifice our lives to sanctify 
His name, as happened once to R. Ada b. 
Aliaba, who saw a Gentile woman wearing a 
red headgear-dress while walking in the rntir- 
ket place. Belienng her to he a Jewess he 
impatiently tore off her red headgear. It 
was found that she was a Gentile, and he 
was fined four hundred zouzim, the value of 
the dress. He asked the woman what her 
name was. 'My name is Mathan,' she an- 
swered him. 'Mathun, Mathun,' he re- 
joined, 'is worth four hundred zouzim.'"* 
(Th. b) R. Avira expounded, sometimes 
speaking in the name of R. Ami, and at 



riK j-'^p'.D pi n^3 iinj3 noi mjnnn 
.«M i«D n^>'D ""D^D inyi Di;t:n .-ir.nN 

••js? Kcnno nriNtt' nrys no ^3« ••nj 7>^j; 

: ^[m'?^'> ^jni psi -^-inK noiy' (« '^b-d) 

wty ^KDT ND-ij in? c"'mnaT D^:icKn 

mn i"'pnjn "lin 1^13 nnn"» ant ijb's 
••tsD mn ■'01 .'•■nD s-nvj jrjno «p pKi 
PT» ntyaiDD nrsn rsp^yi niirv* an 
p^snun yz'22^ c\nv n^ naxi rmpa 
Nrtn «p ^NiDtt'i am nmn nox pmnc 
-iD^^n rxpiya irjDD «p JJS1 .«on 
«:ndd in rp^'^ ■•3 m-n^ an i^nt .^?n3^no 
nntjm ptrsj pnyxo «p jjki snco nds 
••MDp n''^ -iD« .p n:tyDT n^^i pinnx «p 
N^ ps Dtyn ntynps in'^^t'sj noo xp nn 
sm «n "ID cvn ntynps ptrsa p^nno 
n-Tiis Kvnn^ n^nn nans na kin 
nm 130 «pic'3 sn^nD nt?'«3'7 nv^ni 
«n^o ''N^j« njiD n^ynp Dp s^n ^snty 
noK V1T n«a j?mN3 mc'ic* snt rrrim 
jiriD n'7 noN pno n^^ moN ice no n'? 
: n't:' inr nso ymK jidd 



2) The Mlshi>ah consl^s of srti parts called "Orders." Por the names see Sahbath 31. 

3) When praying on t. fasting day or tn an eictrame emergency the cantor stands In stockings. 

4) itathun which Is similar to Mathan means "careful." 



57 



apjj^ py 



And Abraham rose up early in the morning 
to the place where he had stood before the 
Lord. Oinad (stood) refers to nothing else 
but prayer; for it is said (Ps. 106, 30.) 
Then stood up (Vaya'amod) Phinehas and 
offered a prayer. = Isaac ordained the after- 
noon service (Mincha), for it is said (Gen. 
24, 63.) And Isaac went out 'Lasuach' in the 
field towards evening. By the nord Lasuach 
is meant prayer, for it is said (Ps. 103, 1.) 
A pi-ayer of the afflicted ichen he is over- 
whelmed and poureth out before the Lord 
his complaint (Sicho). Jacob ordained the 
evening service (Ma'arib), for it is said (Gen. 
28, 11.) Vayifg'a upon a certain place, and 
tarried there all night; by the word Vayifg'a, 
prayer is meant, for it is said (Jer. ?., 10.) 
But thou — pray not thou in behalf of this 
people, nor lift up entreaty or prayer in their 
behalf, nor make intercession to me (Tif- 
ga)."^ We are taught, coinciding with the 
opinion of E. Joshua b. Levi : "'UTiy did [the 
Eabbis] say that the time for the morning 
service is until noon ? Because the perpetual- 
daily-morning-offering had also its time limit- 
ed to noon. E. Juda says : Until the fourth 
hour of the day." 

(Fol. 2rb) We are taught that B. Eliezer 
says: "He who prays behind his teacher, he 
who greets his teacher [without calling him 
Rabbi], he who opposes his teacher's school 
[by organizing a separate academy], and 
who makes statements [in his teacher's 
name] that he did not hear from his teach- 
er, causes the departure of the Shechinah 
from Israel." 

Our Rabbis taught: That once a disciple 
appeared before R. Joshua and said to him: 
"Rabbi, is the evening service optional or 
obligatory ?" "Optional," answered R. Joshua. 
He then came before Rabban Gamaliel and 
asked the same question : "Is the evening serv- 
ice optional or obligatory?" "Obligatory,"' 
was Rabban Gamaliel's answer. "Behold ! R. 
Joshua said to me it is optional !" the disciple 
remarked. Whereupon Rabban Gamaliel re- 
plied, "Wait until the shield bearers (great 
scholars) enter the house of learning." Aa 
soon as the shield bearers entered the house 
of learning, the inquirer arose and asked, 
"Is the evening service optional or obliga- 
tory?" "Obligatory," responded Rabban Ga- 
maliel. "Is there any one here differing with 
me on this subject ?" inquired Rabban Gama- 

2) 'Vaya'amod and Omcd arc of the same origin. 
8) Yar/ifga and 7'i,'<.a tire of the same origin. 



«^« m^oy ]"'«i 'n ^jsj n« db' toj? tj-m 
Dm^s mc>"ii (ip c'^nn) inKity n'bsn 
nD«:D' nmnn n'bsn |pn pns^ ^'7B'»i 
nuB^ m'^y^ nv-?'7 pn:{' «s''i (1= n^cNna) 
(:p D'^nn) '«jty n^sn Kb« nwu pwi my 

(n3 n-B'Kia 'Kjty n-ianj? n^sn pn npy^ 
n'7Bn N'bN nyjD psi cty |^^i cipna yjSM 
ntn Djjn nya '7^snn '7N nnsi (» n^oT) 'wty 
.13 y:sn ^«i n^sm njn cij?2 «i:'n '?«! 
n^sn nc« no ijsd y'nm n'rrno N^jn 
mp "inc '7C Tion nnu'- mxn ly -intrn 
: '"31 noiN min"" 13m msn ly i'7im 

m^ty innnm m^ m^tr jnum m ••mns 
nD",«m m ^b* iniitr^ ^y p^inm ui^ 
nj-'sc'? Dnu im ""bd yoB* w^c nm 
in« n^n'7n3 nc-yo i"n .^wnB'^s p7nDntr 
^31 n"''? "IDS yc'in^ ""n "'JB'? ssc 
.nwi V'K nam is men rr^a-iy n^en 
mtyn rr'siy n^sn V's 3"t ""jb^ «3 
ytrini 'n s^m ^"k .nmn y'« nam i« 
•iD33"'B' ny ]nDn y'« .men '^ in« 
•«^y3 1D33JC IT'S T'ona'? i-'onn -"^ya 
jTiany n^sn ^«b'i ^nib-h -ray ]''Dnn 
a""i p^ 1CN n3^n a"n y'K n3in :« niB'T 

V'H .nt 1313 p^'.nB* DIS B'"' m^D D^D3n'? 



56 



n 1 3 -I 3 



ii 



who were twelve, excluding Joshua and Ka- 
leb) so in the passage where Eda is men- 
tioned in connection with Toch, does it also 
refer to ten.'" 

(Fol. 24b) R. Abba tried to avoid the 
sight of R. Juda because he wanted to go 
to Palestine and R. Juda always said : 
"Whoever goes up from Babylon to Palestine 
transgresses the positive law which says 
(Jer. 27, 22.) Unto Babylon shall they be 
carried, and there shall they remain until 
the day that I think of them, saith the Lord." 
One day R. Abba said J shall go and hear 
something from him and then I will depart. 
So he went and found a Tana reciting before 
R. Juda regarding cleanliness, while pray- 
ing. (See text.) R. Abba then said, "Were 
it only for that single thing that I came to 
listen, it would be sufficient." 

We have a Baraitha coinciding with R. 
Chisda's opinion: "If one is walking in 
filthy alleys, he should not read the Sh'm'a; 
moreover, even if he were in the middle of 
his reading and should happen to find him- 
self in a filthy street, he should stop." If he 
do not stop, what then? R. Meyasha the 
grandson of R. Joshua b. Levi said: It is of 
him that the passage says (Ezek. 20, 25.) 
"Wherefore I gave them also statutes that 
were not good, and ordinances whereby they 
could not live. R. Assi said from this (Is. 5, 
18.) Woe unto those that draw iniquity with 
the cord of vanity. R. Ada b. Ahaba said 
from this (Xum. 15, 31.) Because the word 
of the Lord hath he despised. And if he 
does stop wtat will his reward be? R. 
Abuhu said: "To him may be applied the 
passage (Deu. 32, 47.) .ind through this 
thing ye shall prolong your days." 

chafter four.! 

(Fol. 26b) We are taught (in a Memera)' 
that R. Jose the son of R. Chanina said : 
"The daily services were ordained by the 
Patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac and Jacob)."' R. 
Joshua b. Le\-i said : "The daily services were 
ordained to correspond with the [two] per- 
petual-daily-offerings." We have a Baraitha 
coinciding with the opinion of R. Jose, the 
son of R. Chanina, and we have also a 
Baraitha coinciding with the opinion of R. 
Joshua b. Levi. As to the support of R. 
Jose we are taught, "Abraham ordained the 
morning service, as it is said (Gen. 19, 27.) 



]sr r^N rnc'v pn? rra .n^?T^ :^-';-\r\ niy^ 

Q-'ontr-'D «p r\',r[ saN laT (^"pnafn) 
«j;ns'7 pD'D'7 •'ya mm min^ am n^a^o 
ps^ tiaao n^ijjn ^3 ni'in'' m idxt 'rsicn 

.-1733 ('= n-m.) idWS' HtTV^ l^lj? 7N"1B^ 

.'n dk: cn-iN nps cr ij? rn"" nntyi in31* 
n'«3D Nn'7''n n^ro jintrNT '7n^x ^DK 
Nin'7 n-'nrtyN ^tn .p-iESK mm «ivti 
n?sn3 is-.y ^^^ min"" nM n^Dp ^inpi 
~iT",m nnn n^r^^. ^y |.,;^qq tycynji 

13T V'lDa*^ N^K •'nN3 K'? I^-iS ^"N .^^SriDI 

: in nr 

-^TO n-^n KiDH 3m n-Tina Ki:n 
vctj' nsnp s-ip> n7 n'lejjitsnn mK",3D3 
s^ .pDiij S31 N-np n\T DNty «^« my k"7i 
■"nni nn3 *i3 nt:*K'«t2 i3n nns •'nd posj 
(2 ^KpjH') nc-s 3':n3n t«^j; ^','7 p ytrin^ 
ctiijtt'm ci3it2 «^ D"«pn Dn^ ••nru ">js D:^ 
•i-.n (n n-ya") noK tos "isi .nn3 rn'' "73 
nans n3 «^s 3-1 .n:vn ''^3n3 pyn ""striD 

CS-, .nT3 'n n37 ^3 (le imoi) S3nD IDK 

nm« 3in3n r^' ";n3N T'n nstr no pos 

T:n pis "inern n^sn 

NJ'':n •'313 -"DTI •'31 nDn">N (i";- 1; --.i) 
'1^ p yB'i.T' •'31 .mjpn nns m^sn nox 
mm"i3 N"':n .cijpn cran njis m'bBn -ick 
•'3m n\nr,3 s"-:;!! sj^jn •'313 •'d:*' 13m 
^313 •'Di^ 13T mni";3 s^in ."•i^ p ytr'im 

C^pcn '7S -lp33 Dm3N C3K'^"1 (»' fUB-Ki:) 



1) A Memera !; the teaching of an Amora, the expounder of the Mi^bnaha and Baraitha. 



59 



apy^ py 



t32 



Elazar b. Azaria meant when he said: "Be- 
hold ! I am as a man of seventy years of age" 
but not aged seventy. We are taught that on 
that day the porter was removed from the 
door [of the academy], and admission was 
granted to all students, for, during the ad- 
ministration of Eabban Gamaliel, the an- 
nouncement was made : '"Ever)' scholar whose 
interior is not like his exterior (who is not 
pious), shall not enter the academy." On 
that day many benches were added in the 
academy. E. Jochanan said: "There is a 
difference of opinion between Abba Joseph 
b. Dustoi and the Eabbis; according to one, 
four hundred benches were added and ac- 
cording to the other, seven hundred benches 
[were added]." When Eabban Gamaliel no- 
ticed the tremendous increase he became dis- 
couraged and said to himself, "God forbid, 
I have perhaps prevented so many from 
studying the Torah." In a dream was shown 
to him "white earthen pitchers filled 
with ashes."'' But this was shown to him only 
in order to calm him. We are taught: 
"On that day the treatise of Edioth was 
studied in the academy and wherever we find 
'On that day,' it means the day on which R. 
Elazar b. Azaria became the head of the 
academy. There was no Halacha previously 
undecided in the academy which was not 
decided that day. Even Eabban Gamaliel 
himself, although deposed, did not refrain 
from attending the academy, as is shown 
from what we are taught (in a Mishnah) : 
'On that day Juda the Ammonite, a pros- 
elyte, appeared in the academy and asked: 
'May I enter the congregation [to marry a 
Jewess]?' Eabban Gamaliel said unto him: 
'Thou art not at liberty to do so,' but R. 
Joshua said, 'Thou art at liberty to do so.' 
Eabban Gamaliel then said to R. Joshua, 
'Behold it is said (Deu. 23, 4.) An Ammonite 
' or Moahite shall not enter the congregation 
of the Lord!" To this E. Joshua retorted and 
said, 'Are then these nations still in their 
native places? Did not Senacherib, the king 
of Assvria, transplant the nations? As 
it is said (Is. 10, 13.) I have removed 
the lonnds of the people, and their laid- 
vp treasures have I plundered, etc., 
therefore, not knowing, we go according 
to the maioritv [and the majority are not 
Ammonites].' 'But,' replied Eabban Gama- 
liel, 'behold, it is said ( Jer. 49, 6.) And after- 
wards I will bring again the captivity of the 
7) Heferriot to the new scholars of that c&Ilbr*. 



nnen id-.c-''? inip'JD n-i\n im« van -nitr 

'?H TI2D i2".n ;■'««' n"n '73 ncNi rnro 
.^'7D£)D nD3 isD'.n^M KOT" i^^nn n"n'7 djs^ 
-in Fpv Kn« nn '^j-'^s ]inv •'m ~iq« 
^7DBD 'n EiD^n^N -iD« in pmi •'snon 
iTnyT nty'rn «p mn .•''7D3D nso 'r iss nm 
^KityiD nmn TipD V'n kd^t "id« ;"nT 
.«Dta"'p p'>7m nnn ■'2sn «D7n3 ni^ irnN 
.n-''? iTn«T N-n nTiyn •'mn"'^ k^n «\n «^i 
KDVT '7D1 n''jtt*j DT«3 13 m^iy «:n 
nn-in n^i mn kot' sinn nv2 n pno«T 
mcT'B K'7t? n"33 n^i'rn ^n^^tr nD'?:] 
ttmon n''3D mxy yjD «^ ^x-i^dj pn :i«i 
nj min"« k3 cv2 u pm .n^^? nya* i^isn 
no nn^ ids cmon n^nn d.T'jb^ •'Jioy 
moK ^ki^d: pn 1^ now .^npn ks^ ij« 
nmo yti'in"' -•an ^'? "its« ^npa su^ nriN 
«^ni ^«^'?d; ]3n I'b nas br]p:i «n^ nn« 
••nKiDi ^j'lOy «3^ «^ (J= o'i:i) no«j nnn 
aKiDi ]",ny "'31 ya-in"* 'n ^'x .'n '7np3 
s-inmo n^y nns s^m psttni on pipon 
-ion:c mcisn "rs n« bn^m mtr« I'i'D 
DnTiiTnyi cny m'7i3:i t'dxi (' n'^'O") 

mST ^31 Cnc'T' -|^3K3 TT.S1 Tl^tt'lB' 

-133 K^m ^s^^aj pn y'« .rns ssntj 
mar nw 3''i:'N ]3 inn«i (-» n'o"") idsj 



58 



n 1 D 1 3 



m 



liel of the scholars. "No," came the answer 
from R. Joshua. "Behold," interrupted Rab- 
ban Gamaliel, "it is said in your name that 
the ser\-icc is only optional. Arise Josliua! 
And let the witness testify against thee!" 
E. Joshua stood up and said: "Were I alive 
and he (the witness) dead, I would have been 
able to deny it, but now, when I am alive and 
he is alive, how can one living being deny 
another living being?'' So Rabban Gamaliel 
continued his lecture while R. Josliua re- 
mained standing, until all the people moved 
in excitement and said to Chutzephith the 
Meturgeman, • "Stop !'' and he stopped. 
"How long," said they, "shall we permit E. 
Joshua to be afflicted and reproached? Last 
New Year Rabban Gamaliel afflicted and re- 
proached him.^ In Bechoroth, in the incident 
of R. Zadok, Rabban Gamaliel annoyed him* 
and now again he reproached and afflicted 
him; shall we allow such annoyance to be 
continued? Let us take steps to deprive him 
of his dignity (of being the Exilareh). But 
who shall be his successor? Shall we put 
np R. Joshua? He is his chief opponent 
[and it would cause him too much aggrava- 
tion]. Shall we put up R. Akiba? He has 
no ancestral merits, and may be disposed to 
Heavenly punishment [through prayers]. Let 
as therefore choose R. Elazar b. Azaria for 
he is wise, rich, and the tenth descendant of 
Ezra. He is wise, and therefore wiU be able 
to answer when questioned; he is rich and 
therefore, if ordered to attend the Emperor's 
court [of Rome], he will be as well able to 
do so as Rabban Gamaliel; he is the tenth 
descendant of Ezra and has therefore ances- 
tral merits, and he (Rabban Gamaliel) will 
not be able to afflict upon him Heavenly 
punislmient." So they came [to R. Elazar 
b. Azarlia] and said to him : "Is the master 
willing to become the head of the Academy ?" 
(Fol. 28a.) R. Elazar replied: "I'll go 
and consult my household." He went and 
consulted his wife. "Perhaps," said she to 
him, "they will also depose thee [and you 
will be disgraced]." "There is a maxim," 
replied he. "'Use thy precious bowl while 
thou hast it. even if it be broken the next 
day.'" "But?' said she, "thou hast not any 
gray hair [and they will not respect thee].'' 
At that time he was but eighteen years of 
age; thereupon miraculously eighteen of his 
locks suddenly turned gray. And this R. 

7i Interpreter who explains the lecture of the Rabbi 
B> See Bosh Hashana 25a. 
«) See Bechoroth SGb. 



mm noK ^DB'D K^m ^"« .ik^ vein*' ^m 

«im ""n 1JN -"^D^K nD«i v^n ^y ya'irp '^ 
ij«B' vu2)}-\ ncn n« vf^u^n': Tin 'bo'' no 
."•nn n« tr^nan^ ""nn 'rir •\n^n '•n «ini "n 

yttMiT' 'm cnm aa-i-' '7S''7n: ]an r\'>n 
■noKi cyn ^3 ^:i•^v ny r^Ji ^y loiy 
nna ly noK .loy • Tiny pmntDn n-iaxin^ 
.n-i-iys ipntt'« nysrt tysns .^■'f^'i nnyx"": 
«p :"n .nnys pnx 'it ntyyoa nmsaa 
Kn .'?''V'?^ nnyx'^ ''Nn '<^i3 •n*'? nyxn 
ya'in"' '-\'? n-itipu n-'^ D-ipi: ]so .nnayji 
lyijy «o^7 y"n^ ■T'opu .«"n na-yn '7y3 
K"i'7 r:>^2p^: s'bs .mas niat n^^ rf^i n^"? 
tTtyy Kim T'try «ini can K",m nnry ]2 
.n"''? piBD m ^ti'po ^ST crn «",n .Nity? 
•>SD ""o: ""Hn "iD-'p ■'a'? n^sD -"XT Ttry «in 
n^'? mxT «nTy7 "'T'bt; «im .nTins n'7sa 
'•noMi iriK n"-? c"'jy ''Sq «^i nuN nor 

-[••^DKI ^T« .^Sni2 •'tyjNn -I'l'i'DSI ^•'fS 

in-iayo «i37T ("= i'') ^''7 mns inn-i^in 
«in Nt:T» tyinniy'7 ^c*J"'« ""iok n^ nos -['? 
n^'? n^'? mD« .-i2n"»^ ints'?! Kipitsn «d33 
^jB> ^iD ^jon na «d"i^ sinn Kmv.n •^'7 

]a nty'7K ••ai iD«pT uimi .smnn ^n«i 

before the public. 



61 



2?v' py 



KO 



and I shall be at his (Eabban Gamaliers) 
door early." [And though everything was 
settled] K. Elazar b. Azaria was not deposed, 
but from that time on Eabban Gamaliel was 
to lecture two (Sabbaths while E. Elazar b. 
Azaria lectured one Sabbath, and it is thus 
understood, when the master said : ''Whose 
Sabbath was this? That of R. Elazar b, 
Azaria." The disciple [who asked if the 
evening service is optional or obligatory] 
was R. Simon b. Jochai. 

(lb. b) (Mishnah) R. Nechunia b. Haka- 
na, upon entering and leaving the academy 
was wont to make a short prayer. The Rab- 
bis asked him what kind of a prayer it was? 
He replied, "When I enter I pray that no 
stumbling shall happen because of me; and 
upon leaving, I give praise for my share." 

(Gemara) Oux Rabbis taught: "Upon en- 
tering the house of learning what shall a 
man pray ? 'May it be Thy will, Lord, my 
God, that there shall be no stumbling through 
me and that we shall not stumble over a 
matter of Halacha, and that my associates 
shall find rejoicing in me, that I shall not 
judge as levitically unclean, that which is 
levitically clean; or as clean, that which is 
unclean ; nor shall my companions stumble 
over a matter of Halacha and I shall find re- 
joicing in them.' Upon leaving what shall a 
man say? 'I give thanks unto thee, Lord, 
my God, because thou hast placed my share 
among those who attended the academy, and 
hast not placed my share among those who 
attend the street ; they arise early and 1 arise 
early [but there is a difference]. They arise 
early for idle talk, while I arise early for the 
words of the Torah. I toil and they toil; I 
toil and hope to receive everlasting compensa- 
tion, but they are working and will not re- 
ceive everlasting compensation. I run and 
they run; I run to eternity in the world to 
come, while they run into the pit of a cave.' " 

Our Rabbis taught: When R. Eliezer be- 
came ill his disciples came to visit him. 
"Rabbi," they said, "teach us the way of life 
so that we inay deserve to inherit eternity 
in the world to come." He said unto them : 
"Be careful to honor your comrades ; know to 
•whom you pray ; restrain your children from 
frivolous thoughts, and set them between the 
knees of learned men; by these means you 
■will deserve eternity in tiie world to come." 
When R. Jochanan b. Zakai became ill his 
disciples visited him ; as soon as he saw them 
he burst into tears. "Rabbi." they said to 



nn\n •'d '?'j nac id nosi u•'^^^ .snaty 

in-iNi nn\n nnrj; p iry^s i^n 'jty 

: mn ••sn-"' p ^lyo'^ ■•an To^n 

insiifai ir-non n-'S'? inD'':Dn '77snD 
IT n'7sn'7 mpn no i'? nns mxp n^sn 
jjnK' n"?'^ ^^snn i:« "•no'ijoa cn^ ids 

: ''pbn 

psi \n' noiK ino ino'^jsn "i"n snoj 
'?]} n'7pn "im j?-i«^ «^ty ^^'7K 'n yjs^D 
nan "^2 inotyi T]3'?n nmn 'btras «'7i n^ 
«DD -i:nui 'by «'?! -nnQ sots 'by idik n'7i 
.nnn ncu-Ni n^'?:^ nma nan I'i'C'r^ K7i 
\n^K 'n yis'? ""JK miD id",« iriN^s^ai 
riDB' «b'i cmnn n-^n ''Tz"^'o ''pbn notyty 
'j«i DicrtTD cntt' mnp ^at-.^o ^p'bn 
•'JN1 0^^123 nnnn'? d-'cdw-q en cst^D 
•lis nnoy Dm ^ny ■<:« n-nn nai'? d''DB'd 
D"'b3po ar«i D"''7Dy cm nau' 'bapoi 'bay 
n^iyn ■'•'n^ p •'Js cxn cm p ^jk nsB' 
: nn^ nH3b D'^n cm Kan 

mnms mD"? ""m I'b tids npnb mo'i'n 
en"? IDS .N3n D'?iyn ■'•'nb ona narji D^n 
cb^sno cnsc'Di cannn m223 nnrn 
p c:"'J3 -iyim cits^y ens •'a ^:3'7 lyi 
c^aan ""Tiabn ^212 pa c^r-'tt'im jT';inn 
^'7nt^•^^ .«an c'biyn •'•'nb irrn ^r biarai 
IT'D 1-Ip3^ T'TD^n 1D335 ^srT p pnT" '•m 

iran i^ nas .mrn^ ^■'nnn cms nsnty 
••JBD prnn B'-'taa -"ra^n may bsm:"' ij 
1^0 •»:3'? i^^K nn'7 nas .nain nns na 



CO 



n : r n a 



children of Ammon, so they must have al- 
ready returned.' To which R. Joshua rejoin- 
ed: "Behold it is also said (Amos \\ 14.) And 
I will bring again the captivity of my people 
Israel, and tliese have not returned as yet.' 
Thereupon the proselyte was immediately 
permitted to enter the congregation." Then 
Rabban Gamaliel said to himself: '•Since it is 
60 [that R. Joshua's decision was carried], 
I shall now go and etlect a reconciliation 
with R. Joshua." He thereupon went. When 
he reached R. Joshua's house, he noticed that 
the walls of the house were black. "From the 
appearance of the walls of thy house," said 
Rabban Gamaliel, "it is evident tliat you are 
a smith." R. Joshua replied : "Woe unto the 
age whose leader thou art I for thou knowest 
not of the cares with which the scholars are 
occupied and whence they derive their liveli- 
hood!" "I have reproached thee, forgive 
me," Rabban Gamaliel pleaded, but R. Joshua 
ignored him. "Do it," he again pleaded, 
"for the sake of the honor of my father's 
house." R. Joshua then accepted his apology. 
"Now," they said, "who will go and inform 
the Rabbis?" [that they had become recon- 
ciled.] "I shall go," said a certain laundry- 
man who was there. So R. Joshua sent the 
following message [through him] : "He who 
wore the vestment, shall be dressed with it 
again, and he who has not worn the vestment 
shall say to him who wore it: 'Take ofT thy 
priestlv" cloth, and I shall put it on.' '' f As 
soon as R. Akiba was informed of the situa- 
tion, he said to the Rabbis: "Let all gatea 
[leadinsr to the academy] be closed so that 
none of Rabban Gamaliel's subordinates shall 
come and afflict the Rabbi.s" [in a spirit of 
revenge for their stand against Rabban Ga- 
maliel]. Meantime R. Joshua said to him- 
self: "It will be much better that I myself 
shall go and inform them." Accordingly 
he went and [upon reaching the acadomv] 
rapped at the door saying: "I^t him sprinkle 
who is a sprinkler, the son of a sprinkler (a 
scholar, the son of a scholar) ; he who is 
neither himself a sprinkler, nor the son 
of a sprinkler shall say to him who is 
a sprinkler and the son of a sprinkler 
Thv water is plain cave water^ and 
thv ashes are plain ashes of a burned cane.'' 
"Hast thou been appeased R. Joshua? said 
R \kiba to him. "What we have done was 
only for thy sake. If so, then to-morrow you 



„ This w« . hint to R. Bla^ar b. Aiarla that he 
t) Se« Num. 19. 18. 



n33 «7-i yc'in'' ^^t 7"k azv nasi jidj; ^j3 

.%~p H2i "innTin i^d .-or «? pnyi 
iT'Di-'BKi ^'•t'^K K'n ''2m ^''«"n :"i now 
«n''c«'7 inrtn nTi"'3'7 «t:D ■'3 .vtrin^ "^m? 
nriK •^n-':: "'7^20 V'h pnii'CT iTn-'zi 
nnxty in? ^'? '>i« ?"« nns '•onsa' ir**: 
■'T>C!7n '7B' pyxa VT,'' nn« ]'«*i* -iDj-ib 
.]'<i:v: en noai pDnsno p nc2 D-iDDn 
nry .-'^2 n;iyK «7 .''7 'b-.no "p Tuyj ^'k 

KiN on-j K-nn in^ "ids .j:3i'7 m sa^'?! 

-iD" «nn V^'? «'71 iKDI Kits tJ'2?^ KIQ 

.nit:*3^s «JKi T^nn n'?^ kid ty-in^T ]nd^ 
",n^^ «7i >bi ipnt2 ]12'\'? Ks^y ••31 ^'k 
yr'.n'' •'2T -iD« .pan nysi^i y"n nr; 
''2^ «ns -.n^^s:^ saK ^•'f«i cp-'Si 2Q",d 
mo \2 nto *,n^ ncsi K33n ciits yr'.ni 
nrr'? new*' nra p H'?^ ntn «'? li-'sc .nt^ 
■.n'7pD nss T13S1 myo 'd -^cn nrn p 
r.D'iEnj yiT'-.r;' ^m s^w ••^-i -•''7 na« 
nns"! ':s nnc? it,2:^ «7S ^rii-y C',^3 
iTy'i'S ^2-i'7 nnay s'7 n"sNi .inns'? crcj 
imn '7«''^Da ]3n irm mm nnry p 

ebouM step out as tlie head of the academy. 



63 



npy^ ]^y 



5D 



not apprehend that perhaps he reconsidered 
it? Abaye said : "We have a tradition that a 
righteous person never becomes wicked." Is 
this so? Behold, it is written (Ez. 18, 24.) 
But when the righteous turneth away from 
his righteousness. This is said of a man who 
was wicked in the beginning, but if one is 
righteous from the very beginning, it does not 
happen so. Is this so ? Are we not taught : "Do 
not rely upon thyself [that thou art right- 
eous] even until the last day of thy death; 
for R. Jochanan the High Priest served in the 
High Priesthood for eighty years and at last 
became a Sadducee." Abaye said: "Janai (the 
King) and Jochanan are the same person" 
[hence he was wicked in his early years]. '* 
Eaba said : "Janai and Jochanan are two dif- 
ferent persons; Janai was wicked from the 
Tery beginning, and Jochanan righteous from 
the very beginning." It is quite right accord- 
ing to the opinion of Abaye, but according to 
the opinion of Raba [who said that Jochanan 
was righteous from the very beginning], 
how should the question be answered ? Raba 
may explain that a righteous person from 
the very beginning should also [not be relied 
upon] lest he become wicked. And if so., 
then why did not the Ral^bis remove Samuel 
the junior? With Samuel the junior it is 
different; for he commenced to say it, and 
erred in the middle of it. For R. Juda in 
the name of Rab, and according to some in 
the name of R. Joshua b. Levi, said: "The 
above quotation [of Rah regarding the sus- 
picion] refers only to him who has not even 
commenced to say it, but if he commenced the 
benediction and erred in the middle of it 
he may be allowed to finish it [without any 
suspicion]." 

(lb. b) Elijah, the brother of E. Sala 
Chasida, said to R. Juda "Do not get angry 
and thou wilt not sin. Do not get drunk and 
thou wilt not sin. And when thou art about 
to go on thy way, take counsel first with thy 
Possessor and then go out." What does it 
mean by, "Take counsel first with thy Pos- 
sessor and then go out." R. Jacob said in the 
name of R. Chisda: "This refers to the road- 
prayer which a man should say before he goes 
on his way." (Fol. 30a) And how shall he 
make this prayer? R. Chisda said standing, 
and R. Shesheth said, even while walking. R. 
Chisda and R. Shesheth were once walking 
along the road. [Suddenly] R. Chisda stopped 
and began to pray. "What is R. Chisda do- 



'!2H npya ym HMnn (V't »"inD kip-vot 
■^Dxyn j"'DKn ^» pnm s^i .k^ npi?!: pi-Rf 
njinan ^'db' j"o \:nv nnts' imc m^ tv 
^ia« nD« .vnx nB>yi cj'iDa^i n:\ff 'a n^nj 
Tin^ ■>«.:■• -iD« «3T .pnT" «in ^w win 
pn^f |:m^ npyD ytyn i«r nn^ pnv 
nDK .N-irp «ai^ «^s Nn-ij ^''2«^ .npyo 
•"K .n^2 mn «d^t ■'dj npyo pns Km "p 

Non'«Ki i"« T:r,n'> T'st na ^mn« Kni 

mi iTinK m)n'' an^ ini^K ^"k (="p) 
Mnn «^ .«t2nn s^i nmn «'? htou «^d 
liipa i^DH im^ wxi^ nriKtrsi .«tann k^i 
DpV ""rn "iO'« -Ksi iJipa ^^nn "'«d -kxi 
"'2"»m (^ 11) ."i-nn n^cn it xion m idk 
nirty an .-miyts now «iDn m .n^ '•^sd 
v>n ntt'ty sni «iDn an -n^nD ^'?>tH nan 
•'^SD Kp'i Kion m np wnmsa *^tk wp 



13) S«« Kedushin Fol. BSa, that King Jml ktUM «,n the eages. 



62 



n 1 D n 3 



3D 



him, 'light of Israel ! the right pillar I Why 
weepest thou?" He replied thiis: "Were I 
to be brought before a mortal king, who is 
here to-day, but in the grave to-morrow; 
who may become angry with me, but whose 
anger is not everlasting; who may imprison 
me, but whose imprisonment is not forever; 
who may kill me, but kill only for this world; 
and wliom I may bribe, even then would I 
fear; but now when I am led to appear before 
the King of Kings, the Holy One, praised be 
He! who liveth through all eternity; if He 
is wroth, it is everlasting ; if He imprison me, 
it is imprisonment forever; if He kill, ono 
is killed forever; and I can neither appease 
with words nor bribe Him with money; 
moreover there are two paths before me, one 
leading to Gehenna and the other leading 
to Paradise, and I know not in which I am 
led. Should I not weep ?"' They then said to 
him: "Rabbi, bless us." He said to them: 
"May it be His will that your fear of God 
Bhall be as great as the fear of man." "Rab- 
bi," they asked, "is that all?" Thereupon he 
answered : "Oh that ! For when a man com- 
mits a crime [he does it in secrecy] saying 'no 
man should see me.' Although God seeth him 
everywhere." When at the point of dying he 
Eaid to them: "Cleanse the house of all ves- 
sels on account of levitical impurity," and 
prepare a chair for Hezekiah, the King of 
Juda, who came [to take part in my pro- 
cession]." 

Our Rabbis taught that "Simon Happe- 
kuli has arranged the Eighteen Benedictions 
before Rabban Gamaliel at Jamnia, accord- 
ing to their present arrangement. Rabban 
Gamaliel said to the sages: 'Is there not any- 
one who knows how to compose a prayer con- 
cerning the Sadducees?' Thereupon Samuel 
the junior, came down and composed it. The 
following vear he (Samuel the junior) forgot 
it (Fol. 29a') and for two or three hours he 
tried to recollect [but did not succeed] ; still 
the congregation did rot remove him [from 
the reader's place]." ■^Iiv not? Has not R 
Jnda in the name of Rab said: "If one 
errs in anv part of the Eighteen Benedictions 
he should not be removed, but if he errs in the 
eection referring to heretics " he should be 
removed, in the apprehension that he is a her- 
etic." Samuel the junior is different, since 
he himself composed it [therefore he shows no 
cause for suspicion]. But why should we 

10) AH Tftssel! txwnne rituAUT Impure wli«B to th« 

11) The twelfth seetloo. 



D«T D^iy DVD 1DV3 V» ""^y 0^3 D«^ l^^p^ 

"iD-'^D^ ^■iD'» '«J!«i d'?"iV nn-'D '.nn-'a pn 
.rcu ^n"«^n D"Ey«T poos nm»'7i cnna 

iS'bD VD ''JD^ TWH ]^2<r>QV v^2];^ 

D'Jij;'? D'pi ""n «"inB' n"3pn cs^cn 
DV3 iDj?3 ""^y DP DKa> D''D^"iy ■«DT;y':i 

CK1 D^iy T,D'«« mD''« iJIDS'' D«1 D^iy 

^o'' •>:« ]■'«: c^'.y nn-'D "inn^o i:n"'riD 
H^K ny «^"i T't^ii^ nrnty^i cins id^b^ 
ini?i Dan"": ^a' nn« d^dit ''2v ■•iB'i? B'^tt' 
]''2^'7\^ ]-Q nT"»«3 yn^ ^^kt pv P '^v 

Ds-'vy D^DB> «niD Kn^c pxn nt dh^ 
nos IS3 ny vTti'?n ^"k .on nirn smoa 
-ic',« m"«3y laiy mwu'D lyin -iwi?! on^ 
cT: ncK imiias nytya .m« ""ixn^ »7v 
iniprn^ «dd ir^ni nxDion ""Jbd D^'bo i:b 
: KSty rnin"» "pn 

n"* •T'lcn •^'?"psn pynu* pan ^:n 
-iQ« .:\:2^2 men ^y i"^ ''JB^ m^na 
]pr\b yTi"'c m« ty ci^j D-'crn? :"t nn^ 

'3 n3 rpprm (•" 11) nnatt' mnsn nitt*^ 

n",3i3n ^33 nyo 31 -ic« m'.n"' i"«m 
]'''7yo n'':''Dn n3-i33 iniK p^yo ps p'j 

-nn sa^iT, ':;',r\>:^ .njpn in^«T ^epn 

house inth ft dea^ bedy. Lar. 19, 11 



65 



2pv^ py 



no 



ful, remarked to him, "It is written (Ps. 14, 
23.) In all painful labor there is profit." "I 
have Tephilin on," K. Jeremiah answered. 

Mar, the son of Eabina, made a marriage 
banquet for his son; when he observed that 
the Eabbis were at the height of their mer- 
riment he brought in a very costly cup 
worth four hundred zouzim and broke it be- 
fore them ; and they grew sad. E. Ashi made 
a marriage feast for his son and when he 
noticed the Eabbis were at the height of their 
merriment (Fol. 31a) he brought in a costly 
cup made of white glass and broke it before 
them ; and they grew sad. At the wedding of 
Mar the son of Eabina, the Eabbis said unto 
E. Hammma Zuti: "Sing to us master."' He 
sang: '^Voe, for we must die! Woe, for we 
must die!" "And what shall we respond to 
it?" asked they. "Sing ye," answered he, 
"Alas! where is the Torah [we have 
studied] and where are the meritorious 
deeds? [we have performed] to protect us?" 

E. Jochanan in the name of E. Simon 
b. Jochai said : "It is not permitted to a man 
to fill his mouth vrith laughter in this world, 
for it is said (Ps. 126, 2.) Then'' shall our 
mouths be filled with laughter, and our tongue 
with singing — when shall this be? At the 
time when — they shall say among the nations 
'great things hath the Lord done for these.'" 
It is related of Eesh Lakish that he never 
laughed from the time he heard this from 
E. Jochanan, his teacher. 

Our Eabbis taught: "It is not proper 
to start to pray in a mood of sadness; 
nor in a mood of idleness, nor in a mood of 
laughter, nor in a mood of low talk, nor in 
a mood of jesting, nor in a mood of idle 
talk; but only in a mood of joy causeil 
through the performance of a meritorious 
deed. Thus also shall one take leave of his 
friend neither in the mood of low talk, nor of 
laughter, nor of jesting, nor of idle talk ; but 
immediately after the study of tlie Halacha 
(traditional law) ; for thus we find with our 
first prophets ; they also finished their proph- 
esies with matters of praise and consola- 
tion." And so has E. Mari, the grandson of 
E. Huna. the son of E. Jeremiah, recited 
fa tradition] : "A man shall not depart 
from his friend only immediately after 
reciting an Halacha; because by means of 
this his friend will always remember 
him." Just as it happened to E. Cahana, 
who accompanied E. Shimi b. Ashi, from 

2) Referring to the time of Messiah when humanity 



nnn^ «^i^n nay Kmrn iT^na no 
HDD "«n"« KDVii ""ma sp v.m pan^ injin 
.u-'sysi in^Dp nam •'f.T 'n na Knpim 
nm pm^ injin nna^ «^i^n inj; -"tt'S m 
«n^;iTT KDD Ti'^'^i^ {x'j fn) KDiti 'ma «p 
.T^ nos .u-ixj/'Mi in''''ap lam wmivn 
nns noi «^i7na ■•dit kjudh 3i^ ]:2-\ 
p ■'11 in^ -lOK .ID 1^ n^i^ KJ^am 
■^jp no pK n""^ nD« .pnm j^ •'n pn^DT 

«^D"'B' mK^ i",D« ''"Du-\ citt'o i:ni'' -\"n 

«'7tt"' T« (i:p n'';nn) IDWC T"mp VB piHC 

V'?]} TiD« .n^N cy mc'j?^ 'n "bnin cija 

l"mV3 T'B pinty K'7!3 K'? VD'^DC y'T by 

: n''2'\ pm"" 'no nync Tts 

linn H^ ^'7Dnn^ ^nrnj? p« psi ^:n 
pints' Tino s^i m^xy "lino k^i nnsy 
«'7i 5i'K-i ni^p ^iriD «^i nn-'c iino «''i 
^ty nnnty lino «^k c'rcia nnm I'na 
nn-'B' lino «^ n^nno di« ntsD^ k^i mxD 
«^i vn-\ m'bp lino «'7i p'.nty T-no «^i 
n2^n -131 "lino k^« D"'^n D^im T.no 
•mMDC D^r.tys-in cs-'^jn irxo jrty 
i-in '>:n pi .coinjm nnt? '•tmn cnnm 
13 n'^DT* ■'n-n nnn win mn nna na 
nsT linn s^« n^2n» m« itsD^ ^« k3« 
Kjna 311 «n ^d inisiT id iinoty nD^n 

win prevail a-nd affliction will be meted out to no one. 



64 



n 1 



nc 



ing?" asked H. Shesheth of his attendant." 
"He stopped and said a prayer," was the re- 
ply of his attendant. Thereupon K. Sliesheth 
ordered his attendant to stop also and to pray, 
remarking, "If thou canst be good do not be 
bad." " 

Our Rabbis taught : "A blind man or one 
who cannot determine the direction,^^ let him 
direct his heart towards his Heavenly Father ; 
for it is said (I Kin<;s S, 44.) They will pray 
unto the Lord. If he is outside of Palestine let 
him direct his heart toward Palestine, for it 
is said (lb. 48.) They will pray unto Thee in 
the direction of their land. If he stand in 
Palestine let him direct his heart towards 
Jerusalem, for it is said (lb. ib. 44.) They 
xcill pray unto the Lord in the direction of the 
city u-hich thou hast chosen. If he stand in 
Jerusalem then let him direct his heart to- 
wards the Temple, for it is said (lb. ib. 33.) 
And they will pray and praise unto this 
house. If he stand in the Temple then let him 
direct his heart towards the Holy of Holies; 
for it is said (Ib. ib. 30.) And they will pray 
towrads this place. If he stand in the Holy 
of Holies let him direct his heart towards the 
Kaporeth." If he stand behind the cover of 
the ark, let him consider it as if he were 
standing in front of the Kaporeth. Hence, if 
one is in the east, he should face towards 
west; in the west, he should face towards 
east; in the south, he should face to- 
wards the north ; in the north, he should face 
towards the south. It is tlius found that all 
Israel directs its heart towards one place [to- 
wards the Holy of Holies]." Where is the 
Biblical passage [to refer to this] ? Thy neck 
is like the tower of David built on terraces 
(Songs 4, 4), i. e., a mound towards which all 
turn." 

CHAPTER FIVE. 

Abaye was sitting before Rabba; the lat- 
ter noticed that Abaye was very cheer- 
ful. Rabba said to him: 'TDoes not the 
master agree with the passage (Ps. 2, 11.) 
Rejoice with treemblingf" To which he an- 
swered: "I have the Tephilin on."' R. 
Jeremiah was sitting before R. Zeira; the 
latter seeing that the former was very cheer- 

\V, R ShKheth n^ admits that It is proper to recite the prayer standing but he holds that It may be recited 
-It trViiP walk nc Hence he could be true to his opinion, respecting his associate's feelings. 
15) When a Tovi l>r»Ts the Eighteen Benedictions, he should face the Bast where Jerusalem aiul the Temple 

**iiri '^Th^^^ver of the Ark. See Ex. 25. 17. 

\V\ Tntrtiunth (terraces) when divided in two. Tel-piyoth, means "the mound to which all turn. 
1) The Tephilin signify that I fear and acknowledge the SoTOreignty of the Almighty. 



T\''i lOK .'•^XDT "<Wp n-i^ -lOK .KIDH ST 

inpn ^« mta m\nD •'!?ski n-ii^ '•dj ppiH 

l»inn noiv n^n .cnM'i'M 'n '?« i^'i'EnrTi (n 

p«3 ne-.y n^ ,csn« "pT T^« i^^finm 

,mn3 -ii:'« T'yn -pn 'n ^s I'i'^Bnm (o») 

.ntn n''2r] 7« i^^snm (°») nowir tyipon 

!?« -^^srim (0=-) nowu' c^\:;ipn ■»B'np n-^i 
n^tripn ittnp n-iaa lO'V n\n .mn u-.p-on 

■':s'7 I'i'ss iDvy nsn^ m",2:n n^2 mnw 

n-ma .mm^ rss innD anyca onyo^ 
nm^ 'i'js nvno ]is:f3 -iibs'? t'^b ttho 

1ND «r2« ^31 «a"'n"»«i i-'SK Vh .inn 

.riT'B'i'n^ -"ija inKix nn ^13D3 (t i'«') «ip 

: U D-'JIfl m-iB ^DB' ^n 



••Bran pns pJ2i:; r« 

n-inn nam niop sti*" mn ^"^dh (3"?) 
n^ nsD H^ y'K K31U ma Hpi s^n^ mm 
Y'-:sn «J« n""^ new .myia i^^Ji (3 D'Snn) id 
«T'T '-n r\>^p aTi"' mn n-ioT "•m .K:n:D 
^33 (T '^ra) <7"n .xn-.u ms .T,m n-'nn 



67 



npys t^jj 



TD 



that Hannah remarked unto Eli, "Thou art 
not Judge in this matter nor does the Holy 
spirit rest upon thee, if thou suspect me of 
Buch a thing." Others say that Hannah spoke 
thus unto Eli : "Thou art not a Judge in this 
matter. Are there not then the Shechina and 
the Holy Spirit with thee, that thou judgeth 
me as guilty and not innocent?" Dost thou 
not know that I am a woman of a sorrowful 
spirit but neither wine nor strong drinh have 
I drunl-? (lb.) ''We infer from this," said 
R. Elazar, "that if a man is wrongly accused 
of anything he ought to inform his accuser 
of it." Esteem not thy handmaid as a worth- 
less woman (lb.) R. Elazar said, "We infer 
from this that a drunkard who prays, is as if 
he were worshipping idols; here is written 
BeUya'al (worthless) — as a worthless wo- 
man; and it is also written there (Deu. 13, 
14.) There have gone forth men, children of 
worthless {BeUya'al), just as in the later in- 
stance it refers to idolatry, so also does it 
refer to idolatry here." Then Eli answered 
and said: 'Go in peace.' (lb.) We infer from 
this," said R. Elazar, "that he who wrongly 
accuses his friend must ^ 'ease him and 
moreover must bless hip- -or it is said (lb. 
ib.) And may the G of Israel grant thy 
request." 

(Fol. 32a) And the Lord spoke unto 

Moses, Go, get thee down! (Ex. 32, 7.) 

WTiat is meant by get thee down? R. Elazar 

said: "The Holy One, praised be He! said 

unto Moses, 'Come step down from your 

greatness, for would then greatness have been 

given to thee if not for Israel's sake? And 

now since Israel has sinned, there is no 

greatness for thee.' Hearing these words, 

Moses instantly became so weak that he 

lacked the strength to speak. But when Moseg 

heard God's further utterance (Deu. 9, 14.) 

Leave me unto myself and I will destroy 

them, '0' remarked he to himself, 'it looks 

as if this depends on me.' Wliereupon, ho 

immediately began to pray, asking mercy 

for Israel."" It is similar to the parable of the 

king who was beating his son: the king's 

friend was sitting and observing it, being 

afraid to mediate and rescue the son: but 

as soon as he heard the king's remark. "Were 

it not for mv friend who is sitting here T 

would kill you," he said to himself, ''This 

depends on me" : whereupon he immediately 

arose and rescued the son. 

R. Simlai expounded: "A man should 
always arrange the praises of the Holy One, 



W? noKm n:n lym (qb*) .inoin^ ins 
13 tDi'' "•an «D^n^si «^:jj noK i:nN 
nr nmn nn« ]n« «^ n"»^ n-iD« Kr:n 
"^iimn nriKc •y'?]} nTiC tyTipn nn «7i 

p: cmpn nm hj-'sb' «d^k «^ .nns ]n« 

nDtri ^•'M .■'d:« nn ncp ntrsT npT k^ 

]«3D -iTj?^« ••m -iD« ^y>^3 nn ^js^ inos 

no 131pQ '75;"'^3 ^J3 D'la'JK !«:£•' (^' B'"'="') 

.D12D1D muy ]H2 qs 0^3213 muj? ^^n'7 

iD''"'s'7 Ti^'^ ""^ r'^^ i^"^^ n''3ni nti'in^ 
(K K"ty) nD«Jtt> ona^ Ti^^ ^^** "^"'1^ '^^'' 

(2'r niDB') .Ti 1^ ntt'o ^« 'n nnTii C:^^ ii) 

n^n: 1^ Tin: m^s -in^nja ti nc-D 
isan ^Kity^i:' Vtt'sy 'bKnty 'ji^trn «'?« 
13 n>n «'7i nca ^ty ina tycn t^d •••^ nc^ 
■':oD cinn (•- o'^^i) ^"sty ^''3 nsn^ n3 
TO ."'3 ""i^n nt 131 nc'D ids DTotyxi 
.nn-'^j; Q^om tt'p3i n^sn3 prnnji noy 
n3o in3t3 n-'m 1:3 ^y Dpty i"3 i^a^ ^co 
«-i^ni3 n-'m i'^js^ 3tyi'' i3niK ^^^^ n'bnj 
^3niS i:i'7S «^D^« "lOKK' ^--D .i^''xn'7 

'<3 ''i^n nt n3n nD« -Triann ••33^ 31^%! 
: i^i:{m nay to 



G6 



n 1 2 1 2 



ID 



Puni-Xahara to tlio place called "Between 
the Palm'' in Babylonia. When they reached 
that place the latter said to the former: 
"Is it true, master, what people say that these 
palmtices of Babylonia date from the days 
of Adam, the first man ?" "Thou rccallest to 
my mind," answered R. Cahaua, "what R. 
Jose, the son of R. Chanina said: 'What is 
meant by the passage (Jer. 2, 6.) Through 
a land through which no man had passed and 
where no man had dwelt. Since no man has 
passed through it, how is it possible for any 
man to have dwelt in it ? It means to teach 
us that whatever land Adam, the first man, 
decreed should become inhabited did indeed 
become inhabited ; but whatever land Adam, 
the first man, decreed shall not become in- 
habited, remained uninhabited.' '' 

Our Rabbis taught: He who prays shall 
direct his heart to Heaven. Abba Saul savs: 
"We find a hint to this (Ps. 10, 17.) Thou 
wilt strengthen their hearts. Thou wilt cause 
thy ear to listen."^ 

We are taught that R. Juda says : "This 
was the custom of R. Akiba when he prayed 
with the community; he used to shorten his 
prayer in order to keep up with the assembly, 
60 as not to trouble the assembly [to wait for 
him.]. But when he prayed privately, if one 
left him [praying] in one corner when he 
started, he would be found [at the comple- 
tion of his prayer] in the next corner, be- 
cause of his bomng and kneeling [during 
his prayer]." 

R. Hamnuna said: "How many impor- 
tant laws can we learn from the incident of 
Hannah? Noio as for Hannah, she spol-e in 
her heart (I Sam. 1, 13). We infer from 
this that one who prays must concentrate 
his attention. Only her lips moved (lb.) ; 
we infer from this that he who prays must 
speak with his lips [thinking does not suf- 
fice]. But her voice could not be heard (lb.) ; 
we infer from this that he who prays must 
not raise his voice loudly. Wherefore Eli 
regarded her as a. drunlcen woman (lb.) ; 
we infer from this that it is unlawful for 
a drunkard to pray." And Eli said unto 
her, ITou) long, wilt thou he drunkf 
(Tb.) "We infer from this, said R. Ela^ar, 
"that if one notice (lb. b.) an unbecoming 
thing in a friend it is one's duty to repri- 
mand him." Hannah answered, and said: 
'No, my Lord.' (lb.) UHa. and according to 
some R. Jose, the son of R. Chanina, said 



'3 IJ! «"in: DIDO ^C'K -12 •'D^tT 2-\'? Hiil^H 

"•Dii ■»3-i nD«i «rjn 'is ••dt' la-n «n'7'«D 
nay k? ncs jnxa (= "'ot) T'd wjn '12 
Kb^ nn«D •'31 .Dty mn 2^1 k^i c^k ni 
nuty pK ^3 -p -\n^'? k^s 3ii"> ynn 13^; 
p« ^31 n3c^n: 3"itt''«^ ps'Knn dik n">7y 
K^ 2W'? ^itt'wnn niH n'«^; nrj h'?^ 

{■> D>snn) inn^ p-'D nniK '71x15' «3« .cuty^ 
i3n -IDS s-iiD ."jjTN 3''typn D3^ |i3n 
^^^K'3 K3"'pjj '^ b^ ijn:D ^^^ -js min> 
"•jso n^iyi nspn nM m3sn cy ^^sno 
iD!£y p3'7 ir3 ^7BnD .TnB'31 ni3x mm 
^31 .mn« n''iT3 ikxio n n"''iT3 in-^jo dik 
3n -ittK •m-'innti'm myn3 ""jEja no^ -[3 
yctt'a^ K3^« «mn3; wnaSn nD3 wudh 
m3in «"'n njm (« «'V) njm •<n-\p 'na 
.i3'7 pi3''B' 7-1X ^^sno^ IN3a 1-13^ ^y 
linrnty ^^EDD^ ]N3n myj htibb' pn 
niDKti' ]S3D yotr^ «^ n^ipi .iTisti'a 
mirt:'^ ""^y n3ts'nM .in^Bn3 I'bip ni3jn'7 
-usK-ii (o») .^^snn^ TDK m3B'nt:' |K3d 
nry^x 'n noK inancn ^no ny -"^y .t'^k 



s) WA«n rte A?orf ij jfr^nfflhun^d [by ttteirtlon], «»fn r»o« «rf7« cowe thy ear to liiten 



69 



apj?' PI? 



fiD 



the heart sick. What is its zemedy ? Let him 

study the Torah, for close to it is said But 
'O tree of life is a desire which is fulfilled; 
By a tree of life is meant nothing else but 
-the Torah, for it is said (lb. 3, 18.) A tree 
of life is she {the Torah) to those who lay 
hold on h er." This is not difficult to explain ; 
the latter deals with staying long in prayer 
and speculating on it, and the former deals 
with one who stays long in prayer but does 
not speculate on it. 

E. Chama b. Chanina said, "Although a 
man sees that his prayers are not answered, 
let him continue to pray; for it is said (Ps. 
27, 14.) Wait on the Lord; be strong and let 
thy heart he of good courage; wait, I say, 
on the Lord." 

Our Rabbis taught : "Four things require 
fortitude in their observance: The Torah, 
good deeds, prayer, and social duties." The 
Torah and good deeds, whence do we know ? 
It is said (Jos. 1, 7.) Be thou strong and 
firm that thou niayest observe to fulfill all 
the Torah; Be strong, refers to the Torah, 
And firm, refers to good deeds. Whence do we 
infer that prayer needs fortitude? It is 
said (Ps. 27, 14.) Wait on the Lord, be 
strong and He shall make thy heart firm; 
wait, I say, upon the Lord. 'VThence do we 
know that social duties require fortitude? 
It is said (II. Sam 10, 12.) Be strong and let 
■us strengthen ourselves for our people and for 
the cities of our God. 

E. Elazar said: "Fasting is even more 
meritorious than charity for the former is 
performed with the body and the latter is 
performed only with money." 

Eaba never ordered a fast on a cloudy 
day; for it is said (Lam. 3, 44.) Thou hast 
covered thyself with a cloud that no prayer 
may pass through. 

And Zion said, the Lord hath forsaJcen 
and forgotten me. (Is. 49, 14.) Is not for- 
saken and forgotten the same thing? Eesh 
Lakish said: "The Congregation of Israel 
pleaded before the Holy One, praised be He ? 
saying: 'Sovereign of the universe! Even a 
man who marries a second wife still bears 
in his mind the merits of the first, but Thou 
Lord has forgotten me!' 'My daughter/ 
replied The Holy One, blessed be He! 1 
have created twelve stations in the heavens, 
and for each station I have created thirty 
legions [of stars], each legion contains thirty 
routes, each route thirty cohorts, each 
cohort has thirty camps and in each camp 



-lOKJiy m*na p'cyi nTi^pn •'sn 2'? n7nD 
«?K D''"'n j'j) j-ixi n«n n-.xn n-'-'n }*yi (as*) 

n3 xon ^2-\ nD« .na ]">'» «7i ^ixot 
-nini n:ya k'7i b'^snnvy m« run ds sji^n 
f DXM ptn 'n ^K mp (f= o''''in) 'Kac* ^^sn^i 
pirn r^^rs 't pan ^:n .'n ^s mpi i^i 
-j-iTi n^sn cmt: D-'tt-ym mm in i^« 
-,DK:ty ]''Jo n^3iD C'^ym nmn .p« 
mtyy^i moti'^ n«o \'^i<^ ptn pi (»» w^r^^) 
d''bt;d3 fCKi mina prn rmnn '723 
prn 'n ^« mp nowi:' ]"':d n^sn -cniD 
pjo PK im .'n ^« mpi 13^ y^^'^ 
:'^:^ ijoy np prnnji ptn C ="») nDWB> 
]D -in-i-' n-'Jjjn n^nj «"n idk (="j') 
S2-I .1311203 nn 1S1J3 nt oyts no nprsn 
nDS^tt* DiB'D k3"'j;t KDT'a Kn"«3yn nra «^ 

•«:n3tt' 'm 'n iJiTy IT'S nnsm («» <""»«") 
n-i»s y'n low .nniDtr irM nmry ir-rt 
ciK D'i'iy ^tt' 13131 n"3pn •'33^ ^snt?'' ddjd 
ncyo iDin njWKi inB'w ^y ni^K Ht^iJ 
ntt'x nDBTin /ansc'i ••jnnty nns n:itr«-in 
m^Tts nntry cno' tis n"3pn n^ noK n^iy 
1^ ^nxni '7TD1 ^TD '?D ^yi y^pis ^n«i2 
cty^tr -1^ TiKna ^•<m ^""n '73 ^yi ^"n cty^'J 

T? ^nsii rtsn-n pom ^3 ^1 -rtam 

^n«n3 punpT poip ^3 ^yi -P^""? ^''^'^'^ 
HViDii Knnoa ^3 ^yi -xinDj D^tp^» iV 



68 



r, • 2 -\ 2 



no 



praised be He! and then pray for what he 
needs. Whence do we derive this? From 
Moses; for it is written (Deu. 3, 23.) And 
I besought the Lord at that time. And it is 
written also (lb.) Thou hast begun lo show 
Thy servant thy greatness, and Thy mighty 
hand; for what God is there in the hcaieiis 
or on earth that can do aright like Thy works, 
and like Thy mighty deeds? And following 
this it is \vritten Let me go over, I pray Thee, 
ihat I may see the good land, etc." 

(lb. b) R. Elazar said: "Great is prayer, 
even more than good deeds; for there is none 
bigger in the performance of good deeds 
than our teacher Moses, still he was answered 
through prayers only; as it is said (lb. ib. 
26.) Let it suffice thee; do not continue to 
speak unto me any more of this matter; 
Immediately following it is said Get thee up 
unto the fop of Pisgah." R. Elazar also said: 
"Prayer is even more efficacious than sacri- 
fice; "for it is said (Is. 1, 11.) For what 
serveth me the multitude of your sacrifice? 
Saith the Lord, and it is written further. 
And when you spread your hands, I shall 
withdraw my eyes from you." R^ Elazar 
also said: "Since the day of the destruction 
of the Temple, the gates of prayer were locked 
up, as it i? said (Lam. 3, 8.) Also when I 
cry aloud and make entreaty, He shutteth 
out my prayer; and even though the towers 
of prayer were locked up still the towers of 
tears are not locked, as it is said (Ps. 39, 
13.) Hear my prayer, Lord, and give ear 
unto my cry; at my tears Thou wilt surely not 
be silent." 

Further said R. Elazar: "Since the day 
of the destruction of the Temple, an iron 
wall separates Israel and the Heavenly 
Father, as it is said (Ezek. 4,, 3.) Moreover 
take thou unto thyself an iron pan and set 
it up as a wall between thee and the city." 

R. Channin in the name of R. Chanina 
said: "He who prolongs in prayer will not 
return void (his prayers unfulfilled). 
Whence do we infer this ? From our teacher 
Moses, for it is said (Deu. 9, 18.) And I 
threw myself down before the Lord; and it 
is further written And the Lord hearkened 
unto me also at that time." Is this so? Behold 
E. Chiya b. Abba in the name of R. Jocha- 
nan said : "Whoever prolongs in prayer and 
speculates on it (expecting its fulfillment as 
a reward for making it long) will, at the end, 
come to a heart sickness; for it is said (Pr. 
13, 12.) Long deferred expectation maketh 



nt^DD p WD .77SiT' 3"n«i n"2ptr[ '7ty 
«\nn nyn 'n ^s pnn«i (^ o'^n) aTiri 
Tny, nm^T mrnn nnx c\n:K 'n STin 
naicn pKn n« nsn«"i w mays nnna 
nni'' n^an n^n: "itv^« ■!"« (="») -noui 
C'siQ D'cjJDS rm y i^«a' csiu D"'tt*j?t:D 
K7S njy: n? p s"yK iran nt'cn nm^ 

n'?'n: nry^x lan nasi .n:Dsn tysT n'by 
(K n'l's") nDsjty mjmpn p imi n^sn 
.cr^BD nrtnE2T sinsi cr^n^t an ''? no'? 
cipan n"«a sine nro ivpn ""sn idxi 
^3 C2 (J Ji='K) "iDwty n')Bn ^nytr i^yy 
i-iytt'tt^ s"y«'! ^n'7sn cnty yiB'Ki pyt« 
i'tvij «^ nyoT •<'iy^ ^'?y:: n^sn 
s-iVim 'n Ti^sn nycB' (e^ D'Sin) nowty 
">Dn iDSi .lynnn ^« TiyoT ^s r\:vi<r[ 
ncn npDs: p"Dn"'a annt? ui^q nty^K 
-iDwiy D-'Dtync cni^N^ '7«iB'' ^-la ^na 
^TiD nano -p np ms p nnsi (t ^»<pm') 
-i"« .T^'n ]i3i ^ra ^na n"«p nrnw nnii 
pK ■,n'7£na T'lran ^3 wjn ^n now pan 
u^ai ncTDD 17 «:o opn mnn in^sn 
STiri 'n ^« ^^fin«i (b b'i:i) ncwiy 
"•rN .«^^^ cysa dj ^^« 'n yoB>^i nnna 
pm^ ^an ncK N2« na x^-'n 't ick khi 
"•T^ M3 t|"iD na i^jjDi •,n'7Bn3 y-iHon ^3 



71 



apj,'^ ry 



«y 



much more need I then to be careful when 
standing before the supreme King of kings, 
the Hoi}' One, praised be He! who liveth 
and endureth forever to all eternity!" The 
prince became appeased and the pious man 
went peacefully home. 

Our Eabbis taught: Once in a certain 
place, a wild ass used to injure the people; 
so they came and informed R. Chanina b. 
Dosa. "Show me the cave where the animal 
is hidden," said he to them. Whereupon they 
went and showed him. He then placed the 
sole of his foot on the hole, and when the 
animal came forth he hit it and the animal 
fell dead. E. Chanina then took it on his 
shoulder and brought it to the academy, say- 
ing to them : "My sons, see it is not the wild 
ass that kills, but sin kills." They then all 
exclaimed, "Woe unto the man who is met 
by a wild ass, but woe unto the wild ass when 
it meets E. Chanina b. Dosa," 

R. Ami said, ''Great is knowledge, for it is 
the first benediction in the week day's praj'er." 

Further said R. Ami, "Great is knowledge 
for it is placed between two Divine names, as 
it is said (I. Sam. 2, 3.) A God of knowledge 
is the Lord. Mercy is to be denied to him who 
has no knowledge; for it is said (Is. 27, 11.) 
They are a people of no understanding , there- 
fore he that mal-eth them will not have 
mercy on them." E. Elazar said: "Great is 
the Temple for it is placed between two 
Divine names, as it is written (Ex. 15, 17.) 
Thou hast wrought for Thee to dwell in, 
Lord, the sanctuary, Lord!" 

E. Elazar also said : "Every man who 
possesses knowledge is considered worthy to 
cause the Temple to be built in his days, for 
knowledge is placed between two Divine 
names, and the Temple is placed between 
two Divine names." He was questioned by 
R. Acha of Karchina: "According to your 
opinion, retaliation must also be of great 
value, for it is written (Ps. 94, 1.) God of 
vengeance, Lord!" "Yea," he replied, "when 
necessary it is of course of great value," 
and thus is meant by the saying of Ulla, 
"Why is the word vengeance repeated? 
God of vengeance. Lord! God of ven- 
geance! One for a good purpose and one for 
a bad piirpose ; for good, as it is written 
(Deu. 33, 2.) He shone forth from Mt. 
Paran ; for bad, as it is written (Ps. 04, 1.) 
God of vengeance, Lord! God of ven- 
geance, shine forth!" 

"T) ^Tfonrti aectlrra at tha Elg?it»«» B«s<dlca'o«iB. 



(i:"vv m<i5p) .ti^'?v'? •in-'D^ lion im« "iti3:i 
iT'm nny u n^ntr nn« mpDi ntyyo ■i"n 
«ji:n ■'sn^ •.^''Tini i«s .mnin n« pno 
iD^n ,iTin ns- •'j-sin on^ nox ,Kon \2 
irtyji KX"" inns ^jj upj? n^jm n-,n i.TKim 
n^n'7 iD''''7im is^na ^j; i^uj .nnj? inis noi 
niDD nny psu' i«n ^n cn^ new ly-non 

njn:ty nj?T n'i'ra ^d« n"Ki .'rin '?v niDin 
'n myi '?« ^r (= «"«•) lasrj nrms Tit:' pa 
newts' v'?v cni^ mos nyi i3 psc ^d ^di 
«^ p ^y «in mri cy «^ -"D (»= n';)B") 
tynpo ^nj nry^x 'n idki .intr'iy liDm-* 
n'jys (vj niDS') noKity mTiis ^na' pn jn*":!? 
13 tyia* ms ^3 nry^s 't "idki .'n a'lpD 'n 
n:n^i nyi .vaia p"Dn3 nj3J i^-ixs nyi 
\-itt* ;''3 ]n^j li'ipon n"<3 .niTiis ""nc p3 
«^s n«rn-ip «ns 3n n^ rppno .niTii^ 
niTiis •«nu' p3 n^njc nap: n'i'na nnya 
]'»« n^b ni2« /n mopj ■i'S (^s d'Stti) a^nrn 
Kr.y ne«T ui%ni •s-'n n^n: n.T'o nn^^C3 
.nyn^ nnxi nsia^ nns .na^ i^^n map: \-iu' 
,ps3 -ina ySiH (j^ ='i;i) n-rirns n3ia^ 
^« 'n niap3 ^'X 0» n'-^w) 3>n3i nyn^ 
: yam rr.apj 



70 



n 1 3 1 3 



has been suspended three hundred and siity- 
iive thousand myriads of stars, equal to the 
number of days in tlie year ; all these have I 
created for thy sake, and yet thou sayest 
thou art forsaken and forgotten.' Can a wom- 
an forget the suckling child so that she 
shall mot have compasnon on the son of her 
womb? (lb. ib.) The Holy One, praised be 
He ! said : "Can I then forget the burnt offer- 
ing of the rams and of the first-born which 
thou hast offered me, while you were in the 
desert?' Then again [the congregation of 
Israel] pleaded before the Holy One, praised 
be He! 'Sovereign of the universe! Since 
there is no forgetfulness before the throne 
of Thy Divine Majesty, then Thou mayest 
also not forget the incident of the golden 
calf?' The Lord said: 'This can also be for- 
gotten.' (Ib.) Again she pleaded saying: 
'Sovereign of the universe ! Since there is 
forgetfulness before Thy exalted throne, then 
Thou mayest forget the Sinai affair, also?' 
'Yet would I not forget thee,' (Ib.) replied 
the Lord." Thus we understand what R. Ela- 
zar, in the name of R. Oshia said : "This also 
can be forgotten (Ib.) refers to the golden 
calf; And yet would I not forget thee, refers 
to the Sinai event." 

Our Rabbis taught: Once a pious man, 
■while praying on the road, was met by a 
prince who saluted him, saying "Peace to 
you!" But the pious man did not respond. 
The prince waited till the end of his prayer. 
After he had finished his prayer, the prince 
said to him: "Good for nothing! behold! it 
is written in your Torah (Deu. 4, 9.) Onhj 
take heed to thyself, and guard thy soul 
diligently. It is also written (Ib. ib. 15.) 
Take ye therefore, good heed of your souls. 
When I saluted thee, why didst thou not 
answer me? If I had cut off thy head with 
a sword, who would be able to demand thy 
blood from my hand?" "Wait," the pious 
man said to him, ''until I shall appease thee 
with a few words. If thou hadst been standiufj 
before a mortal king and one had saluted 
thee (Fol. 33a), wouldst thou have answered 
him?" "Nay," the prince replied. "And if 
thon hadst "done so. what would [the king] 
have done unto thee?" "He would surely 
order my head to be cut off with a sword." 
replied the prince. The pious man then said 
vmto him; "Behold now! If this is what 
you would have done if thon hadst stood 
lefore a morf al b"ng, who is with us here to- 
day and may b 3 in. his grave to-monow, how 



K^ ]'?^2\ ncnn n:2'' i::2 caDiD «ut 
^:n3ty moK n«i -p'^^v;^ s^s ■>n«na 

noai c">7"'N n:7';j? hdck c".73 ri"2pn 
v:b^ n-iDK .13102 •'JD^ nnipnij' Diom 

(D-) n? "ins .7jyn ^*jyD •>? n3*iTi «'? «Diy 
^"i«in 3;"c*3n vjs'? mns .njn3*^n n^« dj 

.-in3C*N K7 TJSI (Da-) n'? IDN .'«:"'D HtryD 

"•«o NiyciK -i"K nry^K '•m idst la^ni 

: ^ro nsyyO nt ^^3^yN «7 ^3iK1 

Ttnn s^i Di^ty i^ \r\i\ nns ]iDjn nsi i"n3 

2^13 K'7m Npn 1^ nas inTsn cidc^ 
"Itt's: niDiyi -p noirn pi (t o'l^i) osmina 
.D3"'n",tys:^ i«d cmocji (pv) 2in3"i .ikd 
Di'i'B' I'? mrnn «^ no^ di^c i^ ^nnJB>3 
y3";n n\n ia cj^ds ^cs-i ■jmn Ti'^Ti □« 
-c'Esu' ly 17 jTian ",7 ids -n^o pT n» 
nar; n^n V's ^a >JS7 i7''s y's .cnsia 
T'mn (j? "n) n"«M m^B' T? \nl^ ins wai 
na ";^ -ivna n^n csi ."i«^ ib nas .c',7ty 1^ 
.r;'«D3 ^rKi ns |^3n"n vn '7"s --i? C'^'iy vn 
niinty nriN na laim ^p cnsT «'7m y'K 

13p3 -inai ]K3 DT»nt5' 1"! ■j'i'D ^JD^ iD-iy 

D^3^an ^3^0 "pQ '>:s>'? laiy ^n^na' '•jk ^^ 

D-iD^'.y ^a^iy'71 iy^ n^^pi ••n s"n'r n"apfT 



73 



2PV' ]'V 



scended before the ark in the presence of H. 
Eliezer and made his prayer short ; the other 
disciples said to 1\. Eiiezer: "See how brief 
he is !" "Is he then briefer than Moses, our 
teacher," replied R. Eliezer, "as written 
(Num. 12. 13.) God, do Thou heal her, I 
beseech Thee." R. Jacob said in the name of 
E. Chisda: "Whoever prays for his friend 
need not mention the friend's name, as it ia 
said (lb.) God! do Thou heal her, I he- 
seech Thee, and he did not mention Miriam's 
name." 

Our Eabbis taught : "These are the bless- 
ings [of the Eighteen Benedictions] during 
the recital of which a man should bow; the 
blessing of the Ancestors (the first one, or 
Aboth), at its beginning and its end; the 
blessing of Acknowledgment, (one before the 
last, or Modim), at its beginning and at its 
end; if one desire to bow at the end and u.e 
beginning of each and every blessing, he is 
to be taught not to do so." 

(lb. b) (Mishnah) It was related of 
R. Chanina b. Dosa that he was wont to pray 
for the sick and predict, "This one shall 
live, this one shall die." Whereupon the 
Rabbis once asked of him: "How do you 
know it?" "I notice," he answered, "when 
I pray; if the prayer flows readily from my 
tongue, I know that it is accepted; but if 
not I know that it is torn." ' 

(Gemara) WTience do -we learn this? 
E. Joshua b. Levi said: "The text reads 
(Is. 57, 19.) Creating the fruit of the lips, 
peace, peace to him, that is afar off, and to 
him that is near, saith the Lord; and I will 
heal him? 

R. Chiya b. Abba in the name of R. Jo- 
chanan said: "All that the prophets 
prophesied [concerning future glory] was 
only for a repentant sinner, but as for the 
perfectly righteous the glory will be No eye 
has seen, God, beside Thee! (Is. 6-1, 3)." 
And this is in contradiction of what R. Abuhu 
said : "WTiere the repentant sinners stand the 
perfectly righteous are not permitted to stand, 
for it is said (lb. 57, 19.) Peace, peace unto 
him that is afar off, and to him that is near. 
First to him who is afar off (repentant) 
and then to him who is near (righteous 
from the verv beginning)." But R. Jochanan 
said: "What is meant by .4 far off ? He who 
was far from the 'very beginning* of a trans- 



in (n> nanoa) ni3 aTlDT M'^l'i nii'DD nm^ 
: n'i' «J KB1 «3 

-idn:!^ IDS' TDin^ ^ns irs nan ^y D^cm 
none «p K^i n^ «: «£n «: '?« (I'l^Tsa) 

.cHi nmiy msty mans i^« psi un 
D«i .t\^D^ n^nn n«iina ,riiDi n?nn nuKS 
^3 n'i'nnai nDnm nana ^a q-.Da m^'? na 
rnnw-' «'7tt' im« pno^D nanai nana 
\2 «3'':n ^an 'ry Ti'i'y ino« niiyo (?"v) 
"in nt noisi D'<^inn 'bj? ^'^sriD n'^nu kdh 
D« Dn^ noN •vni'' nriN p:D i^ inDN .na nn 
c«i ^aipD Hintt' 1JS yiT" ■'sa ^n^an nnuty 
:cin"mo .sine ""jk vm^ ik^ 
]a yirin"* ""an nos .^'7''d ^:n njd snoj 
D^nsty a^: «ma (" nijfB") «np ncK m^ 
:T<nK£5ni 'n nos ainp^i pinn^ d\'?v di^{? 
jjnv ""an noK «3« na H^n un noK 
i^ya^ K^« iNa:nj k^ c^ia D''«'<ajn 'ba 

]ij; (no ri>yB") D"'moa cpns '73« naiBTl 

ina« 'm «:i^si ."in^iT D\n7K nnwn «7 
DnD'.y naityn ^'7jjatt' oipoa maw 'n noKn 
(»: av) nc«:t:' i-'imy cmca cp-^ns r« 
nnm ka'-'na pinn^ anp'bi pinn^ di^b' di^b' 
n-insy pmn •"«a i^ nos pm^ •'am .anp^ 
n^nc amp ^«n 



.._ .. . » .v» .i„v „.,- mM,nln« lie trlU die; and McoMIng to (ythera, 

7) According to some "Tom" refers to the sick on«, meaning 
refers to the prayer, i. e.. not accepted. 

«) Borel, means "creaUng" also "strong. Hence liij 



snp'yo nmayo pirn 

'Torn." 

trong are the fruit of the lips, [then it Is] peace to him. 



72 



n 1 3 1 2 



S9 



(lb. b) A certain disciple prayed in the 
presence of R. Chanina, saying: "O God, who 
art Great, Mighty, Formidable, Magnificent, 
Strong, Terrible, Valiant, Powerful, Real 
and Honored."' K. Clianina waited until he 
finished and then said to him: "Hast thou 
really finished all the praises of thy Master? 
Why do you enumerate so many? Behold! 
these tliree names (Great, Mighty and For- 
midable, which we use in the Eighteen Bene- 
dictions), we would not dare to utter, had 
not Moses, our teacher, pronounced them in 
the Torah (Deu. 10, 17.), and had not the 
men of the Great Synagogues ordained [the 
mention of these attributive names] in the 
prayer, and thou hast uttered so many words 
of praise and seemeth still inclined to go on ; 
it is like one who complimenteth a king upon 
having a million silver denarim, ' when he 
really possesses a million golden denarim. 
Would not such praise be a disgrace rather 
than an honor?" 

R. Chanina said: "Everything is in the 
hnds of Heaven (under God's control) ex- 
cept fear of Heaven, as is written (Deu. 10., 
12) And now, Israel, what doth the Lord, 
thy God, require of thee, but to fear the 
Lord, thy God." Is fear of God a small mat- 
ter? Behold! R. Chanina in the name of R. 
Simon b. Jochai said: "Nothing is in God's 
storehouse except the treasure of fear of 
Heaven, as it is said (lb.) And now, Israel, 
what doth the Lord, thy God, require of 
thee, hut to fear the Lord, thy God." Aye, 
for one like Moses it was indeed a small mat- 
ter, as R. Chanina said : "It is similar to 
a man who is asked for a large vessel. If 
he has it, it appears small to him, but if he 
has it not, even a small one would look large 
to him." 

(Pol. 34a) Our Rabbis taught: "There 
are three things which are bad if used in 
great quantities ; if used in small quantitica 
however, they are very good. These are: 
leaven, salt and resistance." 

Our Rabbis taught: Once a disciple de- 
scended before the ark" in the presence of 
R. Eliezer and prolonged his prayer. ''See," 
said the other disciples to R. Eliezer, '"how 
long he prays!" "Well," said the Rabbi to 
them, "is he praying longer than our teacher 
Moses, as written (Deu. 9, 25.) The forty 
days and the forty nights that I fell down." 
Again it happened that another disciple de- 

i) A oolB. . . „ . _. 

6) For the expression, "descended. S«© enapter I. 



pD«m TiKm Mium luan ^njn 'tkh 
.n2D:ni i«iim prnn ""iMnNii inosn f>r;m 

n*''? IDS D^^D "tD -D^^DT ly 1^ ^Tion 

<rj np nD7 "tidi '•naa' in^is? ■;nm2"'"»D 
Ti3:n ^n:n) ]:''nDKi n^n ••jn \3H •'KH 
«n"»n-,«3 irm n*i*D njnD«i in? ••« (K-i"i:m 
n'i'Dns inrjpm n'?njn nojD ''tyj« "idki 

.''«n ■'713 n^nnrc* nsi pnos n-n «^ ]jk 

ant •'-iri ps^x cj^k i^ T-m P|D0 •«-i:'«i rs'i'K 
: 1^ Kin "•«:: s^m 

Dit2B> ^T2 'i?Dn (n= n^'JO) KJ"'Jn •'31 1DN 

nnyi (> c''^"') nD«3B' d'»ob' dktd ym 

D« ■'3 "ItSyO '7KW T'"1^« '" "° ''^'^^'' 

KM ^mDiT Kn^a coiy akt" iqk .'iji mn^'? 
i«ni"' ]3 ]iyDB' '^ Dia'D wjn •'ii loxni 
n«T ^tt' nx-iS «^k in:: n*'33 n"3pn^ p« 
.TIS1K K\n 'n nsT i^'' "'jb") nosJB' d^ds^ 
^31 idkt km ^n-iBit Kn'TD ntro "'s:'? ]>« 
iTM '7113 -"^s uon D^s'panir mK^ ^t^o Kr^n 
ncn 1^ r»i PP -FP '''^^=' ^'^J' '"'°" ^^ 

: ^113 "«^33 V^ 

]taiV"«D"i ntt'p ]3n nB>'7B> ]:3n un (i^ i^) 
]J3T i:n .ni:3nci n^n niKr ]n i^ki ns'* 
'n i:s^ ns^nn ••jb^ itc ihk i^o^nn n^D 
TH-'D^n y'K .^'STO ini'' inKo n-im iry'i'K 
^-iKn ci'73 V'K .nr Kin ]31k nn3 irsi 
nK (B °'i2n) n^2 3^n3T 1^31 ntrtio "ini^ 
miy .'121 n'7^^n cyanK hki dim cysnK 
^i£3'7 ns^nn ^is^ iT'i:' nnK Tc^n3 ntrya 
y'K-''KnD ini^ nxpa nMi -iry'TK '•si 

Note 67. 



78 



3py^ \>y 



nj) 



before nor after the hour, but exactly at the 
time you were told that my eon was relieved ; 
at that moment [the sick] asked ua for ft 
drink of water.'' On another occasion it 
happened that when R. Chanina b. Dosa 
went to E. Jochanan b. Zackai to study the 
Torah the son of R. Jochanan b. Zackai 
took sick. The latter then said: "Chanina, 
my son, beseech [the Lord] to have mercy on 
my son that he may live." He placed his head 
between his knees and besought [God] to 
have mercy on his son. Whereupon he got 
well. Then R. Jochanan b. Zackai said: 
"If b. Zackai had kept his head between his 
knees for the whole dav, it would have been 
of no effect." "Why," asked his wife, "is he 
greater than you?" "Nay," replied R. Jocha- 
nan, "but he is likened unto a servant before 
a king [who can enter the king's chamber 
whenever he wishes] ; while I am as a prince 
before the king [who can enter only at cer- 
tain times or by invitation] ." 

R. Chiya b. Abba said in the name of R. 
Jochanan : "A man shall not pray in a house 
where there are no windows, for it is said 
(Dan. 6, 10-11.) Where he had open windows 
in his vpper chamber, he kneeled upon his 
knees in the direction of Jerusalem and 
prayed three times every day." 

R. Cabana said : "I consider him insolent 
who prays in a valley [where people pass 
by]." FSirther said R. Cahana: "I consider 
him insolent who mentions his iniquities 
[while repenting], for it is said (Ps. 33, 1.) 
Eappy is he whose transgression is forgiven, 
whose sin is covered." 

CHAPTER SIX 

(Fol. 35a) How shall the Benediction on 
fruit be said, etc ? Whence do we derive [that 
benedictions are to be said before eating] ? 
Our Rabbis taught: All its fruit be holy for 
praises giving unto the Lord (Lev. 19, 24). 
"We infer that a benediction is to be said 
before and a benediction after [eating]."* 
"From this, said R. Akiba, "we derive that 
it is prohibited to a man to taste anything be- 
fore saying a benediction." 

Our Rabbis taught: "It is prohibited to 
enjoy anything of this world without saving 
a benediction, and he who enjoys [the least 
thing] in this world without saving a bene- 
diction defrauds [the Lord]. What shall his 
remedy be? Let him go to a learned man." 

1) HilluUm (prtlsee) Is Id the plural. Hesce 79 
Va* «ttar rth« me&l. 



KDH p Hrjn ^mi ntryn mm jnnty^ 
^K^r p pm-" \2r\ ^xk n-nn nm^^ ^^^B' 

tfpsi vans ]^D "itrKT n-'jn .nm^ D^om 

tiB^ i:iyD nan Kin wtis ik^ ^"« -iod 
: ^^D^ ^iB^ iiyD non ^3K1 i^dh 

^« ]anv '3-1 noK k3h na «'^n 'n new 

.n'riyn'' iw nni^p m^ ^n^ns ]'oi (i ^»'"), 
.«np33 ''^SDT IKD '^j> ci'^xn K3nD m noH 
niKtan lynsoi ]Ha ""^j? ti'^cn wns an nam 

: n«Dn MDD Jftrs 'IB'J 'IB'K (2^ B»%nn) 'KJty 

K3D '131 niTsn t-y i^snDD ns^a ("^ in) 
'n^ D'^i^n trip (B' xvO vm ^^^ '«jn 
]k:d cn'nn«'7i cn-ije^ nDia pjivct? na'bo 
Di^3 DiytD''5y Dn«^ niDM Ma-ipy ""ai now 

c^iyn p nin-ir Dn«^ iidk jm un 
K^3 nrn D^ij?n p nin:n ^3i nsia K^n mn 
l^t .n"n ^:iK I'?"' n^n:pn 'kd .'7j?d nonn 

Infer tliat two benedictions bt« n«oess»ry, on© before and 



74 



n 1 2 1 3 



W 



gression; and Near to him, means he who was 
'close to a transgression" but turned away 
therefrom.'" Further said K. Chiya b. Abba 
in the name of R. Jochiiuan: "The prophecy 
of all the prophets referred only to the period 
of Messiah, but as for the future world, 
No eye lias wUiic^ssed. God, bcaulc Thee!" 
And this disagrees with Samuel ; for Samuel 
said: "There will be no difference between 
this world and the future one except in the 
subjugation of the Exile, as it is said (Deu. 
15, 11.) For the needy will not cease out of 
thy land." 

Furthe said E. Chiya b. Abba in the name 
of R. Jochanan: "The glorious future of 
which all the prophets prophesied is only 
for him who marries his daughter to a 
Tahnid Chnrham (Scholar), and for him 
who does business with a TaJmid Chacham, 
and for him who bestows of his wealth upon 
a Tahnid Chacham; but as to the scholars 
themselves. No eye has mfnessed, God, be- 
side Thee! happy is he who waits {patiently) 
for it." What is meant by No eye has wit- 
nessed? R. Joshuah b. Levi said : "This refers 
to the wine preserved in its grapes since the 
six days of creation." R. Samuel b. Xach- 
meini said: "This refers to Eden which no 
eye ever saw. And if thou wilt ask, 'Where 
did Adam, the first man live?' It was only 
in the garden [of Eden]. And if thou wilt 
say that 'Garden' and 'Eden' are the same, it 
is therefore said (Gen. 2, 10.) And a river 
went out of Eden to water the garden [which 
shows that] 'Garden' and "^Eden' are two dis- 
tinct places." 

Our Rabbis taught: It happened once, 
that the son of Eabban Gamaliel took sick. 
The latter sent two learned men to R. Chanina 
b. Dosa asking him to beseech [the Lord] 
to have mercy on him. As soon as R. Cha- 
nina saw them coming he went up to the up- 
per chamber and besought [the Lord] to 
have mercy on the sick. Coming down he 
said to the two learned men : "You may go 
home, for the fever has already left him." 
"Art thou a prophet?" they asked him^. 
"■NTeither a prophet, nor the son of a pmphet," 
he answered them, "but I have this tradition. 
If my praver flow readily from my tongue, 
I know that it has been accepted, but if not, 
I know that it ha* been rejected." So they 
Tvrote down the exact hour when he told 
them rtbat the sick man was delivered], and 
when thev came to Rabban Gamaliel, he paid 
to ihem :" "T swear that it happened neither 



«3n c^ij;^ ^-« n-itt'on n-.c^ k^k "iKSina 
t'K'.D'Ji Mi^'i'D'i •in'i'it n-in^M nnsi «'? p'y 
iT.o''^ ntn c^'.yn ps j^k ^Kicty -idkt 
onan) '«:t5> nn'?^ nTi^j nnjJB' «^k n-'con 
nD«i .x^)^r\ anpa iTiaK ^in"> k^ ^o (ia 
n''«"'njn ^d \ir\r> •'3T nox K3n "nn K^^n 's-i 

mnc^i Dsn i^D7n^ K-icDp-iB na-iy^i c^n 
D-iDDn ■«T>D^n ^nK vd3:o nan T>D^n^ 
ntt'j?'> "in^'it D\n^« nnsn «^ py pxy 
yty-iiT ""ST nD« nriK-i «^ j-'j? ^nq .i? ^rno^ 
^D' ntytyD vsjya iDiB-on j" nt i-,^ p 

licmn DiK n"Ki -d^ivd i'»y nnsn k^b' 
y'n py nr p ncKn raci pn n\"i p\n 
.pn n« mpB'n? pyo «xi' nnii (j mtyKia) 

: T.n^ Jiyi T;n^ ]J (K"B'nnB e-'V p"i) nuyn) 

n"n '3 i^ci j"-i ^i? "un i^m n'^yo •i"n 
I'l-'i i-i^y D-icn"! B'p3^ «Dn ji n"T ^x« 
v^y com a'p'^Di .T^y^ n^y cm« nsna' 
-non yn-ibn lasB' is^ cn^ noK inT<i'3 
">3K «"'3J Kt* Dn^ 1DH .nriK «^Dj '>oi 1^ no« 
••aK n^30) ^j^nipo id k^x ^j« x-isj p «^i 
Kinc ""JK yni^ ""sn ^n^cn vrw^v ch (s2« 

y'« :"n ';:{« iMntrDi nyB* nmK -unri tnriDi 
n>n "p K^« nmnn «^i cmon «^ muy.l 



77 



2PV' py 



TV 



gather in thine corn. (lb.) Why is this 
commandment necessar}'? [Would not the 
people do it as a matter of course?] Because, 
it is written (Joshua, 1, 8.) This book of 
Torah shall not depart out of thy mouth. 
One may perhaps say that those words are 
meant literally [that a man must never cease 
studying], therefore it is written Thou shall 
gather in the season, thy corn, thy wine and 
thy oil, conduct yourselves in regard to them 
as is the custom of the world."' This is accord- 
ing to R. Ishmael; but E. Simon b. Jochai 
says: "How is it possible, if a man plows ia 
the plowing season, sows in the sowing season, 
reaps in the harvest season, threshes in the 
threshing season, and winnows when there 
is a wind ? What will become of the Torah ? 
[For there will not remain any time to 
study]. "But said R. Simon b. Jochai, 
"when Israel is doing the will of God then 
their work is done through others, as is said 
(Is. 61, 5.) And strangers shall stand and 
feed your flocks. But when Israel is not per- 
forming the will of God, then their work 
is to be done by themselves, as it is said (Deu. 
11, 14.) And thou shall gather in thy corn 
in season; moreover tlie work of other people 
is done by Israel, as is said (Deu. 28, 48.) 
Thou shall serve thine enemies." Abaye said : 
"Many who conducted themselves according 
to the opinion of R. Ishmael succeeded, but 
many who conducted themselves according 
to the opinion of R. Simon b. Jochai were not 
successful." Raba [being the head of an 
academy] was in the habit of saying to the 
disciples : "I beg of you, do not come before 
me [to the academy] during the days of 
Nisan (in Spring) nor during the days of 
Tishrei (in Fall), in order that you may not 
have any trouble in supporting yourselves 
during the entire year." 

Rabba b. b. Ghana in the name of B. 
Jochanan quotes R. Juda b. Elai: "Come and 
Eee the great difference between the former 
generations and the later ones; the former 
generations made the study of the Torah 
their regular engagement and their vocation 
a temporary profession, and both endured 
\\ith them. But the later generations made 
the study of the Torah their temporary en- 
gagement and their vocation a regular pro- 
fession and neither endured with them." 

(Fol. 40a) R. Juda said in the name of 
Kab: "A person must not eat before he feeds 
his cattle, as it is written (lb. 11, 15.) And 
I will give grass in thy field for thy cattle, 



T,o'7n no 'i:n -jj^ nsDNi -i"n .mpo '?u; 

b"r\ pn^D cnm ^o^ yBQ ntn minn 
inm p« •]-\-[ jn:o cna :n:n -i::t nsD«i 

isipi nyinr nyt^n ymn nt^nn nyiyi a'nn 
nyc'a mm ncn nj?tt'3 cii m^xp nycn 
^NniT'-'ty pn >?^« .n-i^j; Knn no mm min 

lym Dnr nnvi (•*" "'i'«") nawc nnns 
^*^ U1X1 ji'^'ij? ^snc'"' ]"'Nti' jDtm DD:«:f 
nsDS'i noKJc joxy ■•"j; n-'tt'yi iddn^d mpD 
iT'tt'j;: w-inn nDw^ot:' «^n my s^^i -jjjt 
•Ta-'iH nn msyi (-= n^ai) naMia* m-i ^y 
nn^yi ^NyDty« •'ma i^-y nann ^^3k inK 

K^T ir^^rn Kmt2D3 pm^ «3n in^ now 

□itt'Q pm"* im -iD« «jn nn ia nai los 
min i"ia no hnhi k3 ^kj;^k ia nun* 't 
D">:ityKn nnn Dijnn« rrnn^ D':itt'Mn 
nn nt •'xny jnaN^ai yap jnmn icytj' 
jnas^D iryc n"'jnn«n nnn ,dio D-'-'pn; 
: DTin iD''"'pnj «^ nn nt -isny jn-nm ynp 

^SK-'C m«^ T,DN ai nD« ''"-l^? (o «l^) 
(»' Dnn) 'Kj5:> innna'? ^rKO ^n-'C DTip 



n 1 3 1 a 



V 



What can a learned man do for him when he 
alread)- has transprcsscd the prohibition? 
"But," said Eaba, "let him go unto a learned 
man first; study the laws of benedictions 
that he may avoid sacrilege." 

R. Juda said in the name of Samuel : "He 
who enjoys [the least thing] in tiiis world 
without having said a benediction is con- 
sidered as if he had enjoyed something of the 
things dedicated to Heaven,- for it is said 
(Ps. 24, 1.) Unto the Lord belongeth the 
earth and all that fillelh it." 

R. Levi pointed out the following con- 
tradiction: "It is written (lb. ib.) Unto the 
Lord belongeth the earth and all that filleth 
it, and it is also written (Ib. 115, IG.) The 
Heavens are the Heavens of the Lord; but 
Vie earth hath He given to the children of 
man. It is not difficult to reconcile [these two 
verses]. The former refers to the time before 
he pronounced the benediction [it still be- 
longs to Heaven], (Ib. b.) and the latter 
refers to the time after he pronounced the 
benediction [then it belongs to man]." 

R. Chanina b. Papa said: "He who enjoys 
[anything] in this world without saying a 
benediction is considered as if he has robbed 
the Holy One, praised be He! and the Con- 
gregation of Israel, for it is said (Pr. 28, 24.) 
Whoso robbeth his father or his mother and 
saith it is no transgression, he is the compan- 
ion of a destroyer. His father, refers to the 
Holy One, praised be He! as it is said (t)eu. 
32, 6.) Is He not thy father who hath bought 
thee; Or his viother, refers to nothing else 
but the Congregation of Israel., as it is said 
(Pr. 1, 8.) Hear, my son, the instructions of 
your father and cast not aside the teaching of 
your mother." What is meant by He is a com- 
panion of a destroyer? R. Chanina b. Papa 
said: "He is a companion of Jeroboam, the 
Eon of Nebat, who has corrupted Israel in 
their relation to their Heavenly Tathrr." ' 

R. Chanina b. Papa pointed out the fol- 
lowing contradiction: "It is written (Hos. 
2, 11.) And I shall take away my corn in iti 
time. It is also written (Deu. 11, 14.) 2Vint 
thou mayest gather in thy corn and thy wine 
and thy oil. It is not difficult to reconcile 
[these two verses]. The latter refers to the 
time when Israel is doing the will of God, 
and the former refers to the time when Israel 
is not doing the will of God." 

Our Rabbis taught: That thou mayest 

2) Seo T>^. 22. 10. Se'^ also SaahedTln Fol. 83b. 

3) See 1 Kings 12. 25-32. 



crn ^s« •^'7^ «3"i ncs «^k .n'«-nD^K^ 

^•''7 H3' K^tt' no msin •i3id'7^i mp-'yn 

njnj )'7H2 naio «'73 nrn cr.yn ]n r\in:i\ 
y-inn 'n^ (i: D>sin) -iD«j!r c^Dty '•B'npo 
{•nsn 'n^ 3'»no ^oi ■'-.^ ^m .n«i^Di 

'n'7 CDC D-'DCn (1=? ov) 3in31 HKI^OI 

H:^:n •'an icn .nsna ins^ ]ko (:'"iO nana 
nona k^3 nrn c^iyn ]d n:njn ^3 «bb na 
ncKja' '?Knu'* nojai n"3pn'7 ^nj i^w 
nan v^'B ]■«« itsixi idki va« bm (= ''>»a) 
newsy n'apn nr van .nintytt ty^K^ «in 

H^« 10K \''t<\ yp 1^3« Kin K^n (2^ B'lan) 

noin ^J3 yoB' (» '^8«) noKJC' ^sna'' now 
«".n nan 'ko .io« nmn cian ^«i ^^3« 
nnn kss na KJ-^jn ""an nas .n^nca ts^^M^ 
^HnB" n« n^ntfnB' taaj p cyani'j Kin 
: cDtrac Dn^iK^ 

(a yv^n) aina •'Dn B"3 Krjn ••m (2"j?) 
nsDNi (»«' cn;n) 2^^\2^ inya ^3:n ^nnp^i 
ir.xn i-ityiy ^snc^ty ptn jk3 s-ityp k^ .^jjt 
^3Vin i-'ty-.j; ^«nr'' ]^hv pra ]Ka Dipo ^ly 



79 



spy", py 



lay 



ship of these, the signet, the scarf, and the 
staff. A7id Juda acknowledged it and said, 
'She has been more righteous than I.'" 
[Tamar thus preferred to be burnt rather 
than to disclose Juda's name for fear of 
bringing public shame upon him.] 

Our Eabbis taught: "Six things are a 
disgrace to a learned man: He shall not go 
out perfumed; he shall not wear patched 
shoes; he shall not walk alone at night; he 
shall not talk with a woman on the street; 
he shall not sit at the table with ignorant 
men; he shall not enter the synagogue late." 
Some add to this, "He shall not take long 
steps when walking, and he shall not walk 
with a proud unbending gait." He shall 
not go out perfumed. E. Abba, 
the son of R. Chiya b. Abba, in the name of 
E. Jochanan said: "This refers to places 
where immorality prevails." R. Shesheth 
eaid it refers only to his clothes, but not to 
his body, as it is healthful. Regarding the hair 
[as to perfume], E. Papa says it is in the 
same class as clothes; others contend it ia 
part of the body. He shall not wear 
patched shoes. This will support 
the opinion of R. Chiya b. Abba who said 
that it is a disgrace for a scholar to go out 
with patched shoes. Is it really so? Behold ! 
R. Chiya b. Abba himself used to go out with 
patched shoes. Mar Zutra the son of R. 
Nachman said : "This is prohibited only when 
there is a patch upon a patch, then only on 
the leather, not on the sole, and only during 
the summer and in the street; but, during 
the winter or in the house it does not matter. 
He shall not walk alone at night. Because 
of suspicion. He shall not talk with a 
woman on the street. R. Chisda said : 
"This refers even to his own wife." We have 
also a Baraitha to the same effect : "Even to 
his own wife, to his own daughter or to his 
own sister; for not every one is acquainted 
with his family." He shall not enter the syn- 
agogue late; for he may be called lazy; He 
shall not sit at the table with ignorant 
men, for he may adopt their bad man- 
ners. He shall not walk fast, 
because the master said : "Big steps take away 
one five hundredth of the light of a man's 
eye," [and if his eyes suffer] what shall be 
the remedy? Let him drink the cup of 
Habdala,® and he will become well. H e 
Bhall not walk with proud, 
unbending gait., because the master 
«) The usiial prayer wUci Is recited art the explra 



KM (n^ fl'tyK-ii) 'wjty lonn '?":d Ciai3 
nc'K ciM? nas? n^on ^k nn^tr «mi dmsid 
nonnn ^a^ k: nrn na«m -mn ojk i: n7« 
iD«''T mini ij-iT .n^«n ntscm ni^Ticm 

^« .n"n^ 1^ i«j: d^dt nc'a' pai un 

C'''7y3D3 KXI '7N1 px*7 CV\2r2 Xln'^'J «S» 

B^nnn n^a^ njnnNi 0:31 '7ni pica ntrx 
■bx r|« s"'*! ,pNn lay ^ty nm:nn 201 '?n^ 
•neipt naipa ^St" ^«i hdj ny-'cs y^cB'< 

Dipaa pm"" 131 ibk k^h 13 h'^ti "i^n 
h'7 ntyty n"« .-IDT 33D'B '7J? cmiyntt' 
.ni^ «naya nyn isun ^as 11:33 n^« jibk 
ni^ naKT ""Bi n:33 tij?ci «ss -i"« 
D\S7iBan D"'^j;jE3 «si bn .lai ibi:3 

K"n 'I IDNT K3S n3 H'^Tl '-\b H'^ y^^DD 

n''^j!:B3 «s''B' n"n^ Kin ik:j k3K -13 
.p-'sj K3K n3 K"»in ''3n Km "•j-'k ,D"'K^iBBn 
7j? ''K'7a3 pnj 3m nn3 Knair na naK 

^3K KnJB3 K^K pBK K71 .•'S^B "'3;j 
K7K pBK K^ KnJB31 ,n3 J7 n"'7 Nl^^JS 

pas s'71 ,n3 ]'? r\>b Nn''33 '73K Nn-iiK3 
n'^ D-iBsyan nia''3 '73K nann mBi3 k'tk 
.Kwn nicB n^''^3 n-'n'' kx' ^ki .n3 ]'? 
pp ^3k Kjiy n"'^ j;3p k^t k^k pas «^i 
^Ki .^nKp n-'jij;^ yi^ vt^b Kny n^'? 
K^^ '^EK KiDH •!"« pitt'3 ntr-K cy isd-' 
'■•BKi intTK K\n I'i'iBK ■>3n •'Bj '':n .ina-K 
^Dn ^'"KB' ""B^ ininK K^^ ""Bki in3 knt 
n3i-inK3 DJ3' ^Ki .rni3np3 □■^^ps 
3D'' ^Ki .ya'iB n"'^ npT citt'B B"n3^ 
'«3waK'7 TiKn {'nsn ^aj; ^ii- mi3n3 
IB -IBNT no: nVDB V^DE'' ^K1 .in''''-in3 

iiKaa niKB tt'ana ihk n^tau noa njros 
n-'^ mn^ nTiJpn ""Kbi .cik ^ly vj^y 
.nsipr nBip3 I'^n^ ^ki •■'ttisB' "•31 Kcirpa 
i;31k ""ek nEipr nBip3 i^inn ^3 na noKi 

tloQ of the Satbath or festival over a cup of wine. 



78 



n 1 3 ■> 3 



ny 



and it continues And thou shalt eat and be 
satisfied." 

Raba the son of Samuel said in the 
name of K. Chiya: "After every meal eat 
salt, and after every drink, drink water, and 
then Avillst thou not be hurt.'' We are also 
taught that "After every meal eat salt, and 
after every drink, drink water, and then willst 
thou not be hurt.'' Another [Baraitha] 
teaches: "If he ate every kind of food but 
salt, if he drank every kind of drink but 
Tcater, in the day he would worry because 
of an ill odor from his month and at night 
he would worry because of croup." 

Our Eabbis taught: "lie who [drinks so 
much water as to] cause his food to swim, 
will never be disposed to stomach disease." 
How much shall one drink? R. Chisda said: 
"A kiton* for each loaf of bread." 

E. Marl in the name of R. Jochanan said : 
"He who is accustomed to eat lentils once in 
thirty days will keep away sickness, but they 
are not to be eaten every day, because they 
cause a bad odor." F\irther said R. Mari 
in the name of R. Jochanan : "Mustard eaten 
once in thirty days drives out sickness but if 
eaten every day it is apt to affect the heart."* 
E. Chiya, the son of R. Ashi. said in the 
name of Rab : '"He who is used to small fish 
will never be disposed to stomach sickness; 
moreover small fish cause the strengthening 
of the whole body of a man." R. Chamba b. 
Chanina said: "He who is used to black 
cumin will not be disposed to heart trouble." 
The following objection was raised; Eabban 
Simon b. Gamaliel said; "Black cumin is 
one sixtieth of a deadly drug, and he who 
sleeps at the easterly side of his threshing 
floor, his blood is upon his head."^ This is not 
difficult to explain. Rabban Simon b. Gama- 
liel refers to smelling it, but eating it is in- 
deed healthful. 

(Fol. 43b) One more thing said R. Zutra 
h. Tubia in the name of Rab ; others say R. 
Chanan b. Bizna said it in the name of R. 
Simon ; still others say R. Jochanan said it m 
the name of R. Simon b. Jochai : "It is better 
for a man to be thrown into a fiery furnace 
than be the means of bringing another to 
shame in pub''ic. TVe infer this from Ta- 
mar, as is written (Gen. 38, 25.) She sent 
to her father-in-law saying, 'By the man 
who owns these, am I with child.' and she 
said. 'Acknowledge, I pray thee, the owner- 

I» taht fir dr»wlB« w1n« out of tie mixing bo»l 



in« ''27] •'d: k"":*"! .p^v3 nriK ••ki d''d nnc' 
nnc -n^nc 7J nnsi n^D ^ok •\r\7'>2H is 

i3 iDH -p'^ ^'^^ 'P''^^^ "^^ ■'^1 °^° 
nnty K^i ppcD ^3 nnty n^o ^dk k^i ^3«d 
•'iSD n^'^'bai nsn nnn mv nv3 d^d 
ir« CDS "in'7"'2K nspon pm i:n .niDDK 
KiDn an no« .nDsi •c-'yo "'^in n"'^ «3 
pn-1 •'2~i new """ra m "\c« .ntb ^mip 
n-\3DK yr.o D'i"' "7'? nn« D'^triya ^^ann 
ntr'pi mi:'tt d"d s^ Kt3",' ^3 ^aK iniaa 
-iDK ''tt'K ^2 Hiin ■'ai nt3« .«2'''7T Stt-^in'? 
•"^in ''T'7 «2 "ij-'K cjiip 'c^jna ^■':nn 3"i 
]inst3 D''jt2p c^Jia' «7K my «'7i d"j;d 

•D^ 3KD 111^ K3 irK nxp3 ^"i^nn Ki':n na 

nita ^JCD 'DO in« nsp noiK ;"3B'n ^iwo 

K^typ K'? Wins 1D1 inj mTD3 ;ti'\ii sin 

:iD';t:3 sn inns Kn 

3n noK n''3".u ns «ni3-,T -i"«i (-"r -o '•n) 
]iV'Dty "i"K Njrn 13 pn 3i ncs n'? -ntsm 
•'"stt'i ma'tt pm' n"K n'b '•ncKi Kron 

'7'ipiy DIK^ "1^ nM (n'Vino ^''^i p"« ntsiD) 

■nsn ^3B i-'S^^ ^Ki c'Kn ;c33 y^nb -.nxy 

Into ill* •tu>. 



81 



^PV ]'V 



MS 



washing of the hands], they are bound to 
say the after-meal grace in Mezuman (in 
company), etc. 

(Gemara) whence do we infer this? 
E. Assi said: "Scripture says (Ps. 34, 4.) 
Ohj you magnify the Lord ivith me, and let us 
exalt His name together." ^ E. Abuhu said : 
"We infer from this. (Deu. 33, 3.) ^Vhen I 
will proclaim the name of the Lord; ascribe ye 
greatness to our God." 11. Chauan b. Abba 
said: "Whence do we infer that a man shall 
not answer Amen louder than the one that 
says the benedictions ? It is said ( Ps. 34, 4. ) 
Oh, magnify the Lord ivith me, and let us 
exalt His name together." 

E. Simon b. Pazi said : "Whence do we in- 
fer that the it/e</M(rgrema.n (Interpreter) shall 
not raise his voice louder than the reader? 
It is said (Ex. 19, 19.) Moses spoke and God 
answered him with a loud voice; it was not 
necessary to say with a loud voice, and what 
is intimated by sajing a loud voice? Just as 
loud as the voice of Moses." We have also a 
Baraitha to the same effect : "The Methurge- 
man shall not raise his voice louder than the 
reader. If the Methurgeman cannot raise his 
voice equal to that of the reader, then the 
reader should lower his voice [in order that 
the Methurgeman should be heard]." 

(Fol. 4rb) We are taught: Who is [to 
be considered] an Am-Ea'aretz?' "He who 
does not observe the law of levitical clean- 
liness in his food," so says E. Meier. Achei- 
rim say : "He who does not tithe his fruit in 
accordance with the law"; The Samaritans 
practice the latter correctly ; for it is a Bibli- 
cal law ; and the master said, ""Whatever com- 
mand the Samaritans have undertaken to ob- 
serve, they fulfill it more accurately than the 
Israelites." 

Our Eabbis taught: "Who is [to be con- 
sidered] a common man ? He who does not 
read the Sh'm'a, (Hear Israel, etc.), both 
morning and evening," so says E. Eliezer. 
E. Joshua says: "He who does not put on 
Tephilin (phylacteries)." Ben Azai says: 
"He who does not wear Tzitzis (fringes)."' 
E. N'athan says: "He who has no Mezuzah 
on his door post." E. Jonathan b. Joseph 
says: "He who has children and does not 
bring them up in the study of the Torah." 
Acheirim say: "Even if one has studied the 
Bible and the Mishnah, but has failed to be 



un «"ipK 'n aty ■•3 (27 am-) xjna nax 
J1JD xai -ia pjn la-i now .uni^k? 7t,j 
innnn ]d nni"' "Tip niaji N^a- ps n:",>"; 
•;Dtt' nDm-i:i tin 'n? i'?n; (i^ Q'^in) noNj^* 

psc '7ip3 uiy D^n'i'sm naii nco (u' 
^c i^ipn ^ipi y'n no ^ipn nm^ iio^n 
i^p iTD^n^ •'tt'Nn Qj-inDn pK n"jn .ntyn 
.T3jn': n:-ino^ «"n d«i H-wpn p ~inn 
:«-ipii i^ip H-\)pn -i5;o"« «-npn 1:22 i^ip 
ijiKtt' ^2 Y^i^n Dj? irwn Ki:n (2";? m «n) 
cnaiw Diorm a"n i-im mnna ii^in ^oim 

Knim«n a^nsT ixnan nma ntyj^tt "•iv^^y 

na pMnnty nna '73 no nosT in^nr -into 

: '7«nt:'"'D -in';'' na cpipno nann d^\t;3 

v"p H-]^p ij""Kf ^3 insn cj? in?i« i"n 
yci.T' is-i .-iTj?'»'7N •'3-1 •'"13T ni3nyi nnnc 
nniM iNty J3 .p^isn n'':D ;i«t:' ^3 -idi« 
•73 noiK ]n: •<2^ .nj33 n^ifis i'? jisty ^3 
E1D11 p iruT" 13-1 .inns ^y nrno i'? psty 



y'n^ ]^i3» irKi Din 1^ cit? iQ ^3 ioi« 

Is ploiral. Together with th« on.« who speaks to them, they are three. 



80 



1 2 



said, "lie who walks even four cubits with 
a proiia, uiiberKling gait is considered to have 
spumed [with his haughty head] the feet 
of the Slivchinnli j' lor it is written (Is. 
6, 3.) The whole earth is full of His glory." 

(Fol. 44a) When R. Dimi came he told 
a story of a town belonging to King Janai, 
situated upon the royal mound. From that 
city there went forth every week six hun- 
dred thousand cans filled with fish, for 
the laborers who were busy collecting the 
trees there. When Eabin came he said: 
"King Janai has one single tree on the royal 
mound whence once a month they collected 
forty seahs * of young pigeons of three dif- 
ferent breeds." 

When R. Isaac came he told of a town 
named Gufnith in Palestine where there were 
eighty couples of brother priests who married 
eighty couples of sister priestesses and when 
the Rabbis searched in that neighborhood 
between Sura and Nehardea, they were not 
able to find husbands for the daughters of 
R. Chisda. These daughters were finally 
compelled to marry Rami and Ukba the sons 
of Chama although they were not priests. ® 

(lb. h) R. Janai in the name of Rab 
said: "The egg is better than anything that 
equals the size of an egg." When Rabin came 
he said : "A soft-boiled egg is better than six 
ounces of fine flour." When R. Dimi came, 
be said: "A soft- fried egg is better han si.^ 
ounces of flour, a hard fried one [is better] 
than four ounces [of flour], a soft, or hard 
boiled one, if it is as big as an egg, the latter 
ifl better, but not so with meat." 

Our Rabbis taught : "A milt is good 
for the teeth but not for the stomach ; vetch 
is bad for the teeth but is good for the stom- 
ach : all raw vegetables make the face green, 
and all unripe things affect men ; every living 
thing, if eaten alive, strengthens life: every 
part which is near the [source of] life (as 
near the throat) also strengthens life; cab- 
bage is a nourishing food, beetroot is good 
for medicinal use. Woe unto the house where 
turnip enters !'' 

CHAPTER SEVEN. 

(Fol. 45a) When three men [over 
thirteen years of age] dine together 
[on food which requires previous thereto the 



n'l'iT') aTiDi n:''rc'n •'7:t pnn i^^wi mow 

: m33 pKn ^3 K^D (1 

nns "I'^y ics ••nn 2T «n« •'2 (i='n) 
]''K''x-,o rna' i^cn inn -pon iw^ i? n\n 
c^:«n "':{:i"!p^ nnu ^^dd «i3"i D"«tya' njota 
n%n in« p^i^ idx pai sns ^3 .c";;'? ty"v'D 
UDD pi"«T,D rnc i'7on nnn i^cn "»kj">^ i^ 
KDN '»3 .tyina n"0''"i3 ':d m'bna hnd 'o 
'7«nty pwn nriM nn« t^jj -ics pnx> ^an 
ens ni:*,T c^jicty na rnry nc^ n^jsi:i 
nuno nrns n":",T c^jidw'? ps'.r: c"':n3 

13 ^D-i^ ]''2^Dj y,n-! Kicn am n\-i33n la 

nn in:"'KT :"yHi son in «3piy nn^i «an 

: cino Tin m'7 inrK wnjns 

ns^D3 Kinty ^3 3i ids •'n:^ 'n nos 
N3D ins ;''3-i «n« ^3 ,njoo n3';n ns^a 
•'a .snr.c "•c^p sn'^ti'D Nn7J7';:iD wnvs 
«n'7:^'iaD Nnv3 X3u ids ^on 3T sn« 
Mine ^3 .«n'r'^"',3D 'no Nni",ua sn-icD 
.«"iU'3Q 13^ uo\n n3iD ni"i3 nx'»33 

''J3'7 H'^'pi err? ns^ '7'inu p3i un 

trsj ^3-1 i-'Dpc pp '731 pmn ^n pT> ^3 

-nNisn^ ;mn "1 pro^ 2n3 -ciun riK n-'B'o 

:i3',n3 m3",y ns^T:' n"'3t' i^ ••",« 

pr^ ^>3"n in«3 i^3Ktt' nty^B' (™ ^n) 

(•^b D-'rnr) «-ip -iCNl ^0« 31 IDS .D"n3D '131 



7) We ile«^r!be God metaphorically from one of His creations. 

I) A measure. 

e) The stories mentioned here are hyperbolical descriptions. See Introduction. 



83 



2pv^ ]^y 



:)B 



upon he drank the contents of the cup; 
whereupon they gave him another one, with 
wliich he said the grace. H. Abba, the son of 
R. Chiya, said in the name of E. Jochanan, 
that Simon b. Shetach [who said the after- 
meal grace on a cup of wine] did so accord- 
ing to his own opinion only; for thus has B. 
Chiya b. Abba said in the name of E. Jocha- 
nan : "Never can a man recite the after-meal 
grace for others unless he eats a piece of corn- 
bread at least as large as an olive." 

(lb. b) E. Nachman said: "Moses or- 
dained Birchath Hazan (the grace of the 
food),' at the time when the Manna had 
descended for Israel. Joshua ordained Bir- 
chath Ha'aretz (the grace of the land), upon 
entering Palestine. David and Solomon both 
ordained the grace of Bonei Jerusalem (Build 
Jerusalem) : Have mercy upon Israel, Thy 
people; on Jerusalem, Thy city; on Zion, the 
residence of Thy glory, and of the great and 
holy house of David, Thy anointed, was or- 
dained by David; and On the great and holy 
house ivhich is called hy Thy name, was or- 
dained by Solomon, The grace of Hatob Ve- 
hameitib (who hath done good and caused 
goodness), was ordained by the people of 
Jabne, in memory of those killed in Bether, 
for E. Mathna said: "The very day on which 
those killed in Bether were permitted to be 
biuied, the grace of Hafob Vehameitib was 
ordained in Jabne; Hatob (who hath done 
good), for those who were killed caused no 
stench; Vehnmeifib (who caused goodness), 
that they were permitted to be buried." 

Our Eabbis taught : "Whence do we leam 
ihat the after-meal grace is a Biblical law? 
Is is VTltten (Deu. 8, 10.) When thou hast 
eaten and art satisfied, then shall thou bless 
the Lord, thy God. Whence do we learn that 
we must say a grace before we eat? It is 
written (lb. ib.) Which he has given thee, 
i. e., as soon as he gives you, must you say 
the grace." 

E. Meier said : "Whence do we derive that 
as a man blesses God for good tidings, so 
shall he bless God for evil tidings ? It is writ- 
ten (Deu. 8, 11.) Which he hath given thee, 
the Lord, thay God, i. e., He is your judge 
whatever the sentence He decrees upon thee, 
whther it be a good or an evil dispensation." 

(Fol. 51a) R. Jochanan said: "He who 
is careful to recite a grace on a full cup 
of wine, will be given boundless inheritance; 



''2-n nna sn« •'m nnw .-[nm Tinns «d3 

•• ]ii nvs ^jN-ity ny |nmn n'' cann 

^KiB'"'^ cn^ Ipn ntTD j"t ncN (^"v) 
]pn yu'in"' jnn cn^ iTty nyu'n jrn riDia 
nn )-iN'7 iDJDJC ]V2 I'-isn nona an'? 
^y ipTi in D-'^cn'' n:n -jpn no'^ti'i 

aiuiom mun .u'^pn^ ^njn n^an ^y 
m nQ«T in-'n •'jnn n;j3 mjpn nii-is 
rr\^:ip'? -\n>2 '':inn Mn-^iv m^n mis NjriD 
imiDn n'?^ mtan i-'tiom men nn'^s up-ri 
: mnp^ ijrT'Jty D^taoni 

iDMiB' minn p pron na-is'b pjn -i"n 
«^K '>'? ]">« .nsnm nyntri n'73«i (n onai) 

\ni ntrs (n nnm) ^"n nynn ^y ^nan ^s 

ma J''! iJic jn 'ban ij"«'»t yn'-?^ 'n ^^ 

.•riT'jynis mtD |im nniD 

DID 'by Ti3Dn '73 pmi ^m los («j «n) 
onai) -insr^ Dnso N'73 H'bnj 1^ rinu n^d 



6) The after-meal grace consirts of four blessings, the first one Is conceraing tor>d. the second one conoernlag 
Palestine, then comes a prayer beginning Bave mercy, etc. Altar this is the third one Build Jerusalem, mi (toe 
(ourtth oiue Is Who hath done good and caused goodnett, etia. 



82 



3 13 



::d 



in attendance upon scholars (as a disciple), 
lie also is considered an Am Ila'arctz." 

Further said H. Joshua b. Levi: "A man 
shall always come to the synagogue early so 
that he may have an opportunity to be 
counted among the first ten.^ Thous a hun- 
dred men come after the first ten, the first 
ten will be rewarded for all of the others." 
How can you imagine that the first ten 
obtain the reward of all? But say rather 
that the reward of every one of the first ten 
Mill equal the reward of all the others 
together. 

(Fol. 48a) K. Nachman said: "A child 
who understands to whom the benediction is 
offered is persona grata, to be counted among 
the three who appeal to the partakers of a 
meal to say grace after the meal {Mczu- 
man)." Abaye and Rabba, when small, were 
sitting before Rabba. "To whom do you 
pray?" Rabba asked them. "To God," both 
answered.'' "But where is God?" he asked 
them. Raba lifted up his hand and pointed 
towards the ceiling, and Abaye went outside 
and pointed towards Heaven. "Both of 
you," remarked Rabba, "will become Rabbis. 
It is as the people say : 'When the pumpkin 
is still small, you can tell from its blossoms 
how it will turn out.' " 

King Janai and his queen were eating 
together, and since Janai had killed all the 
Rabbis, they had no learned person to recite 
for them the after-meal grace when they had 
finished their meal. "Who can give us a man, 
to recite for us the after-meal grace?'' the 
king asked of his wife. Whereupon she replied, 
"Swear to me, that if I bring thee a man, 
thou wilt not harm him." He swore to her, 
and she brought him Simon b. Shetach, her 
brother. The king gave him a seat between 
himself and his queen, saying: "Behold, how 
much I honor you." '^'hereupon R. Simon 
b. Shetach replied : "Xot thou, but the Torah 
honors me; as it is written (Pr. 4, 8.) Exalt 
her and she shall promote thee; she will 
bring thee to honor, when thou embrareth 
her." King Janai then said unto the queen: 
"See how they (the Pharisees) do not recog- 
nize (royal) authority." Finally he gave R. 
Simon a cup [of wine] with which to recite 
the grace. So R. Simon b. Shetach said: 
"How can T say the grace? Shall T say, 
*BlePPpd is He. because Janai and his asso- 
ciates have eaten of His (food) ?' " There- 



•Y'ii^n cy nt ■'-in c^c^n •'TTS'i'n 
i"zn27 mK CDZ"' D^iy: y'an idki 

D^-a iDty .0^13 -laty tinp innN dins .ikd 

: D^13 -[iiD -\DU 17 D-i^mj NQiK «7N .T'D 

■«D^ yi-NT jcp pnj ■'ai nD« (no »n) 
"•an"" mn «m i"«3« .t>^j; u^:q]q pjino 
TiD« -paiiD -"D^ nm in^ idk nam n"«Dp 
■•inK «m ,3^1^ «3\T Kjomi .Kjom^ .t^ 

.K'^DC "«D'7D """inS S-13'7 pDi ^">2K K'7^Q 'DB'^ 

iji'«n .'niin jm ■i3'''«rnn nan ",.-.'? ick 
.j?''T' iT'BtapD ]ixn psu ^rrx ncKi 

nna Kncn ona Knz'rai «3?d ^Nr 

•"XT '>'? y3nB'''« nv niDX \'? -p^m «"i3a 
vaniys nv myxD «^i tn3;i -p «rn"a 
n^DniK mnK nnty p ]\)}ov^'? htiti^^k .n^ 
Kip'' nD3 vn n-''? noK mn^ nnn po 
'7 nnp-o «p riK in'? n"''? nes •^'b N:Tny 
(T '"jc-o) 3"iri3i '»^ mpim N^n sn^iiN K'bs 
n^ -IDS njpnnn ""D innrn "inoTim h^d^d 
«DD n""^ '•an'' nnn ^'bapn s'7T nvn sp 
■'«:•' '73KB' inn ^naK ^3\n ncK ^3"."i3^ 
H"'? "inn"' KD3 K".nn'7 n-'Tic .i^b'd in^nni 



3) Ten men hare the epertal function ot being able to recite Barchu and IKe<Jusha. 

4) See Keduabin, Fol. 6ea, tbat Kin« Jaoal killed all the Rabbis. 



See cha.ptor 3, note 7. 



85 



2i>V' ]')f 



ns 



covered from a serious illness, and those who 
are liberated from prison." Whence do we 
.learn this concerning those that have returned 
from a voyage at sear It is written (Ps. 
107, 23-31.) They who go down to the sea in 
ships, etc. These have seen the wonders of the 
Lord. For he spoke, and he raised the stormy 
wind. They would mount up to heaven, then 
would go down to the depths. They would 
reel to and fro, etc. And they were rejoiced 
because they were silent. They shall therefore 
give thanks unto the Lord. Whence do we in- 
fer this concerning those who have traveled 
in the deserts? It is written (lb. ib. 4-8.) 
They irandered about in the wilderness, hun- 
gry and thirsty. Then they cried unto the 
Lord, and he led them forth upon the right 
road. Therefore they shall give thanks unto 
the Lord. Whence do we infer this concerning 
those who have recovered from a serious ill- 
ness? It is written (Ib. ib. 17-2.) Fools, be- 
cause of their transgression. All manner of 
food their sotd abhorreth. But when they 
cry vnto the Lord. He sendeth his word and 
healeth them. They there-fore shall give 
thanks unto the Lord. Whence do we know 
this concerning those who have been liberated 
from prison? "it is written (Ib. ib. 10-20.) 
Such as sit in darkness and in the shadow 
of death. Because they have rebelled against 
the words of God. And he humbled their 
hearts with trouble— But when they cry unto 
the Lord He hringeth them out of the dark- 
hess. They, therefore, shall give thanks unto 

the Lord. „ t. t j 

How shall they say the grace? E. Juda 
said : "Blessed art thou who bestoweth kind- 
ness." Abaye said : "It should be said in the 
presence of ten persons, as it is written (lb. 
ib 32 ) And they must exalt him in the con- 
gregation of people." « Mar Zutra said: "And 
two of the ten shall be learned men, as it i3 
written (Ib. ib.) And in the assembly of the 
elders must they praise Him." 

(Fol 55a) R. Jochanan and K. Llazar 
both said: "As long as the Temple was 
in existence, the altar was [the means of] 
atonement for Israel, but now [since there is 
no Temple], each man's table is [the means 
of] atonement." 

R. Juda said further: "Three things 
mav cause to shorten a man's days and years: 
Refusing to read the Torah when offered to 
him • refusing to recite the [customan'] grace 
over a cup [of wine], and leading a dominat- 

S) A «»gr«Ki^Ho> 1. TKVt of !«• Q^ t«n m«D. B*. 



n^aa tj'ian ^^^lr iidi wsnnji n7in riTiv ""di 

D>:nn) ^TlSl ]'71D DM mT*' .«:f ">1 DmOXn 

D^Dtt' i^y 'i:i myo nn iDy-'i iDKn 'iai 'n 
7« ipys-'i 'ui lyuM iJin'' 'ui mmnn ht 
incB'^i .DX^^tr DnTipisDDi cn^ n:;3 'n 
•"D^in .'^i^ non 'nb nT" 'i:i ipinty* ••3 

.'i:i non 'n^ m^ 'ui msy' ima D^mM 

'1J1 ctt'SJ nynn ^2« ^3 '^:^ nytt'S ^no 
'.-[V 'M' CKsnM nsT n^c'» 'i:i 'n ^k ipjjsM 
iTian trun n-'nc •'oi .'1:1 "non 'n^ 

lirnn Ds"'xv 'i:i 'n ^« ipysM 'ui ca? 
■\-\2Q iND .'i:i "non 'n^ m^ 'i:i ma^xi 
nQ«i .D"'aiD Dnon ^tti: ^na min^ n las 

]nm noK {ntamo .'1J1 ny ':r\p2 ininDiT'i 

tripian n^ic pT3 in^mn nosn K"-n "'"n 
■un'bty i"'B'2yi ,'7^nty•' "7y isdo naria D"'"'p 

:-|D3tt DIS '7B' 

*.^D* ]nxpD cnm na-^tt* nr>r['< ai icsi 
Knp^ n"D \'? \'':n'\iu ^a ,m« ^c Trnici 
•^nats ir«i ^nn^ nans ^a* dot Kiip tj^hi 

Ch*p. 3, Note 3. 



84 



n • 3 -i a 



Ta 



as it is said (Pou. 33, 23.) And full with Vie 
blessing of the Lord take thou possession of 
the West and the South." K. Jose, the son 
of R. Chaniim, said: "His reward will be to 
inherit both worlds, this world and the world 
to come." 

CHAPTER NINE 

(Fol. 5-la) Our Eabbis taught: "He who 
sees the passages where Israel crossed the 
sea,^ the Jordan,- the passage of the brook 
of A r n n, ' the stones of the de- 
clivity of Both Charan, * the stone which Og 
attempted to throw upon Israel, the stone 
upon which Moses was sitting when Joshua 
fought Amalek, ° Lot's wife who became a 
pillar of salt, " and the walls of Jericho which 
sank in their foundations, ' shoidd give praise 
and thanksgiving to God." (lb. b) The stone 
which Og, King of Bashan, tried to throw 
upon Israel is delivered by tradition as fol- 
lows: "The camp of Israel [I see]," said he, 
"extends three miles. I shall therefore go 
and uproot a mountain three miles in ex- 
tent and throw it upon them and kill them."' 
He went and uprooted a mountain three 
miles in extent, and raised it above his head. 
But the Holy One, praised be He! sent a 
host of ants to the mountain and they bored 
a hole in it causing it to fall over his head 
and rest on his shouldrers. He tried to throw 
it oft, but his teeth protruding one into the 
other, had riveted it upon him and he was 
not able to throw it off. Thus is understood 
the passage (Ps. 3, 8.) Thou hast hrol-en the 
tfieih of the u-icked; and as R. Simon ben 
Lakish explained it, for R. Simon b. Lakish 
said: "Do not read it Shibaria (Thou hast 
broken) but read it Shirlabta (that became 
ramified), i. e., Thou hast caused to branch 
out." What was Moses' height? Ten 
cubits ; * he seized an axe ten cubits long, 
sprang up ten cubits, and stnick Og's ankle 
3 mighty blow which killed him. 

R. JuJa in the name of Rab said: 
"Four classes of people are in duty bound to 
return thanks to God. Those who have re- 
turned from a voyage at sea ; those who have 
traveled in the desert; those who have re- 



^Dr '1 .ntt'T" C",im n^ 'n nana k'tdi (-^ 

nnnyDi en nnsyD nKnn -i"n (ij iv 

"I^D :■;>' p-nt^ D'paa' jas" ,]",T;n iT'a niDs 
nyD'i n*jD r\'''?v 3'^"'^' jasi ,7N-iti"« 'by ^a^an 
,i2"i'7 ^a* intyNi p^cya non'7D yu'in'* ncjjB' 
^nx ]'7iD ^y nmpcs nyraic inn'' no-m 
•Dipon ■':£'7 naa'i r\n•^^^^ jn'^ir 

^y pnr^ ;ti*an i^d jv; a-p^aty ]2S i^"y) 
^snc"" njna ncs .m "^^^oi «noj '7«nB'^ 
13 «n"iii npysi ^n^s ^mD sn^n ^in hdd 
^T« inj"'^Eip"'Ki in'»'''7y ntrNi •'ons Kn'7n 
in''''« nityns n^an-.si ^ons ':; is kt;d npy 
n'<'7 n-'n:! n't^p:: ••xop nvy n"npn 
••Hn^ n-'^tt' macD n-'S'i'a'D'i' «ya nnxuK 

•,r\Tl nCTtyO^ "'XD «71 «DU •'Kn71 «D^J 

y'atynDi matr c^yjn ^ja* (^ otSnn) 3">naT 
ma'j npn ^s a-'p^ ]a |v;Dty 3-1 idki 
.^•'cs -itr'y •'N-n nna na'D .naanty k^k 
l-'DK ntry mici |''dk T^y nn «;-i3 'jptr 
.n"''7t3pi iT^-.c-ipa n'«'»nDi 





Ex. 14. 21-30. 




Josh. 3. 10-17. 




Num. 21. 12-18. 




Josh. 10. 10-11. 




Bi. 17. 12. 




G*n. 19. 26. 




Josh. 6, 20. The WaU; 




See Beehorotb ***. wh 



of Jortcho crumbled under, lis falling wa."! different from all othCT (ailing walto. 
iT« It Is derived that ih« height of Moses was ten cubits. 



87 



^pv ry 



TS 



which heaven and earth were created, for it 
is written here (Ex. 35, 31.) And He hath 
filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom 
(Chachma) in udersianding ( Bithbuna), 
and m l-noivledge, and it is written (Pr. 3, 
19.-) The Lord hath founded the earth 
through ivisdom {Chachma) ; He hath estab- 
lished the heavens through understanding 
(Tebuna). And it is further written By His 
Icnowledge ivere the depths split open." 

E. Jochanan said: "The Holy One, 
praised be He ! doth not give wisdom to a man 
unless he possesses some; as it is said (Dan. 
2, 21.) Who giveth wisdom unto the wise, and 
knowledge to those who possess understand- 
ing." When B. Tachalifa of the west (Pales- 
ine) heard this he went and related it to E. 
Abuhu, whereupon the latter replied : "^Vhat 
you infer from that passage, we derive from 
another; it is written (Ex. 31, 6.) And in 
the heart of all that are wise-hearted have I 
put wisdom." 

E. Chisda said : "Every dream is good ex- 
cept that of fasting." Further said E. Chis- 
da: "Of a bad dream the worry is sufficient 
[to dissipate it], and of a good one the joy is 
eufiicient [to dissipate it]." 

E. Joseph said: "Even to me [though 
blind] the humor of a good dream causes it 
to dissipate." Further said E. Chisda: "A 
bad dream is much better than a good one 
[because it may result in repentance]." Fur- 
ther said E. Chisda: "Neither a good dream 
nor a bad one is fully fulfilled." Again said 
E. Chisda: "A dream not interrupted is like 
a letter not read." Further said E. Chisda: 
"A bad dream is more severe than being 
lashed, for it is said (Ecc. 3, 14.) And God 
hath so made it that men should be afraid 
of Him, and Eabba b. b. Chana said in the 
name of E. Jochanan : 'This refers to a bad 
dream.' " 

The prophet that hath had a dream, let 
him relate his dream; and he that hath re- 
ceived my word, let him speah my word of 
truth. What hath the straw to do with the 
corn? Saith the Lord (Jer. 23, 28). What 
relation has corn and straw to a dream? E. 
Jochanan in the name of E. Simon b. Jochai 
said : "Just as it is impossible for corn to be 
without straw, so it is impossible for a dream 
to be without absurdities." 

E. Beraehia said : "There may be a dream 
which thought in part fulfilled, yet is im- 
possible of being entirely fulfilled. We can 
derive it from Josejih, for it is written 



nn imK «'7D''1 (n^ nio-.:') N3n nTlD p«i 

cnn nTi3i nyi3i nr.nnm noDna D\n^N 
DiDiy JJ13 pN no-i noDnn 'n ('^ ''^tya) 
•lypnj moinn inym (t qb') 3tidi nr.ana 
«^K nnrn ^mj n"npn |iw pm*' ^an "ids 
nn-" (3 ''«'") nosjiy noan in ^>^ ia^ 
yDtr* .n3''3 ^j?Ti^ NyiJDi pcinn^ Knoan 
•'3m n^op mi2« ^t« «mya ns to-'^nn m 
p« \n'7 in'':nD cnnn pns .t^ nax mas 

'?D 3'7n (N'7 nin«') niflDT H^ ji^jno «3nD 

: noDn ^nni 3^ D3n 

3n yoHi ,rmt2 «'?! m'^n '73 n"n ncs 
«D'bn n-i-TiDo n''m3''sj? siris ND'bn Nnon 
«o'7n pp'.'' 31 "IDS .n''"'nDD .T^nn S3n 
.ni^ snosD n"'mnin3 ••nn^ "I'biss s3q 
S3D SD7nD cj-iiy s:i'i3 SD^n sion 21 "idsi 
ni'713 D-'-'pno N3D SD'rn s'7 sion 3-i idsi 
-1DS1 .n-'^is c^^pna sen so'i'n s^i 
smjs3 iB-SD s^T SD^n sion 31 
stt'-'s SD'i'n snon 3n idsi ■snp''D s^t 
ntrj? n^^'7sm (j n^np) idsjb' sn;jD ntrp 
-i"s nan n3 -13 nnn nosi "i:s^d isT'^ty 
Ki3jn (j: n'OT) .yi oUn nr pm"* 
nsT "itrsi Di'rn iDD'' m^n ins ncs 
D1SJ "i3n ns pn^ no nos "'"i3i "i3i' ins 
pnTi n"s Di'7n 'i-xs pm 13 pjjj no 'si /n 

p pn S^3 "13^ S"SC* CD'S "'"Sti'l DIto'O 
: Di^D3 D1-I3T ''^3 DI^H^ S"S 

mxpDty ^E3 ^)? cjs m^n n''3n3 '-i nDs 
fpvi2 i^JD c^pno ii''S 1^13 Q"pna 

m"'ni D'Dti'n n:m (''' rue-Kin) 3^n3T 



86 



n ", 3 -I 3 



^fi 



ing life. Refusing to read the Torah, as it 
is written (Deu. 30, -^'0.) For he (the 
Torah) is thy life and the length of thy 
days. Eefusiiig to recite the benediction over 
a cup of wine, as it is written (Cien. 12, 3.) 
And I will bless them that will bless thee. 
And he wlio leads a dominating life, as K. 
Chama b. Chaniua said: "Joseph died before 
his brethren because he dominated them." 

R. Jochanan said: '"Three things God 
Himself proclaimeth: Famine, plentj' and a 
good chief of the community. Famine, as it 
is written (II Kings S. 7.)' The Lord hath 
called for a famine; Plenty, as it is written 
(Ezek. 36, 29.) And I will call for corn and 
increase if; A good chief of the community, 
as it is written (E.x. 31, 2.) Behold, I have 
called by name, Bezalel." R. Isaac said: "A 
chief of a community is not to be appointed 
unless the community be consulted first; as 
it is written (Ex. 3.5, 30.) And Moses said 
to the children of Israel, behold God hath 
called by name Bezalel. i. e.. The Holy One, 
praised be He! said thus to Moses, 'Hoses! 
is Bezalel worthy enough for you ?' 'Sovereign 
of the universe/ replied Moses, 'if he is 
worthy in thine eyes, then he certainly is 
worthy enough for me.' Then said God to 
him: 'Consult then, the children of Israel.* 
Moses thereupon went and said thus to the 
children of Israel : 'Is Bezalel worthy of 
you ?' Thev said, 'If he is worthy for the Holy 
One, praised be He ! and for thee, then he is 
Burely worthy enough for us.' " 

R. Samuel b. Nachmeini in the name of 
R. Jonathan said: "The name Bezalel was 
given to him because of his wisdom ; for when 
the Holy One, praised be He! said unto 
Moses, ' Go, tell Bezalel to erect for me a 
Mishlran, ark and vessels.' Moses went and 
told it to him in the reverse order — make 
ark, vessels and a Mishkan. [Upon hearing 
the order] Bezalel said : 'Jloses, our teacher, 
the custom of the world is that a man first 
builds a house and then brings into it vessels, 
and thou sayest to me I should first make the 
ark, and then the Mishkan; where shall I put 
the vessels if I make them first? Perhaps 
the Holy One, praised be He ! said first Mish- 
ian and then the ark and the vessels?' There- 
upon Moses said to him: 'Perhaps in the 
shadow of God hast thou been that thou 
knowcst.'" fThus Bezalel means — Bezal 
(in the shadow), El (of God)]. 

R. Juda said in the name of Rab : "Be- 
zalel knew how to arrange the letters with 



"2 (^ o'lm) 3-tnDT Hxp irwi Knp? mm 
713^ HDia ^f DOT .-j-'D'' it;«i T^n K',n 

nijana loxy j\niDm .-n«« "i^^poi 73120 
riD",^ no no ""jria Kj-i^n -\2 «an an noKi 
■• numa iDi-y jjmj.tj ••jso T»n« CT,p 
cnDT ntr^ty pm"' un idk (pt in) 
yau'i ayi jn i^ki loxya nni^j; rnsa n"3pn 

'n «np •'3 (n 3"o) 3T131 3^1 .3112 DJIBI 

^K ^n«npi (i^ 'jKpm') 3^n3T vstt* .3j;n^ 
niDtr) 3-.n3T 3ita DiiB .iniK ''n'«3im pin 
pn^"" '-[ nc« .^«^S3 Eli's Tixip n«i (h^ 
13 c« «'7N m3:fn 'by djid pT'cya ]''ii 
^« nz'Q noNM (.1^ 02') nowii' m3i'3 j''3^t2j 

ION .^«^X3 01^3 'n Nip 1KT '7Vr\^i il2 

noK .7«'7X3 ■j-'by ]::n ntro nc'D'? n"3pn n^7 

en? T.DK 1^ |3 ^s ^y r|K -^ idk {^"3 
Ds-'by jijn ^Knc^^ cn^ noNi ^b^ ^«nB'''^ 
Kin 713 cnpn •'js^ ck i? ncs .^xbiis 
"31 iD« .pc ^3 «^ irjs7 ji:n yis'y^ 
EC ^y ^Kbs3 inji> i"« ':Dn: 13 ^Kiasy 
nc'Q^ n"3pn i^ loKiy nya'3'^ sipa inD3n 
c^ai piK paTD ^^ nu); bK7X3^ hdk i^ 
E"«'73i jiiN ntyy 1'? lOKi iBm ncTs -^St 

D^iy '755' UnJD 1J''31 na'D 1^ IQK j3tra', 

E'^s i3in^ D''J3D 13 in«i n-is nji3 eik 
liKty D"'b3 i3trDi in« B''b3 nt^y idvk nnsi 
n"3pn 1^ "iDN 13 KDty ed'':3« pM^ na'iy 
'7:{3 KDii' n-i^ 1E« .c^si in« j3tt'o ntr-y 
yiT" 31 IDS miiT 31 IDS .nyTi n-^M ^s 
E-'DC ]n3 iKisiiy nvniM ejix^ ^k^x3 n^n 



89 



3py^ py 



QS 



niture. Five things have in them a sixtieth 
part of the five other things : fire, honey, the 
Sabbath, sleep and dreams. Fire [has] a six- 
tieth of Gehenna; honey [has] a sixtieth of 
Manna;" the Sabbath [has] a sixtieth of 
the world to come; sleep ]has] a sixtieth of 
death, and dreams [have] a sixtieth of pro- 
phecy. 

(Fol. 58a) Our Eabbis taught: "He who 
sees Jewish troops or bands shall say the fol- 
follawing grace: 'Praised be He who under- 
standeth their secrets (the minds of men) ;' 
for their knowledge is not equal to one an- 
other's, just as their features are not like one 
another's.' " Ben Zoma saw troops on the ele- 
vation of the Temple mound. He said : "Bles- 
sed is He who understandeth their secrets, 
and blessed is He who created them all to 
serve me." He (b. Zoma) said : "Behold, how 
much labor did Adam, the first man, have 
imtil he got bread to eat; plowed, sowed, 
reaped, heaped together in sheaves, threshed 
winnowed, cleansed, ground, sieved, kneaded 
and baked ; only after all these was he able 
to eat ; but I rise in the morning and find all 
this done and prepared for me. And how 
much labor did Adam, the first man, have 
before he found a garment with which to 
clothe himself ; he sheared the sheep, whitened 
the wool, dispersed it, spinned it, weaved, 
dyed, and sewed; only after [doing] all these 
did he find garments to clothe himself; but 
I rise in the morning and find everything 
done for me. All nations are anxious to come 
to the door of my house., and I rise and find 
everything [prepared] for me." Ben Zoma 
was accustomed also to say: ""\Yliat says a 
good guest ? 'The master of the house trou- 
bled himself so much for me ; he brought so 
much wine for me ; he brought so much meat 
for me, and he brought so many rolls for me ; 
and all this trouble was on my account only.' 
But what says a bad guest? 'What trouble 
was the master of the house put to. How 
little vnne he brought, how little meat he 
brought, how little rolls he brought, and all 
this trouble was for the sake of his own wife 
and children only [not for me] .' Concerning 
the good guest, the passage says (Job 36, 24.) 
Reflect thai thou shonUst magnify his worl-, 
but regarding the bad guest it says (lb. 37, 
24.) Therefore do men fear him." 

And the man mas old in the days of Saul 
(I Sam. 17, 12.) Eaba, and according to some 
K. Zebid, and according to others, E. Oshiya, 

11) (See Bi. 17, J3-31. 



c'7iv^ D'tr'tt'D nn« natr ,p^ ctrtt'o in« 
nnK Di'?n .nn''D'7 citrBT) ins nrtr ,K3n 

'7«nty^ ■'Di'i'DiK n«nn |J3"i lin («"!• n^ tn) 
man pyi p«ty -nmn ddh ^na nms 
«DiT p .iT^ It man ^.Tsisna p«"i it^ it 
IDS n-ian nns n7j;D aa ^y «m^3i« nsn 
i^s ^3 «n3ty Tiim n-'nn qdh 7,13 
jjai my:"' nD3 nois n\n sin ,'^:^'r:^'j 
nspi ynji B'ln ^i3«^ ns «sdb' ny i"rn« 
-BK1 v'7^ Tpnm poi nT3i -^v, cm idjji 

«",nty3 I^K ^3 NS'iDl CSrO •'iS", ,73K 3"nK1 

i^s-av ly i"m« v:"! mr:'' nnsi .''as'? ipino 
y3Si n«i mui I'sji p^i tt: t:'i3^^ 1:3 
c^^'-Q nKi .lyn^^ n:3 nssD ^3 nnsi nam 
nriD-iS ^3 .'':e^ jpino K-,nt:*3 i^N ^3 «sit3i 
«s-Di n"'3U'D ""^si ■'n"'3 nns^ niN3i nnpiB' 
3",D miN iDiN T^-'n sin .''^S'? 1^« '73 
las'? n-isn ^y3 mn mmo nns na'« 
••js^ «^3n ntt'3 nD3T ■'Jb^ s-'sn i^"" na3 
niQty mien '73 .■•js'? Ki3n mspDi'?: nn3i 
y-i n-n« '73« .i^''3t!'3 «^s mia k^ 
]" nn nt n>3n ^>'3 mn n",mci no noiM 
^3 .«^3n n-spo:^: no N-inn 1^3 no «''3n 
.i''j3"'i ina's 7''3*w3 N7S niD N7 mtstt' no 

•»3 T,3T (i"? :'''•<) "IQ-.S intS 3"it2 m'.K ^ 

(1^ or) 3in3 yn mts ^y .'iji i^ys n'-jbti 
'71SB' ia''3 ty"'Nm ('» «"!^) .cicjk i-'.st' p^ 

3n MDTl •'NT «3T "lOW 'Ul C"'ti':N3 K3 pt 

in ''3« ■'t:"' nr s''yc";s 3t Kcn^si "fST 



88 



n -1 2 -i 2 



na 



(Gen. 3?, 9.) The sun and the moon and the 
eleven start. — i<hall we indeed come, I and 
thy mother, and thy brothers (lb. b). And 
at that time his mother was dead." 

K. Levi said: ''A man should look for- 
ward to the realization of a good dream even 
for as long as twenty-two years ; as it is writ- 
ten (Gen. 37, 2.) lliese are the generations 
of Jacob, Joseph was seventeen years old 
[when he had the dreams], and it is written 
also (lb. 41, 4G.) And Joseph was thirty 
years old when he stood before Pharaoh. 
From seventeen to thirty are thirteen years, 
to which add the seven years of plenty and 
the two years of famine, will make the total 
of twenty-two years.'" " 

R. Huna said: "To a good man bad 
dreams are shown, and to a bad man good 
dreams." We have also a Baraitha to the same 
effect: ''During all the years of David he 
never dreamed a good dream, and during all 
the years of Achitophel he never dreamed a 
bad dream." 

R. Bizna b. Zabda, in the name of R. 
Akiba, who spoke in the name of R. 
Panda, who, in turn, spoke in the name of 
E. Nachum, who quoted R. Birim, said: 
"A venerable man by the name of R. Bana'ali 
had told him there were twenty-four places 
in Jerusalem for the interpretation of 
dreams ; that once he had a dream and went 
to each one of these places; each one gave 
a different interpretation and each was ful- 
filled." This establishes what is written : 
"Every dream is in accord with its interpret- 
ation." Is this a passage? Yes, as R. Elazar 
said, for R. Elazar said: "Whence do we 
learn that every dream is realized according 
to its interpretation? It is written (Gen. 
41, 13.) And just as he interpreted it, so it 
was." 

R. Jochanan said: "Three dreams are 
bound to be realized : that which is dreamed 
in the morning; that which is dreamed by 
one's neighbor: and a dream which is inter- 
preted within a dream." Some add to this "A 
dream that is dreamed by the same person 
twice": as it is written ((3en. 41, 32.) And 
for that the dream was doubled unto Pha- 
raoh. 

(Fol. 57b) Three things restore the mind 
of a man : melody, scenery and sweet odor. 
Three things develop the mind of a man: a 
fine house, a handsome wife and elegant fur- 



(Dtt-) 'ny^' ep'.^Q y'jo T\:v 2"3 ij? 2",C! m7n: 
nr.:' mry y^'j p r,o"."' spy nn7"n n^K 
noya nyj w^''?'^ ]2 vp'.^', (no dv) atnn 
•>N",n naa ctt-'i't:' ly mcy yzvo ,nps ■•js^ 
p-iry i",n NJS21 iTiim Nvs'ji )!2y -no-'^n 
I'K-iD j^« 3",t2 C1N7 «:■,/-; 21 "icK .pnm 
.yi c",7n I*? ]"'«-iQ ;■>« yn din71 mu ci^n i? 

nxn «'? '7£nnin« ^tr vnM\ff '?3^ 3it3 m^n 

•yi D"i7n 

T'K Napiy •!"« «12T 13 Nifa 21 1CS 
IP? DICD DnU T'N Cim ^31 IDN K132 

nn^s nj;3-iN", ctz"; nsjn ^sn udi nn« 

nns «^ nt '>'? nnsB' no d'70 ^sk Tia^m 
^2 'n:u no □"p^ ^2 iDi''pn3 u'?\2^ nt '*? 
n-.o'.'jnn "^a it:N nan "ins j"'D'7",n mm^nn 
iTV'i'S nmri ]•'« .win Nip nsn nn« ps^in 
prr.n n-,2';7nn ::•>:• pjt: nr;:^ ■'2-1 -id«i 
"ins "it:*«3 ""nM («a n's-Ki:) nDN:r nsn ins 

: n"»n |2 13^ 

-po^pno niDi'bn nc75:' pm"" ■'2T new 
c",^m ■n2n i: a^nty m^m nnntr r^ ci^n 
c-;7n r,N nnn:s tt-ii -iDi^n -['.nz -\r\siv 
:c",'7nn 0",:^ ^j;i (ko ds') lasi'^r' nj^JB' 

: ]n ".^K ,mN ^tt' injjT j''2''':'o ': (3"y ") 
ms ^ty ',nvT p2"'mo ': .mm n«noi 'rip 
.D'Ki D^'JD'! ns: nrsi ns: m-'T jn ";^ki 

10) Joseph's dreams were realized only when his brothers came to bur food In Egj'pt. being after the seven, 
plentiful years. See G«n. 4-6. 



91 



3py^ pjj 



«!J 



ciates pierced his eyes; accordicg to others, 
E. Shesheth himself looked at him and he 
thereupon became a heap of bones. 

R. Shila lashed a certain man for having 
committed adultery. The man went over to 
the Government [of the Roman Empire], and 
informed them that there was a man among 
Israel who executed judgment without the 
permission of the king. The king sent a 
representative who, when he arrived, asked 
R. Shila: "Why did you lash that man?" 
"Because," answered E. Shila, "he committed 
adultery." "Have you any witness who saw 
it ?" the representative asked. "Yes," he re- 
plied. Thereupon Elijah came in the image 
of a man and testified. "If so," said the rep- 
resentative, "he should be killed." "WeW," 
replied R. Shila, "since the day we were ex- 
iled from our land, we have had no authority 
to exercise capital punishment; you may do 
as you please with him." While they were de- 
ciding what to do with that man, R. Shila 
began to praise God, saying Thine, Lord, 
are the greatness and the might and glorij, 
and the victory and the majesty, yea, all that 
is in the heavens and on the earth j Thine, 
Lord are the l-ingdom, and thou art exalted 
as the head above all (I Chr. 29, 11). '^hat 
art thou saying?'' he was asked. "Thus I 
Baid," he answered," "Praised be the all merci- 
ful who giveth the kingdom on earth just as 
the kingdom in the heaven, and who bestowed 
the rulership upon you who love justice." 
"Since you esteem the honor of the kingdom 
so highly let this man, therefore be the Judge 
who shall preside over all judicial affairs." He 
thereupon gave R. Shila a cane [as a token of 
a judge] saying: "Execute judgment." 
When he was through he said: "Since that 
passage was the cause of such a miracle I 
would explain it." Thereupon he went to the 
academy and expounded : Thine, Lord, are 
the greatness, refers to the act of creation, 
as it is written (Job 9, 10,) Who doth great 
things which are quite unsearchable;'^^ And 
the might, refers to the redemption of Eg}-pt, 
and so says the passage (Ex. 14, 31,) And 
Israel saw that great power which the Lord 
hath shown; And the glory, refers to the in- 
cident of the sun and the moon which Joshua 
stopped in their course; as is said (Josh. 10, 
13.) And the svn stood still and the moon 
stopped: And the victory, refers to the down- 
fall of Bahvlon, and so says the passage (Is. 
63, 3.) And their blood was sprinhled on my 



n'a'v an "'nnxi N3''Si n-'ry'? inj-'^ns 

miT ^vai Kna: Kinn^ nnji K^itr •'m 

.«3^DT KJD-nn s^a «ri \^i^'n ••«nn''D in 
nTnjj t3"D 7"K «nK •'3 Hpnons n^7j? mtr 
,K-iDn ^V3T cico in^ inx «"i3J Kinn^ 

KOT'D pK IDM .«in «^t2p 13 ''3n "<« H"''? 

li^yrn ny •n^3 n"'3v ]^^\^)!2l *'«o 
K".-n) -iD«i «'7ity 31 nns «rn3 iTS 
nx:m m«£3nm mujim n'7",ijn 'n -(? (p^ 
''«D n-i^ nc« .ps3i 0^01^3 ^3 ''3 nnm 
Kjom y-i^ srosp i3n in^ nns moKp 
«j;ip-n Nm37D rj;3 synsT Nm3^D inn 
Tins -WT "'ami xats^ic 13'? "n-'n-'i 
^'713 «m3^DT x-ip"" n'l^y Ks-^nn 
13 .«rT pi y'« Ks^'p ni^ ''3.T' .•'«n 
«D"'3 i'7 T'3j?n"'si ^""Sin -iD« '131 p£5: mn 
ty-n-i «cmD ''3'7 pel n-'^ p-'cm Nip ""^ns 
2TK) s"n3T n"'trs-i3 ncyts nr n'?nan 'n i^ 
IT n-n33m npn ]"« ly mbn: ntt-ijj (» 
'bK-iiy «Tii (T "lar) «"n3"i nnxQ n«"'X'» 
n33^i non it mssnm ,n'?'niT\ T'n nH 
ttTso'n ciT'i (' i'tt'i"') 'KJtt* Vtt'-iH^^ 1^ noyty 
N"n3i Til ^tt* nn^sD it n:fjm .-ray ht"! 
nnn'i'D it nnm .•'1:3 '75? nns: V} (-d n'i-s") 



is> In both places the word Gedula or Gedoloth, meenlng "great" or "greatness," Is used. 



90 



n TO 1 3 



said : "This is Jesse, David's father, who used 
to go out with troops and enter with troops, 
and lectured before a crowd." UUa said : "We 
have a tradition that Babylon has no troops." 
In a Baraitha we are tauglit: They are not 
called "troops"' if loss than sixty myriads. 

Our Rabbis taught: "He who sees Kings 
of Israel sJiall say, 'Blessed be Ue who shared 
his honor \nth those who fear Him'; and if 
he see kings of other nations lie shall say, 
'Blessetl bo He who shared His honor with 
[one who is] flesh and blood.' Seeing wise 
men of Israel, he shall say, 'Blessed be He 
who shared his wisdom with those who fear 
Him'; and if he see the wise men of other 
nations he shall say, 'Blessed be He who gave 
from liis wisdom to [one who is] flesh and 
blood.' ■■' R. Jochanan said : "A man should 
always try his utmost to go out to meet the 
Kings of Israel, and not only to meet the 
Kings of Israel [did the Rabbis urge], but 
also to meet kings of other nations, because 
if he will hare merit [to see the King Mes- 
siah] he will then note the distinction be- 
tween the Kings of Israel and the kings of 
other nations." 

R. Sheshetli was blind, yet, when the whole 
community once went out to meet the king, 
he went out with them and was met by a cer- 
tain heretic who laughed at him sajang : "All 
the earthen pitchers are indeed going to the 
stream [to draw water] ; whither do the brok- 
en vessels go ?" "Come !" R. Shesheth said 
unto him, "I will show thee that I know more 
than you do." Wlien the first company of 
troops passed by making a great noise, the 
heretic asked, "Has the king passed ?" "Xo." 
replied R. Shesheth. Wlien a second group of 
troops passed, the heretic again asked whether 
the king had passed. Again R. Shesheth 
answered "Xo." A third company passed in 
a ver\' quiet manner. The heretic asked : "Is 
the king coming now?" Wliereupon R. She- 
sheth answered : '^'es." The heretic asked him 
how he knew this. R. Shesheth replied : 'The 
kingdom on the earth is like the kingdom in 
Heaven, for it is written (I Kings 19, 12.) 
Afier the earlhquake there n-as a fire, but the 
Lord was not in the fire; after the fire there, 
j/'ff.s henrd the sound of a soft whkper." 
T^Tien the king approached. R. Shesheth be- 
gan to say, "Praised be He, etc. ;" whereup- 
on the heretic interrupted him sa\nng: "Since 
you do not see, how can you bless?" What 
happened to that heretic? Some say his asso- 



•Kian 'CD nnins kdi^d-iS j-is K:n ,7333 

,in3 nD"« D-ioiu ••naij; >27d /.ik-i"'^ maro 
iDiK ^Nntt''> ""DDn .Ql^ -iir-n^ nnro inity 
••nniy ''jsrn -rx-i''^ inconD p^ntj' ins 

•mi ■IB'3^ inODHD JDJB' "lins 1D";« COSli 

n«-ip'? n«s^ m« ^nnty Q'?'ip pnT" ■!"« 

tHV D1331D '«n3ij; 12'm n«ip^ '••£)« N^« 
naiy la'i'a^ ^«ntyt ^o'jo pn pn3'> naf 
^^T«p nn mn -[)r[i •'jd nt^tt' an .0^22-0 
in^nns ^t« Dpi «3^d iqh ^^up^ «d^j? ■i^o 
^axn y'K nxro Ninn nTi^cH -nttx* 3t 
«jjjT«T nn Kn ni^ ids ,ki'«7 ■•jis mnjb 
KCTiK Kp ^3 Nn^''Dp «iiij ci"»'?n ."ira '«ec 
^"K TinnK pp^n m<'? 7"k sr^o ri-^^n y'« 
mm nsn"«^n istn .i«^ y'N ,k3^d ci'i'^n 

KJD V'K ]■'« y'K «3^D Kns ^'S -SpntT 

Kn"07o pj;3 KyiNT «m3^D Vk ,nj?i^ 
h'? tt'K tt^nn inKi (=' «"») 3'n3T i^v''?'^'^ 
«nK •'3 ,n^>'\ HDDT '7ip trxn nnNi 'n t:'S3 
«inn y'« .'\'r,2 lOKpi ncc an nns «3^d 
•"XDi .n3-i3D «p iW? nnn «7i |sa'7 ""pns 
in"n3n ''ncxT S3"'S ■nsj-'a «inrn n'''?]! """.n 



12) The BraeyJicUoTi in honor of the Klag as mwitlooea above. 



93 



3pj?^ i^j; 



atf 



went cut satisfied. Moreover in time of fam- 
ine lie scattered wheat and barley outside, 
so that those who were ashamed to take help 
openly by day might come and take it by 
night ; and now his house has fallen into ruin. 
Should I not sigh?" So Ulla said to him, 
"Thus R. Jochanan said: 'Since the destruc- 
tion of the Temple it was decreed that the 
houses of the righteous shall become ruins, 
for it is written (Is. 5, 9.) Truly many houses 
shall become desolute. Yea, great and beauti- 
ful ones without an inhabitant !' 'Still,' added 
Rabbi Jochanan, 'the Holy One, praised be 
He ! will again people it, for it is written ( Ps. 
125, 1.) Those who trust in the Lord are like 
Mt. Zion. Just as the Holy One, praised be 
He ! is ready to rebuild Mt. Zion so will the 
Holy One, praised be He ! rebuild the houses 
of the righteous.' " Ulla noticed that R. 
Chisda was still not comforted. He said to 
him therefore: "It is sufBcient for the slave 
to have as much as his master [but not 
more] ." " 

Eab said : "The memory of a dead one is 
not erased from the heart [of his relatives] 
before twelve months have elapsed, for it is 
written (Ps. 31, 13.) I am forgotten as a 
dead man out of the heart, I am become like 
a lost vessel."" 

(Fol. 60a) Our Rabbis taaught: "It once 
happened that when Hillel the Old was com- 
ing along the road and heard a sorrowful cry 
he said, 'I am sure it is not in my house.' 
And concerning such men, says the passage 
(Ps. 112, 7.) Of an evil report shall he not 
he afraid; his heart is firm, trusting in the 
Lord." Raba said : "We can infer this pas- 
sage in whatever way we desire, either from 
the beginning to the end, or from the end to 
the beginning ; from the beginning to the end : 
Of an evil report shall he not be afraid, [be- 
cause] his heart is firm trusting in the Lord, 
or from the end to the beginning: [Having] 
his heart firm trusting in the Lord, he shall 
not be afraid of an evil report." 

A certain disciple followed R. Ishmael, 
the son of R. Jose, in the market of Zion, 
whereupon the latter noticed that the disciple 
was frightened ; he said to him : "Hast thou 
sinned? for it is written (Is. 33, 14.) In Zion 
sinners are in fear." The disciple asked him, 
"Is it not written (Pr. 28, 13.) Happy is the 



•iDn n'''? ■^1^ mm yaty ""a p^s: ;''S3 ^•'■'j? 
KS"'DJi ]ND '731 i-Kn^K mixa ""jca nysri 
^"•pci Tis «riD"'3 "bptt'D^ «n^iD n""^ 

t'lp'on nu Dnntt* m^D pm^ ^m idk ton 

rmv'? cai cnn n't d« (n .Tjjtp-) -id«jb' 
]:r\v '-I nD«i 2uv ^nd nimtai D"«^nj rn"" 
D-sifl) -iDixjc' pic"*^ pnnn^ n"2pn rny 
]T«x nn TO ''\:^ ]V)i inD 'na c'ntsun (n:p 
^ty in-ina cin mc*-"^ nnnnb n"2pn Tny 
mnn .p-c-i^ pMnn^ n"2pn Tny n\':3ns 

N^K a'i'n p HDntyn ncn ps m -ics 

.Tmr ]pTn ^^na n^yo pm un (o n) 
nosi T'ya nms ^ip yctyi -[112 «a 
mn^n r^yi Ti'^a iins nr psB' ''j« ncimD 
]irj Ki" K'7 ny-i rryiDtyD (3'? o'^nn) -mw 
ntrm ''^^^ ^3 wan idk .'nn mtas n^ 
,TB-«Doi t?mD nifiiD^ mB'nD Nip '»«n^ 
trmD n^fi''D'7 .T'trnn .tt'mo n'^v^b 
DWD «Dj;t2 ^No SI" «^ nyi nyiotyo 
n-icn'? ms^DD .'na mca m^ jian 

^ns", ^''pty nim KniD'bn N',nn .ki^^ 
Kpity^ ••DT' ^313 'i'syott"' ^311 nnn3« 
ns HNCn y'« THBO spT Kivn ]rx7 
Km y'K D'^Nian p'y3 nns (j^ "'jfo") 3^n3i 
y'N Tinn nnsD ms iit^K (n^ •'jb-d) n-iris 

J8) Crod's touse is destroyed, and the houses of the righteous should be in no better condition 
17) See Babba Metziah Fol. 28b that the owner of a lost article gives up hope of its recovery only after 

.„ j„_j .._< i^gj vessel, from this we learn that one who d/ies 



twelve months and .since David likens one who is dead unto 
Is not forgotten before the expiration of twelve months. 



92 



n ", 



garments; And the majesty, this refers to 
the battle of Arnon, as it is said (Xum. 21, 
14.) Therefore mention is made in the books 
of war.< of the Lord of Voheh in Siiph, etc.; 
Yea, all that is in the heaven and on the 
earth, this refers to tlie war of Sisra and so 
says the passage (Judge 5, 30.) From heaven 
they fought; and Thine, Lord, is the king- 
dom, refers to the war of Amalek, as is said 
(Ex. 17. Hi.) And he said. Because the Lord 
hath sworn on his throne; And thou art ex- 
alted, this refers to the war of Gog and Ma- 
gog, and so says the passage (Ezck. 38, 3.) 
Behold, I will be against thee, God, the 
prince of Besh, Meshech and Thubal; As 
the head above all, R. Chana b. Abba said: 
"This means that even a superintendent over 
the well [which is made to water the fields] 
is also appointed in Heaven." In a Baraitha 
we are taught in the name of R. Akiba: 
Thine, Lord, are the greatness, refers to 
the miracle of dividing the Red Sea;" The 
might, refers to the plague of the first-born 
(in Egypt) ;'^ The glory, refers to the giving 
of the Torah ; And the victory, refers to Jeru- 
salem ; The majesty, refers to the rebuild- 
ing of the Temple may it he His will that 
it be built within our days. 

(H). h) Ulla and R. Chisda were once 
traveling together, when they came up to the 
gate of the house of R. Chana b. Chanilai ; R. 
Chisda looked at it, became faint and sighed, 
"^Vhy sighest thou?"' asked Ulla; "since as 
Rah said, sighing breaks half of a body, for it 
is ■BTitten (Ezek. 21, 11.) Sigh, therefore, 
son of man, with the breaking of thy loins, 
etc. ; and R. Jochanan said : 'A sigh breaks 
up the entire bod\', for it is said (lb. ib. 12.) 
And it shall be when they say unto thee, 
"Wherefore sighest thou? that thou shall an- 
swer, for the tidings, because it cometh, and 
the whole heart shall melt,'" etc. To this R. 
Chisda replied: "How can I help sighing 
over this house, where sixty bakers used to he 
emploved during the day., and sixty during 
the night, to hake bread for the poor and 
the needy ; and R. Chana always had his hand 
in his purse, for he thought a respectable 
poor man might come along, and while he 
would put his haJid in his purse [to take out 
a coin] it might cause the poor man .shame 
[for being compelled to apply for charity] ; 
hesides, he kept four doors open, one facing 
each direction, and whoever entered hungry 

Ml Ex. 14, 21. 

ir,) Ex. 12. 23. 



12 ys 

CDira !?3 ■'3 /1J1 nB',C3 am hn 'n mon'ro 

p (n a^::fiv) losjty snCD non^D IT p«31 

nios') nniK «",n pi p'ray nen'i'D "J ns'i'Dcn 
:u nnn'TD it Kt^'jnnn" .n*' dd ^; T" '•a (" 

13 ]:n 2") ICS K'Nl"? ^3^ ,73im 7^D lyNi 

IT r[b\-[:in 'n -{? y"m n-'ocn N:n «n^:nc2 
,nmra nrc it min^n' ,r;c c nynp 
,c^'?B'n"« 't nxj-" ,nT,n ;nD n mssnm 
ni2'''y |iST ■'H'') trnpcn jt'd \^i2 it T,nm 
: (iro"'3 mnca 
«m"iN3 '''7TKP r,n Kion mi N^'.y (^"vj 
i:3 "'S7"'jn -\2 K:n ai ""ii Knnes 1:20 ^d 
sp ■'Ncs s^ij? n-"^ -iD« nansi sion 2n 
lEi: ''sn ms-.t:* nn3« 3t ncsm nnjKno 
c-s p nns", (•<= ^Kpm') -ic«:t:' cin ^ly 
ins ]3m'' •'3-1", .'"1:1 cjriD j';n3a'3 msn 
-.nos-' ■'S n\-i". (D-) ncNr^* ens ?::• "bu ^3 
.''ji nn 73 nnn3i n:N3 nns no 7j; "[•'7K 
^TT't:' n3 v.m sn-is njn« k'? ''3\n n""^ ~ii3« 

H''7''73 Nn^-iSS l^-l""^'! NCC'3 Sn^''£« 

]n XT' '7^pt:* K^'. in^'" 1^*^ ^-^ r's^i 
c"'3".t: 13 s-'r; khn so7n nsoT nd'3 
piTTiB v,n :r\', .r,''C3t2 sp sc"'3'7 n""^ ibdini 
n",m ^31 stt^yi wnnn V3ns^ ""aD 'i n"^ 



95 



spy^ py 



nx 



public places and sat and lectured to them. 
Whereupon Papus b. Juda found him and 
said to him: "Akiba! art thou not afraid 
of this nation ?" R. Akiba replied : "Art thou 
Papus, called the wise? Listen, and I will 
relate a parable to thee. A fox, walking by 
the river side, noticed the fishes therein swim- 
ming to and fro., so he said to them, 'Why are 
ye running?' 'Because we fear the nets that 
are placed for us,' they replied. 'Come to 
shore then,' said the fox to them, 'and live 
with us just as my ancestors lived with your 
ancestors.' The fishes exclaimed, 'Art thou 
called the wisest of the beasts ? Thou art not 
wise but very foolish. If we are in danger in 
the element in which we live (in the water), 
how much greater would ■n'e be in danger in 
the element in which we die (on shore).' So 
is it with ns; if at the time we study the 
Torah, of which it is wi-itten (Deu. 30, 20.) 
It is thy life and the prolongation of thy 
days, we are in such fear of danger, how 
much greater would be the danger if we cease 
studying the Torah?" It is related that not 
many days elapsed when E. Akiba was arrest- 
ed and imprisoned ; Papus also was arrested 
and placed in the same prison. "Papus, what 
brought thee here?" asked E. Akiba; 
Papus replied: "Happy art thou E. Akiba, 
that thou art arrested for studying the Torah ! 
Woe to me, Papus, that I was arrested be- 
cause of vanity!" When E. Akiba 
was led forth to execution, it was just at the 
time of the morning Sh'm'a. As they tore 
his flesh with iron curry-combs, he was de- 
votedly taking upon himself the yoke of the 
Heavenly Kingdom with love. His disciples 
asked of him :' "Eabbi, how long [wilt thon 
continue your prayers] ?" "0," answered he, 
"all my life I worried as to how I could ful- 
fill the ordinance. [Love thy God] with all 
thy soul, which means 'even if thy soul be 
taken from you' ; I asked myself when woiild 
such an opportunity come to hand that I 
might fulfill it? And now when it finally 
came to hand shall I not fulfill it ?" With a 
long-drawn out voice he was saying the word 
r.chad (One) [from Hear Israel, the Lord 
our God is Or •]. when his soul departed. 
A Heavenly voice went forth and said "Happy 
ought thou be, E. Akiba, that thy soul depart- 
ed with the word Echad." The ministering 
angels then pleaded before the Holy One, 
praised be He! saying: "Sovereign of the 
universe, is this the Torah's reward ? Is it not 
said (Ps. 17, 14.) Let me die through Thine 



vntr en nwn -^nin ^ -pna n-intr ^yitr^ 
cnN TO '':bd cn^ nD« |Nr7i ^ss^ csi 
m-no:)Dni mntnn i:bd i^ tidk c^ii 
n^2^'? i^ync ddjist nn^ tok .ir^y m«3n 
.DDTiinKi Tins miy yns oriKi •<:« nnji 
npa ■j-'^y ciDisty Kin nns i^ nns 
noi ,nn« {yen «^« nnw nps s'? ,min2c 
i:nn^D mpon -n^KTria "ij« i:ni"'n mpos 

n-ipDiy UKC ]DT2 p U« r[N1 .pC* '73 «7 

-piKi T'"'n «in ■'3 C* o'lm) n3 a^Ji nmns 
••nmn ppoic i:Kty3 .d-'Kitid uk yo'' 
ny cuyin en*' 'ti «'? noK .V'D«y min 
D'^niDKn n''3n inwam y""i^ imosntt' 
nos ,i'7SK imtt'nm mini p dibb^ iDsm 
y"T T'-itTK I"? nD« I'sa^ is^an io dibb i'7 
D-1-13T ^y Ticsrutr ■''7 ""IK n"T ^y nDBn:B' 
pr n;nn^ y"n^ miNismiy nytys .o^^ua 
ni«pnD03 i-iB'3 n« pp-iiD vm n^n ^"p 
mD'7D '7iy r'7y 'bip^ ]•'^^3n^ n^ni ^?n3 ^ty 
]K3 ty irm VTT:'?r\ ^'? nns -nnnw niDr 
piDBn '7y lyDSD ^n^'^n •'D"' '73 cn^ new 
■^tt'BJ n« ^isu Kin 'iBKi 1CB3 ^33 mn 
K3ty T't:'3yi ua^ipKi iii^ ks^ Tia imoK 
nni-ic* ny inK3 yim n^n .udi^pk k^ n^b 
-[incK mDKi ^ip nn nns-' .nnsn inatrd 
"«3K^D noK ,inK3 -^nott-j nni-^tt' y"n 
,m3tt' in min it y"B'3n n"3pn •':b'7 men 
.n^nn Dinno 'n ^t cinnn (" °''nn) nas 



94 



n 1 3 n n 



man that always fcareth." 'This refers to the 
Torah"' [was R. Ishmael's answer]. 

Juda 1). Xatlian was following R. Ilani- 
nuna and noticfd that he groaned; Juda b. 
Nathan said: "That man is inviting atllie- 
tions upon himself, for it is written (Joh 3, 
25.) /'Vr the thing which I greatly feared, w 
come upon me, and that which I was afraid 
of is come unto me." Has it not been written 
also (Pr. t?S, 14.) Happy is the man that al- 
ways feareth ? The last refers to the Torah. 

(Fol. GOb) R. Huna said in the name of 
Rab, wlio spoke in tlie n;une of R. Jleier, 
and it is so taught also in a Baraitlia in the 
name of R. Akiba: A man shall always be ac- 
customed to say, "All that God doth is done 
well''; as it once happened to R. Akiba who 
was traveling over the country and had with 
him an ass, a rooster and a lamp. At night- 
fall he reached a village where he sought 
lodgincr for the night, and it was refused. 
"All that God doth "is done well," said he. He 
proceeded toward the forest where he resolved 
to spend the night. A lion came and ate up 
his ass ; a cat came and devoured the rooster, 
and the Mind extinguished the lamp. "All 
that God doth is done well," he said. That 
same night a ravaging army came and cap- 
tured the village, and then R. Akiba said joy- 
fully: "Is not what I said true? All that is 
done by Heaven is done well' "' [ for the en- 
emy passed through the forest whore R. Aki- 
ba slept that night, and if the ass had brayed, 
if the rooster had crowed or if the soldiers 
had seen the light, he would surely have met 
his death]." 

(Fol. 61b) And thou shalt love thy 
Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with 
all thy souJ and with all thy might (Deu. 
6, 4). We are taught that R. Eliezer the 
great says: "Since it is said With all thy 
.soul, why then is it necessary to say With 
aJl thy might, and since it is said With 
all thy might, why then is it necessary to say 
With all thy soul. To teach that if there is a 
man to whom the soul is con=idororl dearer 
than money, to him is said With all thy soul; 
while for him who values money more than 
his life, to him is said And with all thy 
might." But R. -\knba said. With all thy sojd 
means. 'T^ven when thy life is taken away 
from thee." 

Our Rabbis taught that the [Romap] 
Government once issued a decree forbidding 
Israel to study the Torah. What did R. Akiba 
do? He in.stalled ma'iy congregations in 



n-.n jnj na nn.T .zTiZ rn-.n ■'--in N-,-n 

n-'B'EsJs '••'inK^ KiDJ H'nr{ "»y2 up n'.D^ 
iB'Ki ^jTiK-'i Tnnfi ins ""O ('j 31'«) a^nsi 

CTN nC'N 2TI3 «m y'N ."'7 S2'« TIT,;'' 

: 3^-13 n"i2 i<'r]r\ Tnn insa 

-i-iKo ""m □•,c*n 31 1CK n"i rias (=")») 
CIS Kn"> cr,j;7 S3''p>' "'3n -•'cc'd sjn \2^ 
.3t:^ iS"'Dty ja ]^i2-;-[ '73 idi'? ^"':i 
'?nvt mn sa-^pv ''3ii xn ""d 
N:itt'i N'biJiim Sinn n''in3 n-m khtiks 

n3 7T« 3t2'7 K'^na-' p pi3j;i ^3 IDN .il'^ 

NUVwi' Nns n'^ion^ 'i'73k nns sns sinis 
«Jitt'^ ni''33 Kpn «ns N^ujin^ n'^zH 
n'7"'^3 n^3 .3-U17 s^ciy p j'-3Vi 73 id« 
"lies "iN? "in'7 ins NnD7 n"'"'3'j' scij Nn« 
.nn-.Q^ ^3n n"3pn n'^i;c no 73 ■■,3'7 

K-'jn '131 •]in7s* 'n ns n3n«i (:"!• «<d tn) 
HD^ -[tffSii '733 ids: ck idi« ^lun K"1 

no? -jlSD ^33 IDHi EST "]1SD ^33 lONJ 

la-iia' niK -57 c''' cs -7 idi^ .y^'Sj ^33 idkj 
n«i ,iti'SJ '733 ids: "pb i:";coo r^j? 3^3n 
is-jn r7j? 3i3n ircDt:' nis -p ty^ 

ID1S j;"l -IISO '733'1 1DSJ "137 

ntyyo i"n ."ic'sa ns 'i'Dij '•'bs itys: ^33 
"ipcv K7c> 7Si'y:''' r; nin; n",37D .iitjb^ 
n"i7np ^Mpm "^n v""i ntt'j; no nnna 
'7"K nnn-' ]3 d-.ss isxo .cin 3ty>"! csin 
^"K u nois •«:sa sierra nns •<« ss-'pj? 



97 



3 p y ^ r y 



■js 



and R. Jochanan said : "He saw the Temple, 
for it is written (Gen. 22, 14.) On the mount 
of the Lord it shall he seen." Upon the same 
point E. Jacob b. Ide and R. Samnel b. Na- 
chmeini differ. One said, "He saw the atone- 
ment money,"' and the other said "He saw the 
Temple." The following statements will prove 
the correctness of the opinion of the one who 
said that "He saw the Temple" ; for it is said 
(lb. ib.) As it is said to thi.^ very day. On the 
mount of the Lord it shall he seen. ^° 

(Fol. 63a) It was taught that Hillel the 
Elder said: "When people imbibe (learning), 
diffuse it; when thev reject (learning), ga- 
ther it in. If thou see that the Torah is be- 
loved by the -generation, then, diffuse it 
[teach it even though there are others that 
teach them] ; for it is said (Pr. 11, 24.) 
There is a man that scattereth gifts and yet 
his wealth is increased, but if thou see that 
the Torah is not beloved by the generation, 
then gather it in (do not teach it) ; for it is 
said (Ps. 119, 126.) It is time to act for the 
Lord; they have hrohen thy law." R. Kapara 
once preached : "If a thing is cheap, be quick 
and buy it [for it will surely rise[. Where 
there is no man (leader) try to be a man 
yourself." Abaye said : "We infer from these 
words that in any gathering where there are 
enough men one should not try to make him- 
self prominent." Surely ! This is more than 
plain ! He needs it in the case of the stranger 
who comes and finds a man only his equal 
[the stranger should not try to do anything 
without the consent of the native]. 

R. Kapara expounded : "Wliich small sec- 
tion contains the essential parts of the To- 
rah? In all thy ways acknowledge Him and 
He shall direct thy path (Pr. 3, 6)." Raba 
said : "Even in matters of iniquity." 

R. Kapara preached: "A man should al- 
ways teach his son an occupation which is 
clean and easy." What is that ? R. Chisda 
said, "Needle work." 

We are taught that R-abbi says: "Never 
shall a man try to acquire too many friends 
within his house, for it is said (Pr. 18, 24.) 
A man's many companions are hxirtful to 
him." We are taught that Rabbi says: "A 
man should avoid appointing a supervisor 
over his household for had not Potiphar ap- 
pointed Joseph the supervisor over his house- 
hold, the trouble [he had] would not have 
occurred." " 

ao) Rfferrtng to mount Morlah on wliieli the Templs 
ji) Sm Oen. Sfl. 7-20. 



^T« -i:i spy"" ■'m nn •'J'^^b .nsi"' 'n ina (3= 
K-inriDDi ,n«n tinpnn n^n nms' nni nsn 

: n«-ii 'n nnn c^n noN"' la's 

ni£iD^ n-'B'nD sip ■'sn sm inx ('° ii) 
irnynn .cmo iT'tt"'"!'? n^B^oa cmn 
Diiyo nyo no 'n^ mcy^ ny c'l-nn .T's^d^ 
■nan cma "'C"'n'7 n-'s-'Da .-[m'.n nan 
«iin .'n'? nwy^ nv mB'o nyta na "imin 
ny'i'3 nra D-'DJDon nytio ims prn ^'7n 
n3"'3n minnc nn n^«n cs dj3 cnTann 
T.V r,DUi nao i:''' («' '^-0) '«3ty ita T'^v 
d:3 r'bj; nn'^an minn ^''Kc t,t n-'isi d«i 
nn cm ."imTn nan 'n? mcy^ nv '«:»' 
n::: n'^^i nn«a nro r^ip fiap d^t snap 
n-iKi «nnN3 ^"v ■'"'^s "id« -i^:! "'"n pn 
nansj «'? «t2"'B'B ,13: ^mn «^ pn na: 
H^n i>^« «-iap 13 cm ,u>-\^ cn-'iccs «^k 
(J Dtr) ns i^i^n nmn ""su ^3C n-Jtap ncns 
-ia« -Trnn-i'^s ic^i sim mjn T'm '^oi 
c^iy^ «-iap 13 cm -miay im? i'7^as s3-i 
■««D -n^pi nfp3 mjDiK 122 n« cis lo^'' 
: «m''D^m stsno min*' ai ncs «^^ 

B^..K (n' ^bva) laKjc "in''3 T-Hs cryn CIK 
Qis n:Di 'i'K iDis --n-i s^jn .yynnn^ □•'jji 

imK^ K3 K^ in"'3 T'^a Dia'.-itiiBN cidt" n« 
Ttj nciB n2tDD3 nD'7 iDiK ''31 «''Jn .-Di 

was built. 



96 



n "1 3 -I 3 



IX 



own hand {a natural death) Lord, of those 
who die of age." ''Their share shall be ia 
life," was God's answer. Thereupon a Heaven- 
ly voice went forth and said, '■Happy art thou, 
Akiba, that thou art chosen for the bliss of 
futurity."' 

(Fol. 6'2b) If the Lord hath instigat- 
ed thee against me (I Sam. 26, 19). R. 
Elazar said: "Thus spoke the Holy 
One, praised, be He ! unto David, 'Art 
thou calling me instigator? I will 
cause thee to stumble even with that which 
school children know'; for it is written (Ex. 
30, 1'2.) When thou fakest the sum of tha 
children of Israel of those who are to he num- 
bered, then shall each man pay a ransom for 
his soul [which means that Israel should not 
be counted unless a ransom is given for that 
act]. Immediately after this it happened (I 
Chr. 21, 1.) And Satan moved against Israel 
and enticed David. It is also %vritten (II Sam. 
24, 1.) He instigated David against them to 
say ' Go number Israel and Jiidah,' and since 
he counted them without taking a ransom 
from them, it is written immediately there- 
after And the Lord sent a pestilence into 
Israel from morning even to the time ap- 
pointed. Wliat is meant by From morning 
even to the time appointed? Samuel, the se- 
nior, and son-in-law of E. Chanina. said in R. 
Chanina's name: "From the time of the 
elaughter of the perpetual-daily-moming-nf- 
fering" until the sprinkling of its blood." 
And R. Jochanan said: "Until noon," And 
He said to the angel, that destroyed among, 
the people great' (Jh. ib. 16). What i3 
meant by great? R. Elazar said: "Thus 
said the Holy One, praised be He ! 'Take me 
the greatest of them in whom there is [merit 
enough] with which to pay their debts (sins). 
At that moment Abishai b. Zeruyah. who was 
the equal of the majority of the SanheiJ- 
rin, died. But as he iras destroying, the. Lord 
looked on and bethought Himself (I Chr. 
21, 15). What did He see? Rab said: "He 
saw our father Jacob," for it is written (Gerr. 
32, 3.) And when Jacob satv them (Ea'ah) 
he said, etc." Samuel said: "He saw the 
ashes nf Isaac, for it is said (Ib. 22. 8.) God 
will show vs the lamb for them." R. Isaac 
Napbcha said : "Ho saw the atonement money 
[which was donated for the construction of 
the Tabernacle], for it is said (Ex. 31, 16.) 
And thou shall take the atonement money"; 



".CH ."'a "iiT'cn 'n c« (1: «"«•) (-"" -° "t^) 
•«-n V nnp rcomn'? n"2pn nv -in« «"t 
n-'s ^iy mp'.jTi "'ssc nam i'i?''i:*:D ''in 
n« Ncn •'J C' "'=«•) inwc u jn-'m pi 
-IB13 D'^K i:nii cnnps^ ^snc''' •'jn c'«t 
7«na''' 7y ii^"'^ TiCyM («= •*""'') t'o -'^^^ 
■p nD«^ ana m n« hdm (1= ="") 3ti21 

-\p2r\0 ^«nc'^3 -im 'n ]n^i (db-) D^nsi ibo 
TKioc "i"K ."TjJ'.o ny nyi ""sn -lyio nv lyi 
«r3n •'3-n n^Dti'D wrin ■'nm n-'jnn «zd 
pn",'' ■'mi ."inpnt lyi von nu'inty nytt'D 
-«'7n^ noxM (=«•) .1^120 n",xn ly ii2« 
iTy'7« •'3-1 icK 31 ■'«D .31 Dy3 fiinttnin 
■3 city ]n3ty 3in ^ic is^d^ n"3pn y'x 
■«t:'i3«nDnytynm«3.m3'in nos pD yis"-^ 
(«: «"m) .]"»nnjD ^B^ .13113 ^"ipB'ty n-iiis p 
nHi iKo -nyin 'ry nnri 'n nsi n^nts-nDi 

(1", n^vHiz) ncSity -K1 'i:"'3« 3py 31 io« 
11E« 1D« ^S-.Oa'l 'CXI 1C'«3 3py ICK^l 

1'? nxii c^n'TS (:: C-) 'Kit:' nxi pni"" ^ty 
nKi ci-.sr r^DS ick KncJ pn^f^ 'i ,nt:'ii 
1311 .cinsrn r,D3 r\n nnp'i'i (^ n"o«') '«Jty 
minn:) 3in3i HKi t:*ip£:n n"'3 1D« iJn*;' 



18) See Nnm. 28. 4. „„.„» ..„,w>.r. whlrh orlitoaUy means "sa-w" or "see." 

IB) In both pl««« the 'worf Ro'<^^ appears, wmcn onitioau, ui 



99 



npj>- pj; 



tax 



When Chanania the son of R. Joshua's broth- 
er went into exile, he made leapyears and 
fixed daj's for the new moon^' outside of 
Palestine. The Rabbis sent two disciples after 
him, R. Jose b. Kippar and the grandson of 
R. Zechariah b. Kebutal [to warn him 
against such an act]. As soon as R. Chan- 
ania saw them he said: "For what have ye 
come here?" "To learn the Torah from you 
have we come," they replied. He then intro- 
duced them [before the public] : "They are 
the prominent men of this generation whose 
fathers served in the Temple as we have been 
taught (in a Mishnah). Zechariah b. Kebut- 
al says, 'Many a time have I read before him 
in the book of Daniel.' "-' He began to teach 
them and of everything he said levitically un- 
clean they said clean; prohibited, they said 
permitted ; so that he began denouncing them, 
saying, "These men are false and of a wicked 
nature." "It is too late," said they to him. 
"What thou hast already built thou canst not 
destroy ; what thou hast already repaired thou 
canst not break." Thereupon he asked them: 
"Why have ye said clean of things which I 
declared unclean, and allowed things which I 
declared prohibited?" Whereupon they an- 
swered him: "Becauso thou hast made leap 
years and hast fixed days for the new moon 
outside of Palestine." He said to them, 
"Had not R. Akiba b. Joseph made leap- 
years and fixed days for the newmoon out- 
side of Palestine?" "R. Akiba was differ- 
ent," they answered him, "because none 
grenter than he was left in Palestine." 
"Have I left any one bigger than I am in 
Palestine?" "The kids (young scholars) 
have grown to be wethers (great scholars) 
of horns [who are able to measure their in- 
tellectual strength VN-ith thee], and they sent 
us unto thee saying thus. 'Go tell him in our 
names : If he will listen it is well but if not let 
him be under ban, (Fol. 63b) and warn our 
exiled brethren that if they will listen it is 
well, but if not let them ascend the moun- 
tain (to make a heathen altar) .^^ Achi3'a 
will be the builder [of such an altar] and 
Chanania (of above) shall play violin and 



bv iJ^ pi 'W'-ii p •'Di^ •'ai n"n ^jb^ mnw 
DH^ 1DK cm« HM-iB' IT'S ^aup p nnot 
msn i:n3 min tid'?^ i': tid« ansa no^ 
cnTnawi en nnn i^n: i^^n ctrjx cni7y 
nnDT irjD't:' nmKD ^"\^-ov^ n-'ns icotr 
V3D'? Tinp D"'DyB nmn nD",« 'J'Dup ]3 
Dnntio Dm moqd Kin 'b^nnn '7K"'n ison 
D''t:':« cn"'^v tn^n ^''ttid cm idis sin 
-133 1^ nD« .an imn ^c en Nitr ^ty i^^n 
nn« •'K1 mia 133 -iino^ ^13'' nn« i«i n-iji 
«Dt2D ^j« no ^:£io en? now .fins'? 'bis-' 
nD« .cnTiD nnNi nois ■>:« cnnan onsi 
□•'B'nn v^ipi c'Jti' "I2VQ nn«c ^jijo t> 
qor p ws-'py Nbm nn? noN .f'n«^ nsin3 
.pK: ]'in3 ccnn y3ipi d"'Jc nsyn v:^^ 
vh^ K3''pjj '«3n njn i^ ncN 
ij« ri« nnb ncK htxya-^ }'n«3 iniD3 n^jn 
D^n: 1"? inDK ^wnry^ j'nss •'mD3 ^nnjn n^ 
•"Jinjty Dm D-'jnp ^^jj3 D^ty-ri wy: nnjnty 

CK 1J!2tt'3 l!? nD«l li"? IJ'7 nD« 131 'ip'i)^ 

irns^ noKi rnn sn^ i«^ dki 3Uio voib» 
,nn^ i^y i«^ qki nmo cvow d« n'7i:3B> 
D^3 nc3^i -1^33 p:^ nijjn n3To nj3'' nmK 
ly; T^o ■'7Knt:'' \n^N3 p^n Dn^ ps noK-"! 



Jewist calendaT 1^ based upon the lunar systenu In ancient days the new moon or the first of the 



S'r^'oiar'^ypar."Tn'a 'eTery""t'wooj "three" years' the dilfefence is equalized by the addition of a month. That year 
Is then called a "leaft year." 

271 This refers to the High Priest on tha nirtt of Atonement when he was not allowed to sleep, eome r,T■^ had 
fc keep him from sleep by reading stories. — Zacharihh being one who was prominent was selected tor that- 
honorary position. See Yama 18b. 

It) The way of Mrvtng the Gods vtta on elewited places. See Jeremiah 2, 20. 



98 



n 1 3 1 3 



nx 



We are taught that Eabbi says: 'TVliy has 
the section referring to the Nazarite been ar- 
ranged close to the section of Sola?- To tell 
us tliat if one sec a Sofa in her corrupted 
state he shall obstain from wine." Ilez- 
ekiah, the son of R. Parnach, said in the name 
of R. Jochanan: "Why has the section refer- 
ring to the Sola been arranged close to the 
section of Tcrumah and tithes?" To tell us 
that whoever has Tcrumah and tithes and 
does not give them to the priest will finally 
be obliged [to go] to the Priest on account 
of his wife, as it is said (Num. 5, 10.) And 
even/ man's hallowed things shall he his, and 
immediately succeeding this is written // 
the wife of any man go saide; and after this is 
written: Then shall the man bring his wife, 
etc. And moreover poverty will at last over- 
take him and he wi'l become a recipient of 
that same thing which he refused to give, '* 
as it is said And evfnj man's hallowed things 
shall be his [i. e.. And every man's hallowed 
things, — if he gives it not to the priest, — shall 
he his own, — for his own necessities]." R. 
Nachman b. Isaac said: "If, on the other 
hand, he give [deliberately the tithes to the 
priest], he will become rich, as it is said (lb.) 
Whatever any man giveth to the priest shall 
lelong to him, i. e., he shall have much 
wealth." 

R. Huna b. Brachia in the name of R. 
Elazar Hakapar said : "To him who associates 
the Heavenly name in his troubles (praising 
the Lord even for misfortune), his means of 
support will be doubled, as it is said (Job 
22., 25.) Yea, the Almighty shall be thy de- 
fence, and thou shall have plenty of silver."" 
R. Samuel b. Nachmeini said : "His main- 
tenance will come as quickly as a bird flies ; 
for it is said (lb.) And thou shalt have 
plenty of silver." 

R. Tubia said in the name of E. Joshiya: 
"He who is careless about the study of the 
Torah, will have no strength to withstand a 
day of adyer-:ity; as it is said (Pr. 24, 10.) 
If thmi faint in the day of adversity, thy 
strength i small." R. Ami b. Mathun in the 
name of Samuel said: "Even [if he weaken 
himself] from one meritorious deed ; for it 
is said If thou faint, i. e., from whatever the 
weakening; may be." 



nnn .T'pTn nD« .i'\-i p loxy Tr'» n^ip^pa 
ncns nrcDj nD*; pn-,' ''an -id« -];ns) ''2"n 
brty ']b iDi^ nnryDi monn ntyiD^ hdid 
jna^ ]imj u-iki nncyjii monn i^ ty^ty 
13103) iDKjB> ,',nrK n^ ^ jno^ ptfj e;:d 

a^nai (•wj 'c rvbn) m'^K nc'^n ^d is'^n 
PiiD HbH r,y K^i /1J1 inc'K n« tr^wn K^nni 
,iM^ 1^ rtt'ip n« B"'«i ncNJt:' jn^ i^-^^a^ 
itt-yno q-.D cjmj cni pns^ ia jon: an ncs 
1^ ,nvn^ 1^ jn:;^ jn^ nc-K c^« (av nnwB' 
n^ana na win an noK ,nann jidd ^^n^ 
c'DB' 0^ TinB'Qn ^a nspn nry^N ^an mts'D 
(23 3TK) -lOKjtjf iriDin? 1? p^s:a nyxa 
^Nxc ••an .-p msvin cioai ynxa nty n\m 
m£3sa 1'? nB£',j;n inD:n£3 nD« ^jonj na 
^a n^tt'S' n"K ,-;^ msyin ^oai nawB' 
mcy^ na n ;••« nn:n ^nano loxy nsnon 
nns c'^z n-'snnn (i: -^b-o) nosjc' nnx m^a 
^HrsB' ni2« njna na ^d» n"« .nana ns 
: cipc ^ro n^snnn newt:' nnx nisD i^^bh 
^vriB'D Kin inas ^an «nBD an noN 
n\n n^ij'7 ytyin^ 'n ^ns p n'jjh nn^tya 



R. Saffra said that R. Abuhu related 



■n:^' ,pH^ nxina D^cnn yaipi ci^ff nayo 

See N<iin. 5 treats of Sofa and 6 treat!) of Nazarite. 



22) K woman E«?pected of adulteny. 

I>) See Num. 5. 10-12. 

•4) Tithes ar» giTen to th« L«Tlt«» and the poor. 

331 Bet»arec\a (thy def«n««). Is «xplaliied here aa If U wore irrltten Bettarothecha (In thy troubles) 



101 



3 p y ' r y 



xp 



return the tent unto its place, it will be well, 
if not Joshua b. Nun, thy disciple, will serve 
instead of thee;' and thus is understood 
what is written [immediately after this]. 
And he (Moses) returned unto the camp." 
Eaba said: "Xevertheless, the words were 
not uttered for no purpose; for it is said 
And his servant, Joshua h. Nun, a young man, 
departed not out of the tent. (lb.)" [Show- 
ing that he remained there since] . 

E. Juda again opened in honor of the 
Torah and expounded Be attentive, and 
hearken, Israel, this day art thou become 
a people. (Deu. 27, 9). "Was the Torah then 
given unto Israel on that day ? Behold ! 
forty years had already elapsed. But this 
is stated for the purpose of inferring from 
it that the Torah shall always be as dear and 
beloved by its students, as if that very day 
it had been given on Mt. Sinai." R. Tan- 
chum, son of E. Chiya, the man from the 
village of Aahu, said: "You may infer 
it from the following. A man who is 
accustomed to read the Sh'm'a, reads 
it every day, morning and evening; and 
if he miss but one evening it seems to 
him as if he had never read the Sh'm'a." 
Be attentive, i. e., organize yourself into a 
company for the purpose of studying the 
Torah, because the Torah can be acquired 
only if studied in company ; for R. Jose, the 
son of R. Chanina, said : "What is meant by 
the passage (Jer. 50, 36.) The sword is 
against the lying soothsayers and they shall 
become foolish, i. e., the sword is against the 
learned who sit alone and study the Torah 
in privacy. Moreover, they become foolish; 
for it is written here Veno'alu (and they 
shall become foolish), and it is written there 
(Num. 12, 11.) No'aJnu (wherein we have 
acted foolishly). Moreover, they will commit 
sins; for it is said (lb.) And wherein we 
have sinned (No'alnu), and if you wish [I 
conclude] from this (Is. 19, 13.) The prince 
of Tzo-an are become fools (No'alu)." We 
can explain in another way: Be attentive and 
listen, Expose yourselves to being smitten 
over the study of the Torah, as Eesh Lakish 
said: "Whence do we infer that the 
Torali will be preserved with him only who is 
readv to die for her? It is said (Num. 19, 
li.) This is the Torah, when a man dieih in 
a tent." We may explain in another way: Be 
attentive and listen, Israel; Be quiet, 
listen, and then explain it,^^ as Eaba said 

' 29) la^asketh (be attentive), when divided Im two Boat 



3t2TD iDipo^ inan nnnn nn« dk Dni'ry 
-jinnn mtrn -piD^n pj p yiriiT i«^ a«i 

ycM.T imtt'oi 'sjt? n^t23^ ^2^]n wif n't p 
: '^nHn ^ino tt'ic «'? ny: ju p 
mi nmn iudi nT^r^ •'m nns T;yi 
nrn uvn ^Kitt*' ^'dk*! n^on ('= o'^:^) 
'b«ntt"''7 mm n:nj avn imx ■'Ji cv"? n^na 
«'7« n\n niu n"'j;aiK r|",D av iniK H'bm 
D","' '733 nnoi^ ^y mm ns'^nnc -pn^^ 
mnan ••an ids ."'j'^d nno n:n:r d''13 cri 
nnc yin irv "is3 ^''^ «^''n ''3"i"r nns 
^^« 31JJ1 n''an>"i nnnc' ^"p «np cix 
.d7tj;d tr"p snp n^c •'ds m2'n «nip irw 
''s'7 minn ipoyi mns mns wj; nson 
''Dv ""ama muna k^« r\'':p: minn ]^«tr 
2^31 •'«D srjn 13 iDT« 131 1CNT «r:n n3 
^y 3in t^xui Q"'i3n 'tis 3nn ('^ -""av) 
ppmyi 133 13 |''3t:","'i:' n";! '?v cn^i^iw 
Ksn 3in3 iitr'BBttc* k^« ny x^i n-nn3 
«'7i 13'7KU "it:*« (=' 'i^''^^) cnn 3^31 I'rwiji 
•"Ki ,i3«t2n ncKi 'H:\ff p«t2inty k^k my 
.lyis •'-IB' i^NiJ (!=' 'i']?«") «3nD ivcH n"'y3 
c3D!iy inns ^sity' yrstyi nrcn ins 131 

Cip^ ti'il ICHI B'V^ B'"''!"'- '■'1^^ '12"' ^y 

1D3 K^s D^Diipno mm 1131 ]'>«v r:o 

;^KT (B^ n:-iD:) 'KJtt' ni'by ID^fy niODt? 

yotyi n3Dn «"i .^n«3 mc ""3 di« mmn 

fcetft, means "be quiet and listen" also "explalB." 



100 



n 



let them all deny Eternity and say we have 
no more a share in tlie God of Israel.' " 
Immediately after they finished tliis message, 
tlie people lommeneed to weep loudly and 
said, "God forbid sueh a tiling. [Our sin- 
cere desire is J to keep on having a share in 
the God of Israel." 

And why were the Rabbis so severe in 
their waruijig? Because it is said (Is. 2, 3.) 
Out of Zion shall come forth the Torah and 
the u-onts of the Lord out of Jerusalem. It 
could quite be understood had the two dis- 
ciples doelared unclean whatever Chanania 
declared clean, as tliis would have been per- 
missible, but how was it that what he de- 
clared unclean they declared clean? Have 
we not taught: "If one sage declared a thing 
[levitically] unclean another one has no 
right to declare it clean; if one prohibited 
a thing, the other one is not permitted to 
declare it allowed."' They did it because the 
people should not be guided by him. 

Our Rabbis taught: When our Rabbis 
entered the academy of Jabne, they 
found R. Juda, R. Jose, R. Nechemia. and 
R. Elazar, the son of R. Jose the Galilean, 
there. They all began to expound in honor 
of hospitality to the stranger. R. Juda, 
the chief speaker in every place, hegan in 
honor of the Torah and preached. "It is 
written (E.x. 33, 7.) And Moses took his 
tent, and pitched it outside the camp. Can 
we not conclude this from the mle of a 
fortiori: that if the Lord's ark which was 
at a distance of only twelve miles, the Torah 
says (lb. ib.) And it came to pa.<:s that every 
one who sought [instruction of] the Lord 
went out unto the Tabernacle of the con- 
gregation, surely, then scholars who travel 
from one town to another and from one land 
to another, should be called those who sought 
the Lord." And the Lord spol-e utrto Mose.? 
face to face. (Ib.) R. Isaac said : "Thus saith 
the Holy One. praised be Ho? unto Mose?. 
'Moses, let us cheer each other np in the 
Hnlacha by discussion.'" And some sav: 
"Thus ?aid the Holy One. praised be He! 
unto Moses : 'Moses, just as I have been kind 
enough to thee, so be thou kind (forbearing) 
to Israel anct return the tent unto its former 
place.' " And then he returned unto the ramp, 
etc. (Ib.) R. Abuhu said: "Thus said the 
Holy One. praised be He ! unto Moses : 'Now 
the people will say. The teacher (God) be 
an£rr\% and the scholar (Mnses) be angrv, 
▼hat will become of Israel? If thou wilt 



ci^tt'i on T1DN1 n''332 c-;n '?2 
.no? p 731 .^«Tji \n7sa p^n m'? u"^ 
nmn Nxn p-^n -"d -lowjiy oiiyo 

DnnDD pi KDQD «in K^« moin^ pwDco 

'•Ntt'T nian ]m WDtaty con N-'jnm n-^n ■'r\n 

•inaD Kp ."iTin^ •'Ntj'i n"»3n pw ids nnc^ 

:nnn3 mjj K'bi ''3\t ^3 

ciy iM n33'3 cn3^ u^msi 'iDJ3Jty3 Yn 
^to* U3 s"m iTiam ^311 'Di^ ^311 min^ ''3-1 
,ic-m H-'jDaH 11333 D^i3 innc ^^i^jn ■•"-i 
mpo '733 D"'i3ian rsi min"» ■'31 nns 
n« np> nttT2i (>'> nio^) t^iii min 11333 
"["p cn3i K%ni n:nD^ j'^no i^ naji '?nHn 
'7"'D 3"'' «^« pniiD HM K^ty 'n piK noi 
^K Ni'^ 'n t:'p3a 73 n^m (.av) min niDN 
nriDDi Tij;^ -i^yo D''3^inB' n"n lyio ^hk 
^« 'n 1311 (0=*) .i"3y« mm no^^ njno^ 
n"3pn y'K pnx^ -i"k d^jd '?h d^jb ntyo 
-n3^n3 D^3B n^3Dj nriKi ^j« ntra ntro^ 
^JKc OB'S ntm^ n"3pn V'k p noKi «3*k 
^Kisy^ cis nsDH nriK p cjb i^ 'm3Dn 
iCK '131 njncn ^« 3B'i .inipa^ "rnsn itnm 
iTCK* vtrav ntyo^ n"3pn V'k in3K ^3i 
Knn TO ^K-itf'' CV33 i^n^ni Dy33 3in 



103 



apy ry 



:p 



thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because 
thou wert a stranger in his land (Deu. 23, 
8). "Can this not be concluded through the 
rule of a fortiori? If the Egyptians who came 
nigh unto Israel for their own benefit only, 
as^is said (Gen. 47, 6.) And if thou knowest 
that there are among them men of activity, 
then appoint them rulers over my cattle, were 
so protected; how much more then, should 
he be protected who takes in a learned man 
and gives him food and drink and lets him 
enjoy of their wealth?" 

R. Elazar, the son of R. Jose, the Galilean 
opened in honor of him who is hospitable to 
the stranger: And the Lord blessed Obed- 
Edom. and all his household, (II Sam. 6, 11). 
"Behold, we can infer this through the rule 
of a fortiori; if keeping the house clean, in 
honor of the Holy Ark with the Tablet, which 
neither eats nor drinks, was blessed, how 
much more will he be blessed who keeps a 
learned man and gives him food and drmk 
and permits him to enjoy of his wealth?" 
Of what did the blessing (of Obed-Edom) 
consist? E. Jud.i b. Zabida said: "It was 
that Chamoth and her eight daughters-in- 
law each gave birth to six at a time, as it is 
said (I Chr. 26, 5.) Pe'ulthai the eighth be- 
cause God blessed him, etc., sixty-two were 
all that Obed-Edom had." 

(Fol. 64a) E. Abin the Levite said: "Ho 
•who forces time will in return be pressed by 
time; but to him who gives way to time 
(yielding patiently to circumstances), time 
will give way. [We know it] from the in- 
cident of Eabba and E. Joseph, for E. Joseph 
was called Sinai (Erudite scholar) and Eabba 
was called Ol-ar Harim (Dialectician). One 
of them was wanted [to become the head of an 
academy] et they sent into Palestine [to m- 
inquire'to w" 'cli one the office should be offer- 
ed] : "Sinai or Ohar Harim, which one is the 
better?" Whereupon they were answered that 
Sinai should be preferred, because all need the 
possessor of wheat (versed in the Mishnah 
and the Baraitha). And yet E. Joseph did 
not accept, for the Chaldeans (soothsayers) 
foretold unto him, "Thou wilst reign only 
twelve years." So Eabba became the head 
and after reigning twenty-two Yf^r «; 
Joseph became head for twelve and a half 
rear= During all the vears in which Eabba 
was the head, E. Joseph [never conducted 
himself in any manner of domm.ntion]. JNot 
even a barber did he call into his liouse. 

Again said E. Abin the Levite: "What 



K^« ^snti''' n« unp x^c' D^i^fo noi V'p 
B'"«i nyT csi ("3 n'trsnn) -inKJty ]nsy ']^^^^'? 

inpcm iT-irxDi mis "[ins n"n mscn ,-\3 
i"-\ ^ty 1:2 N"T nns .i"3«y vd^jd inanm 
'n "innM (« ^"v) B'-m K"<iDr« nnsn '^■•'bjri 
pn« mnp •'nan ens lav; r\^2 nN 'ui 
^DK K^c Y^'iH nm V'p Di-im «7m ,c^^^K^ 
n"n niHon .-[S v:s'7 {"m nns «7S nnm 
vd2:d \r]inri'i inpcDi i'i'"'DKm in^a 'y\r\2 

n'i'lty n-rn^a nantrn man it Hi-inr na 
K"m) -iDs:t5' (""D «n) rins mz2 ncc ntra' 

3^131 ,n^n^K 1313 ""D •'J''Dtt'n Tl'i'yB (i: 

cn-iji", nan cnK nmj? ""ja n^K ^3 (o-) 

c^:tri n^tt'tt' mi3y^ n33 ^-"n tt'^« cn-^nsi 

:Dns 1311?^ 

nytt-n n« pn-nn ^3 ^iSn r^^ '^i ■>»« 
nj;B>n ■':db nmin ^3i ,inpnn nyu' 
3m -re-"' 3m n3mD i^ maiy nya' 
in^ «3ntiSK D^n npiy n3m ■':"'d rjOi* 
nna nfs cnn npiyi '•ro cnn^ ^nbv Knyty 
na^ ]"'3''ns ^3nty UT.p •'ro in'7 in^ty .mip 
r,DT» 3n i-'^y '73P s^ p "IS ^y f,n .s-'tsn 
nsn I'ba .]'ic pmn n3'i'a ^sn'73 n''^ nawT 
]^:t? ^Tinn vp^" 3n I'i'a I'jc rmm pnt:*y 
«:ai« '■'SK n3n I'bai "iH' ijn ^3 kj^si 



102 



n 1 : n 3 



3p 



"A man shall first study and then think how 
to explain it." 

It was 8aid in the academy of R. Janai, 
"What is meant by the passage (Pr. 30, 33). 
For the pressure of milk brinyeth forth but- 
ter, and the pressure of the nose bringcth forth 
blood, so the pressttre of wrath bringeth forth 
strife? That is, In whom can you find the but- 
ter (the prime) of Torah? who has vomited 
the milk of his mother's breast on account 
of her (the Tonili). And the pressure of the 
nose bringeth forth blood, i. e., every disciple 
who is silent when the provocation of his 
teacher is upon him the first time, will be 
rewarded with the knowledge of being able 
to distinguish between ritually purified blood 
and unpurificd blood.'" So the pressure of 
wrath bringeth forth strife, i. e., everj- dis- 
ciple w^ho remains silent at the provocation 
of his teacher once and a second time will be 
rewarded with the knowledge of being able to 
distinguish between civil and criminal laws; 
for we are taught (in a Mishnah) that R. 
Ishmael says : "He who wants to become wise 
shall study the civil laws for there is no 
store (of wisdom) in the entire Torah richer 
than this (civil law), which is like a flowing 
well." R. Samuel b. Nachmeini said: 
"What is meant by the passage (Pr. 30, 32.) 
// thou hast become degraded by lifting thy- 
self up or, if thou ha-st deiised evil, put thy 
hand to thy mouth, i. e., He who lowers him- 
self (e.T:poses his ignorance) for the sake of 
learning the Torah. shall finally be raised; 
if he muzzle his mouth (is ashamed to ask 
his teacher) he will have to put his hand to 
the mouth [when he in turn is questioned]." 

R. Xechemiah opened in honor of the onff 
wTio exercised hospitality [toward strangers] 
and preached: And Saul said unto the Ken- 
ite, 'Go. depart, get you down from the midst 
of AmaleHtes lest I destroy thee with them, 
whereas ye acted kindly with the children of 
Israel at their coming up out of Egypt (I 
Sam. 15, 6). "Behold, can this not be con- 
cluded through the rule of a fortiori? If 
Jcthro who did not come near Moses for anj'- 
thing else but his own honor was so rewarded, 
how much more then should a man he re- 
warded, who takes learned men in his house, 
feeds them, gives them drink and lets them 
enjoy of his wealth ?' 

R. Jose opened in honor of the one who 
is hospitable and preached: Thou shalt not 
ahhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; 



Kan in«T Kano nns -p inKi on ^Nna"* 
2^n Y'T^ "2 (^ ''^»^) n-Tiai iKij ""sji im 

m"n ^a' nscn n:;:^ nns "^ca .nn h^t^ 
pm .n'7j? 1DN ntyD p:v^. n^n N^po-j ^02 
cys 121 v'7y c]}',2\ff td^d ^o dt «^si^ r,« 
aib KDta DT pa pnan^ nan pmB'i ^J■!•^•^<^ 

DJJIDB' TC^n ^3 an «->Sl^ D-iEH p^ ,-|inD 

nT.t pniBM n^jB'i nji^KT cys lan i^tj; 
pm nwBj ^jn'b nu"DD 'jn ]^2 pnan? 
piDjji Drnn^c n:fnn idik ^Nyc«^^ 131 
imi n-nna vii^pn -^^ px-t n":-c3 ^:n3 
12 ^n:d-^ --an mas .y^-j p^cr jnc jnc 
CKi Ktt'jnnn n^aj ck Cj •'ra) r'o ijcn: 

: HB^ T- EOT CKl N^JDn^ :S',D 

n"D t^mi i<^:D2H t,333 iT'anj •'21 nns 

"i'^pn '?« ^'H\r ICK-'T (m:Sn -irnm ':r .ra j*"!?) 

:cj? ibt:« jb ''p^oy "linn m m\d 12'? 
«7m ,'7«itt'^ 1:3 73 cy ion n-'^'y nnwi 
«7K nrc riK 3np K'ra' r\n'> noi vp Dn3i' 
:n'3 T;n3 n"n mxan .-p '.asy t,33^ 
•"103 nnK ^y vd33d "in:nm inpttno"; ",'7''3«m 
B'-m K-ijoas ni3p3 idt' ''3n nns •-d31 
k'7 K",n yns "3 'chn 3ynn k^ (j: c'-:3i) 



30) This refers to N'Idda. during the period of wom'^r''^ rren'tr-j^'ion. 



105 



3py^ ]'y 



r.p 



piiiiuiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii^ _ 

I SABBATH it n n tJ> I 

iiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiin^ 



CHAPTER ONE 

(Fol. 3b) "Son of nobles," said R. Cbiya 
unto Eab, "did I not tell thee that when Rab- 
bi is engaged on this treatise, ask him not 
about a subject treated in another treatise, 
for he may not have the subject matter in 
his mind. If Eabbi were not a great man 
thou mightest cause him shame, for he 
would give thee an answer which might not 
be the correct one. In this instance, however 
he gave thee the correct answer." 

(Fol. 10a) Eaba b. R. Huna was wont to 
put on fine gaiters for prayer, saying: It is 
written (Amos 4, 13.) Prepare thyself to meet 
thy God, Israel. Raba was accustomed 
to throw off his mantle and fold his hands 
when praying, saying : "Like a servant before 
his master [should a man standi." R. Ashi 
eaid : "I have noticed that R. Cahana in time 
of trouble was accustomed to throw olf his 
mantle and fold his hands while praying, say- 
ing : Tjike a servant before his master [should 
a man stand],' and in time of peace he 
clothed, covered and wrapped himself up and 
then prayed, saying: 'Prepare tlujself to meet 
thy God, Israel.'" (lb.) Eaba observing 
that R. Hamnuna was prolonging his prayer, 
Eaid: "They leave eternal life (Torah) and 
occupy themselves with transient life (pray- 
er)." But R. Hamnuna contends that a separ- 
ate time is provided for prayer and a 
separate time for study. R, Jeremiah was 
sitting before R. Zeira "discussing traditional 
law, [and as] it was becoming late for 
prayer, R. Jeremiah hurried [his teacher], 
whereupon R. Zeira read to him the passage 
(Pr. 28, 9.) When one turneth away his ear 
to as not to listen to the Torah, even his pray- 
er hecometh an abomination. 

R. Ami and R. Assi were accustomed to 
Bit between the pillars [of the academy] and 
every now and then to rap [the l)olt of the 
aoor] and say: "Is there any one who re- 
quires adjustment of a dispute? Let him 
come in." _ _„ 

B. Chisda and Kabba b. R. "Huna were 



TinB 13 m'7 K"'"'n ^m n"!^ -itsk ^"v (j ^^) 
«^ nDDD Nna •'an •'«p ""s ']'? HrD« k^ 
.nTijjiN iK^ «D^T innns njonn ni^i"'B'n 
'>:b'dt nTisD3 «'.n nan «-i3i '•aiT is? "^st 
TiBi? nn-'D «ntyn .xin «"> -oc "«^t «"'U{y i^ 

■«^xoi •'pons ■'tin K:in dt -\2 ksi (' 'n) 
«3n ,^N-itr"' 7n'7« nsnp^ )irn (t cidv) idk 
niop Ki3y3 nos ^^xm nn"" nasi sc'ba niy 
^3 «:n3 m^ n-''? «rTn ^cs 2-1 ins ,n''na 
an"' -1331 n'^D^'i'j nil' ND^jj3 xnys k3'»h 

«D'7C N3"'K "'3 .nno n-'Dp K12>"3 IDK "''i'i-ai 

]i3n IDS '''7X01 ciDynm •'Dsnni tt'^37 
«3i:Dn 31^ n"Tn n3t .'7«ntr^ -fn'i'.N nsnp'? 
D'i'iyn i''n pn-ijo no« htii^xs iinxo «pi 

nni n-nn ij"n :"mv "n) nytr ""^ns DipDiyi 
nin^ n^sn pr -|3D Kim A^'^tri ir-n I'-nnyn 

n-'Dp 3Ti^ Nin n"'DT' m .nin'? min pn 
nini "i'7S^ n23 Nnyocs \'ddv .ini snn 'm 
'7B'o) «-in •'31 n-i^y mp .n-'OT' 'n smoo 
in^sn d;i mm v'ob'd i:t« tdo (ns 

: nsyin 

may ^j"'3 101:1 ^sn^ iin "idn 3n ^dk 3i 
«tni Ni3i>'« ^nsQ nn snyu'i xnyc' ^31 
.Ti-'^i 'j'lj;''^ Kin n^^ n-iwi ns-is ^k noNi 
Kri3 i3ni nn win 3i 13 n3ii kidh 31 



104 



n 1 3 -I 3 



^P 



is meant by that which is written (Ps. 20, ".) 
May the Lord answer thcc in the day uf dis- 
tress. He should strengthen thee, the God of 
Jacob; The God of Jacob and not the God 
of Abraham and Isaac? We infer from this 
that tlio owner of the beam mu.-t take hold 
at the thickest part of it [if he desire to re- 
move it suceessfuliy]." " Further said K. 
Abin the Levite: ''ile who enjoys a meal at 
which a learned man is present is considered 
as if he were enjoying of Divine Glory, for 
it is said (Ex. 18, 12.) And Aaron came, 
uith all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with 
the father-in-law of Moses, before God. Were 
they then eating before God? Behold it was 
before Moses that they ate? But we learn 
from this that whoever partakes of a meal 
at which a learned man is present, is consider 
cd to be enjoying the Divine Glory." 

And further said R. Abin the Levite: "Ue 
who leaves his friend [after escorting him a 
distance] must tiot say 'Go in peace' but Go 
with peace.' for Jethro said unto Moses 
(Ex. 4, 18.) Go with peace. He went and suc- 
ceeded, but David said to Abshalom (II Sam. 
15, 9.) Go in peace. He went and hanged 
himself." 

Further said E. Abin the Levite: "He 
who takes leave of the dead body [after 
burial] must not say 'Go with peace' but 'Go 
in peace,' for it is said (Gen. 15, 15.) But 
thou shalt come to thy fathers in peace." 

E. Levi b. Chiya said : "He who goes out 
from the synagogue [after prayer] and enters 
the house of learning and studies the Torah 
will be permitted to wait on the Divine 
Presence, for it is said (Ps. 84., 8.) They g/> 
from strength to strength; each of them will 
appear before God in Zion." 

E. Elazar in the name of E. Chanina said : 
"Scholars advance peace in the world, as it 
is said (Is. 54, 13.) And all thy children 
shall be taught by the Lord and great shall 
he the peace of thy chillren. Read not Ba- 
naich (Thy Children), but read it Bonaick 
(thy builders)"; Great peace have they who 
love thy Torah and there is no stumbling for 
them (Ps. 119, 115). Peace be within thy 
rampart, prosperity within thy palaces (lb. 
122, 7). For my brethren and associates' 
sake I would fain speak peace concerning Thee 
(lb.). For the sal-e of the hou.'^e of the Lord 
our God. I would seek thy good. The Lord 
will give .strength unto his people; The Lord 
will bless his people with peace. 

THE EJND OF BERAjCHOTH. 



(: D':nn) T'd '>'in |''2N ■|"«1 -Kip «7 n^n'37 

■«n^« opy^ ••n'TK c'w* -p:r^ m:{ cv2 'n yv'' 
^Va'b ]«ro pnn cmsH •'n^« k^i apr 
]^:« T'Ni .m-p iv n-'s-.ya di2'>^ nmpn 

niQs-) -icsrj n3"'r'w'n "nn mn: i^«3 nDina 
njj en? Trs7 tst^*"" ■'^pr 731 ]-\r]ii n2^t Ot 
□■'n7sn ^J3'7 ''3'i c"'-'7sn ijs? nro jn^n 
'73 -p no",^ S7S "JrK n-jD ^iS7 «7m ■;7:,s 
n;:n3 •'■t^' crn i^cbnv nT,j;cn nj-an 
: ni'^^^ffn rtD njnj i'7«3 

•i-in"' nnty c-.7ty^ "p «"?« d"'i'7i:'3 -p i'? no«' 
n'7j; D-,'?ii''7 17 (T matr) nrc7 17 ncsc 

-p (la 3"=-) C"7C'3S7 17 10 SU' IH n"'7Vm 

p -iiiEjn ••-.^n i-'DK n"s'i .n^nr, ■i7n c",7!i'3 

C",^ll*3 -p «7S m^'^'7 -[7 17 -ICN"' 7« DCH 

Di3:i y'rnan s:i "•'n s"n n3 i"'? n"« •c"7t:*3 
••js 7''3pn7 n3iT minn pc-.j;"; i"rn3'7 
^•'n ^« ^^no 137"' (ID D-^nn) iDSit:' nr3rn 
^c'« 13 N-'-'n 3-1 IDS -^.''i':: c-'n^N ^s nsi' 
ntn c^iys «7 nmiD on^ ^k n"n 3-1 ncs 

'b'^no 13'7'' (IB O'^nn) '«3ty «3n C'?'y3 K71 

nr;7K''3T ncs .]",''i'3 c\i^s '?« nsr ^^n 7s 
noKJty cr,jj3 d-.'ju' duid n"n «r:n n"« 

-YJa CI^B' 311 'n •'T,t27 ^33 ^31 (13 "'V-*') 
Cl^a' (u'P B''?nn) y:'.2 «7« 7^3 ^npn 7S 
(3-ip DS-) '7",ty3D IC^ ]"'S"1 TTn-in ''3niK7 31 

]j;d^ (OS-) 7mjD"iK3 m^'i' V"'n3 c-r^' ■•n"' 

n''3 iVQ^ (c~) 13 Di^ti' «: rc-ns ■'p", '•ns 

TOV^ ny 'n (==•) i^ s'.ts nu-pss '.rn^s 'n 

: DISK'S icy n« ti3^ 'n ]n 

.n"i3-i3 nrcs p'''7D 



107 



spy^ pv 



»P 



wilt say that this is really the law, behold! 
Raba b. Meehasia in the name of R. Chama 
b. Guria who quoted Rab said: "Hemnutha 
(faith) is permitted to be pronounced in a 
privy." In the latter case it is different be- 
cause the word (faith) is not used substan- 
fivcly but qualifiedhj, for we explain it, The 
faithful God, whereas in the former case it is 
used substantively, as it is written He called 
it God is Peace. 

Raba b. Meehasia in the name of R. Cha- 
ma b. Guria who spoke in the name of Rab 
said: '"He who bestows a gift on his friend 
should let him know it; for it is said (Ex. 
31, 13.) That ye may know that I am the 
Lord ivho doth sanctify you." We have also 
a Baraitha to the same effect: That ye may 
know that I am the Lord ivho doth sanctify 
you, i. e.. The Holy One, praised be He ! 
eaid unto Moses "I have a good gift in my 
treasury : its name is Sabbath ; this I wish 
to bestow on Israel; go, and announce it to 
them." "We learn from this then," said 
Rabban Simon b. Gamaliel, "that if one give 
a piece of bread to a child he ought to make 
it known to the child's mother." What shall 
one do [to inform the mother] ? Abaye said : 
"He should put some oil around the child's 
eye or stain it with some dye" [so that his 
mother will ask him concerning it, and he 
will then tell her he also gave him bread]. 
Nowadays, however, when such is the ap- 
prehension of performing an act of witch- 
craft, what shall one do ? R. Papa said : "He 
should put some of this very thing he gave to 
the child around his eyes." Is it so? [that 
a gift should first be "told of] ; has not R. 
Chama b. Chanina said : "He who bestows a 
gift on his friend should not let him know of 
it, for it is said (Ex. 34, 29.) And Moses did 
not know that the skin of his face shone, 
lecavse He had spoken with him." This is 
not difficult to explain. The latter instance 
speaks of a thing that may become known by 
itself, but the former speaks of a thing that 
cannot become known by itself. Is not the 
Sabbath a thing that was to be known [and 
yet God informed Israel of it] ? But the re- 
ward [for observing it] cannot be known. 

R. Chisda held in his hand two priestly 
gifts ' from the meat of an ox and said : "I 
will give these to the man who will tell me 
one new law in the name of Rab." Where- 
upon Raba b. Meehasia said to him : "Thus, 



Km:! ni «cn n k k^dhd is sm *iDKm 

1'? «npM nTiDT Di^iy np-'s it's'.; c^ «Dn 

•• Diets' 'n 

-12 Kon m inw *rDTO 13 Kin nt:«T 
T>-ix nnn^ n:nt3 ]^)^^n m ncM Km: 
'n •>:« ""D nyi'7 («'' ^ob*) -lasr^ iv^"nn^ 
'n ^JK '•3 nvn^ ^2n icj win .DDiynpo 
ntra^ Kin "jTin c-npn n""^ "'.qk crc'npD 
•«jKi noB' natri njj n-'an •«^ u'> naio njno 
-iDK ;s2a .nynim -p ^K-iir''^ nin-'^ rpnn 
-lOK^ Viin^ T"-!:* pirn^ ns jnun ^''^tyi 
Knt^D n^^ Ei^Kty ''"'DK -iok n^^ n">3j; ^ko 
D^scj^ irty^m Kn-iKm -K^ms n-"^ ""^m 
••rK .\^T:in imKQ ni^ rpNa* kbs 3i ncK /'KO 
iV3n'7 n^nc jnun Kj-iin in Kcn n noKm 
K^ ntoiiT (n^ or) naKJB' ly^nin^ ^ns pK 
Kn K'^typ k'7 .inK nmn vis Tiy ]-\p 13 yr 
K^ Kn^-iDi Kn "'•'i^jiK'? KT'njjT Kn'7''n3 
]ni2 .''''i^iK^ KT'nyT nntr Km "'i-.^jk^ KTny 

:''il^3K^ KT>3y K^ m3B> 

KMino Tnn nn^n ta-'p: mn Knon 3*1 
KnnyDtt* >'? idki tikt ;sq '73 noK Kiim 
-iDK .n''7n''i in^ Kj3"'n'' 3m nicj'D Kmn 
mno ;mjn 31 idk "isn K-'ono "13 K3t n-"^ 



"rte Aaronltes -were to get gifts of erery Bliusltered cattle besides that of the offerings. See tier. 7, 



106 



n 2 V 



ip 



holding court the entire day and were becom- 
ing weak. R. Chiya b. Kaba ol' Dil'tv recited 
to them the passage: And the people stood 
about Moses from the morning unto the eve- 
ning. (Ex. IS, 8.) How can we imagine that 
Moses was hokling court the entire day? 
When did he study? We must tlierefore say 
that a Judge who, even for one hour, passes 
judgment according to its true equity, is 
credited by Scripture as if he had become a 
partner of God in the creation of the world, 
for it is written here (Ex. 18, 13.) From the 
morning unto the evening, and it is written, 
And it was morning and it was evenin-g the 
first day. [Hence you need not hold court the 
entire day.] 

Until" when should the work of justice 
continue? R. Shes^heth said: "Until meal- 
time." Rami b. Chama said : "What is the 
Biblical passage for it? Woe to thee, Land. 
when thy king is low-minded, and when thy 
princes eat in the morning. Happy^ art thou, 
Land, when thy king is nohle-spirited, and 
thy princes eat at the proper time for 
strengthening and not for gluttony (Ecc. 
Irt, 1(1.) i. e.. for strengthening of the Torah 
and not for the gluttony of wine." 

Our Rabbis taught: "The iirst hour [of 
the day] is the time when the Lydians eat;* 
during" the second hour robbers eat; during 
the third hour (rich) heirs eat ;= during tbo 
fourth hour laborers eat; during the fifth 
hour the people in general eat.'" Is this so? 
Has not R. Papa said that during the fourth 
hour the people in general eat? We must 
therefore say that "During the fourth hour 
the people in general eat; during the fifth 
hour laborers eat; during the sixth hour 
scholars eat ; from this hour on eating is like 
throwing a stone into a skin-bottle (it 
has no effect)." Abaye said: "This applies 
only to a case where nothing was tasted in 
the morning; but if something were tasted 
in the morning then it matters little [how 
late he eats]." 

(lb. b) This will support R. Hamnuna 
who said in the name of TJlla: "A man is 
forbidden to salute his friend with Shalom 
(peace) while in the bath-house, for it is said 
(Jud. 6, 24.) And he called it 'God is 
Peace.'" According to your conclusion the 
word Eemnutha (faith) should also not be 
pronounced in a prirw because it is written 
(Deu. 7, 9.) The faithful God. And if thou 

,, K <=«t of canilbals. See Wtlin. Fol. 47. 

J) Becflus* thfy inherited wealth and h«Te no worr 



^ cyn iicyi (n- rt-.av) ^risna 3-1 id N'»'«n 

(k"£! 2"2 ,k"c imnjD) ,3-iyn ly -\pzn JO HBTS 

c'.^n bz pi ari'' ncDtt* ^nyT 'by n7yn ^n 
pn ^D -p noi"? s^« .n-'tt'yj 'no '.mm ,','713 
nrnQ nns nyc i'j^bk in-'os^ noN ]n pty 
r\"2 tynpn^ ^imiy ntyyi_i'7KD ninrn \^'?y 
b]} cyn nay^i Ksn a^riD n^c'sin ntyyoa 
n'B-Ki:) nnn stidi myn ny ^p^n jo ntt-a 
"•no ny .in« ci' npn NnM my vn^i (« 
-rn-yD pr ly r\':;u m ics .|n3 jiatri' 

1? •»« (' nSnp) nT121 Kip •'«0 «Dn 2T "1D« 

•;ni:*K .i7rN"« ipsa y-^'z'^ lyi p?::'^ p« 
.',72«i nyn ■ywff'i cmn p '\2'm^ pM 
k'71 nmn bu rmsin .tsu^ k^i mn:3 
^DND naiirsn nyiy pai un .]" ^b* nTitya 
'7rKD n^tt'^'bty .ccd'? '7DSD n^::? .cm^ 
^3«D n^tyon .D^'byis ^3«d n^ysn .c'B'ti' 
pr n^ym kes 31 ncNm irx .dik ^3 
.DIN "73 '73SD n^ysT K'i'S .QiN '73^ miyo 
,n"n ^3KD n'^tyu' □■''Tyis ^3Kd n'tf^nn 

rti-m 13 I'Kr) non^ I3N pT.TS 17'K'! I«3D 
N'7N pDN N'7 "3X IDS .(iDn dk ncnn mK"?? 

n^D cyii '73K tnsxD '>i'o cvta n'^'T 
: n3 1^ n^^ «nsx3 
x^-.yi n'^ot^D Kj"i:Dn 3-1^ n""^ yioa (:"y) 
n'«33 iTsn^ m^ty jn-'c cnK? moK noxT 
'n ^b NipM (1 c'SBisf) 's:>^ cv^-;: fman 
no-'c'b T.c« 'cj xnijcn snyn n7« •cirj' 
.'cj '':nNC"'n'*3:.icKjn ^«n 3''n3T 3"n33 



109 



spv^ PV 



tap 



Chama b. Guria who spoke in the name of 

Eab said further: '"Rather any sickness than 
the sickness of the bowels; rather any pains 
than pains of the heart; rather any disorder 
than the disorder of the head ; rather any evil 
than a bad wife." 

Further said Raba b. Mechasia in the 
name of R. Chama b. Guria who said in the 
name of Rab: "If all the seas were ink; all 
the reeds were producing pens; the expanse 
if heaven were sheets of parchment, and all 
the children of men were scribes, yet it would 
not suffice to write the devices of political 
government." What is the Biblical passage 
[that refers to this] ? R. Mesharshia said 
(Pr. 25, 3.) As the height of the heavens, 
and the depth of the earth, so is the heart of 
Icings unsearchable. 

R. Joshua the son of R. Ide happened 
once to visit the house of R. Ashi. They pre- 
pared for him a calf, the third to its mother,' 
and they said to him: "Let the master taste 
something." Whereupon he answered : "I am 
fasting." They asked him: "Does not the 
master hold with R. Juda who said: 'A 
man can lend his fast (day) and repay it 
later." " "This,"" he answered, "is a fast on 
account of a (bad) dream, and Raba b. 
Mechasia in the name of R. Chama b. Guria 
quoted Rab, and said : Tasting is as good to 
avert a bad dream as fire to consume flax,' 
and R. Chisda said: 'It should be [kept] the 
same day,' to which R. Joseph added, 'That 
if a bad dream occurs it should be kept even 
on the Sabbath." 

(Fol. 12a) It was taught in the academy 
of R. Islimacl : "A man may go out with 
Tephilin on Fridav when it is almost dark."' 
Why? For Rabba b. Huna said: "We 
conclude that a man must feel his Tephilin 
every now and then, by the rule of a fortiori 
(from minor to major), concerning the 
Tzitz f If with respect to the Tzitz in which 
God's name is mentioned but once, the Torah 
says (Ex. 28, 38.) And it shall he upon his 
forehead ahmys so that he shall not escape 
his attention from it; how much more should 
a man feel the Tephilin in which God's name 
is mentioned many times? Hence [by feel- 
ing it] he will remind himself of the time 
when he has to remove it." It is taught that 
R. Chanania said : "A man must examine the 



'?:> .c'^ya "'Tin «^i ""^-in ^:; m hsn nhij 

.tysn cin-'D «^i cin-'D ^3 ■27 ;s: s^i ass 

: nyi n*^s s*?-. ny-i ^o 

13 son 3n ins K^ono n3 n3-i ncsi 
D-ioaNi "in CDNT ^3 T'n*' cs 31 -IDS snu 

sip •'SD .nwn ^ty n^'?n 3in3'' ]^p^aDD ]''« 
psi c'n'7 □■'DB' (n= '^=-0) sv^ntr'D 2^ ids 

:npn ]^S ^370 271 pDIJJ^ 

31 •'3^ y^p-^s n-'s 3m nn3 ytt'in"* 3-1 
nyo"'^ n-i^ -nos sn^Ti s^:iy nv n3y ^c*k 
n-'^ nos >!i3Ti'' sn-'jyns in? ics itid io 
m^ mm'' ■i"sn ■'"m sn? no n^b 130 s^i 
sin Di'7n n^jyn in'? ncs .ynisi inTy'n ms 
sm: 13 son 31 nns s''DnD n3 S3n nosi 
nasi miv:7 c*s3 oi^n^ ni^yn nsi 3*1 ids 
^3^3 "'SSI ppv 3n nnsi D113 i3i isnon m 

DIS SSI' i'Sycri ■'31 13T SJn (=' =11) 

snyti 'SD ns-iffn cy n3ti> 3-!j;3 p^-isna 
t^•at^•n^ ons s^n sjin 3-1 13 n3-i icst piD 
j'-'S nn I'-'i'D i"p nyc'i nytr* ^3 p^-'sni 
Olios') min mas nns m^rs S7S i3 pst:* 
-uoD in>n n"'Di s^c* t'dd ini-t: b-; n-im (n: 
nD3 nns '7y n3-in ni-i3Ts cna t:"''^' p'7''£3n 
n-ijin ''3-1 s''3n .in'b T'3t lan^n ir7''n ,nDDi 

«\ Thtt *TilM trt its mother is considered the best. 

-! n? iho cnKh,th the carn-ing of anything Is not allowed without the house unless there is an Eirul). 
ei>rt*ln flxrf wmbin^tlon ol localities by which the boundaries oan be extended; TephiUm are also not allowed 

^ rr 'rTe'lr^rpr *^,^rArn!Th'e' STg? ^^.est wo:.. See E.. 28. 37. 



108 



n 3 r 



np 



has said Rab, 'lie who hestows a gift on his 
friend e^hould inform him of it, for it is said 
(Ex. 31, 13.) That you may know that I am 
the Lord who doth sanctify you.'" So R. 
Chisda gave him the gifts. "Art thou so fond 
of the teacliings of Rab ?'' asked Raba b. Mc- 
chasia. "Yea," he responded. Whereupon Ra- 
ba b. Mechasia said : "This is what Rab said, 
'Garments are precious to those who are in- 
vested with them, [because they know the 
value of it].'" "Did Rab indeed say so?" 
asked R. Chisda. "Surely the last thing is 
better than the first one, and if I had other 
gifts I would bestow them on you." 

Further said Raba b. Mechasia in the 
name of R. Chama b. Guria who spoke in 
the name of Rab: "Xever should a man show 
preference for one child over his other chil- 
dren, because for the sake of two srlaim* 
worth of silk which Jacob bestowed on Joseph 
in preference to his other sons, the brothers 
became jealous of him and brought about 
the migration of our ancestors into Egypt." 

Further said Raba b. Mechasia in the 
name of R. Cliama b. Guria wlio spoke in 
the name of Rab : "A man should always try 
to make his residence in a city of recent set- 
tlement; for being a new settlement it has 
few sins; as it is said (Gen. 19, 20.) Behold 
now, this city is near to flee thereto, and if is 
little. Wliat is meant by She is near. Shall 
I say it means it is near in distance and small 
in settlement? Every one sees that. But it 
means its settlement is near (recent) and 
therefore its sins are not many." R. Abin Said : 
"What is the Biblical passage to support this ? 
It is written (lb.) Let me, I pray thee, 
escape thither, i. e., the word Nah (I pray 
thee) aggregates by its letters fifty-one, and 
Sedom was in existence fift}--two years ; (Fol. 
11a) twenty-six of which were tranquil, as 
it is written (lb. 14, 4.) Twelve years had 
they served Kedarlaomer, but thirteen years 
ihey rebelled. And in the fourteenth year 
came Kedarlaomer," etc. 

Furthermore said Raba b. Mechasia in 
the name of R. Chama b. Guria who spoke 
in the name of Rab : "Better to be imder an 
Ishmaelite than under an idolater; better 
under an idolater than under a Charmer ; ' 
better under a Charmer, than under a schol- 
ar: better under a scholar than under an 
orphan or a widow." 

Rabba b. Mechasia in the name of B. 



|''3''2n -\i2n .n"'7nij r[2rt> .cy^ipn 'n ^j« ^d 
^"s .]''S '7"N .''sn i'7",3 311 Nnnyo':; "p)} 

«n''''Dpn ''^ Ksjny sn^ina ''In an nos n-''? 
s'3i noN" .17 s'javi'' srinns x"0"'p3 n",n ^ki 
3T no« Nm:! nn ndh an ncs s-'ono 12 

nn*."' .-c",''^ 3p>"' \r\yz' n^-'O cyTD '2 'i'pK'D 
n2in ^j7jn:T i-ins "2 M<:pn: 'M2 n«tj'D 
: cn^iD^ "jTiiaN mi". 
Kan 2n nas s-'ona 12 S2«i nchi 
CIS T.tn'' n?r;7 21 ids s-im: 12 
T.nDi:* n2Tip nn2"'tt"'tr -i^y2 2ir"»i 
"iDKJii' CDVio n''ri^:^]l n2np nn2"'B'"«B' 
Du'i' n2Tip nstn i^yn «i njn (a* mtrKia) 
KQ^7"'x n2';np "'Kd .nyifa K\m ncsr 
-■no «7K .n^ itn «p sm .«mTi N2ip''DT 
■'2"i ION .iinj/'siD -Tiir^j? n2np nn2^w'^B' 
-Dti* «: nD7DS (=-) 2^121 r]i<-ip ■>Nn p2K 
2"j cno '7*^1 nn nm ]""w't2n Hnt2n'«;2 kj 
ma'y cnty {o^) 2^121 («' =•") i"2 sm'btt'i 

: 'iai -in',y'7m2 K2 ny:; mi:*j; j;2nN2i -.nn 
12 «an 21 ne« s-'cnn 12 S2n nasi 
•'i2",j? nnn k'?", ^syat:"' nnn 2n las snia 
,-i2n nnn nb: c^2t.2 ii2:y nnn ,c''22',2 
n"ia7n nnn .C2n T'B'7n nnn S7"i nan nnn 
:n3D^«i cin-" nnn «^i can 
n2 «an 2n "las K-'ona n2 K21 idwi 



4) A coin. 

0) A sect among the Persian tribes. 



lU 



3py^ ]^y 



v^? 



Divine Presence rests above the head-side of 
the sick; as it is said (lb.) The Lord will 
suttain him upon the bed of painful disease." 

(Fol. 13a) At the academy of Elijah it 
was taught: "Once it happened that a schol- 
ar who read (the Scripture) to a great extent 
and studied a great part (of the Talmud) 
and devoted much of his time in attendance 
upon the scholars, died very young, and his 
wife took his Tephilin and went around with 
them to every place of worship and study 
saying to the audience: 'Behold it is written 
in the Torah (Deu. 30, 20.) For He is thy 
life, and the length of thy days. My husband 
studied and read so much and (Fol. 13b) 
gave so much of his time to attendance 
upon the scholars ; why did he die so young ?' 
And there was none who could give her ans- 
wer. I happened once to stop at her house and 
she told me everything that had happened to 
her. I said to her : 'My daughter, how did he 
conduct himself during the days in which 
you were a Niddahf^" She answered: 'God 
forbid ! He refrained even from touching 
my little finger.' 'And during the days when 
you were a Lebuna,^* how was his conduct 
towards thee ?' I asked her again. Whereupon 
she answered: 'He ate with me, drank with 
me, and did not refrain from touching me.' 
I then said to her : 'Praised be the Holy One, 
who spared him not for the sake of scholar- 
ship, for the Torah says (Lev. 18, 19.) And 
a woman in the separation of her uncleanli- 
ness shalt thou not approach.' " When K. Di- 
mi came he said : "They were together in one 
bed [while in her Lebuna"]." In Palestine it 
was said, in the name of R. Isaac b. Joseph, 
that she wore breech cloth [while with him 
in one bed]. 

Our Eabbis taught : "Who wrote the scroll 
of Taanith ?"" They said : "Chananiah b. He- 
zekiah and his associates who cherished the 
memories of past troubles [because of the 
miraculous redemption], wrote the scrolls of 
Taanith." Eabban Simon b. Gamaliel said: 
"We also cherish the trouble [on account of 
its miraculous redemption] but what shall 
we do? If we were to record all the 
troubles, we would never be in a position to 
finish. It may also be said that a fool never 
feels trouble ; or dead flesh feels not the pain 
of the knife" (i. e., We have grown indifler- 



n'o'rn wim nun Knpi nain n:v\tr 
inrK nriMi i^a^ nn2 noi ny\n D^orn 
''nasi nrojD ^nas mrnoi t'^^bh nbtau 
C? Dtim) mina Tr\3 oni mD«i niBmo 
nain n:vv "'^'s -70^ tiiki 7'n Kin ^3 
••^Dn nann n"n v^v^ (^"v d») nain wipi 
.-[21 mnrro qik ^^^ k^i •t'o^ ^sna no no 
^0 nn''DD nn\m nVxK ^nniKn: nnw Dy» 
ITnT'j ^D-'a Tis nb ^mcKi jni«D inm 
j?3XNa ^'?^'Sin ci^iyi on ^b .-noH .^^xk \na 
^2« .y'?-^ ino T»jn^ ^D^3 .^3 y:: k^ mtsp 
K^i "IK'S 3nv3 ^oy ]»»i ^Dy n^\v^ ^oy 
•\\-\2 n'7 TinoKi .nm« nm ^ inyi nn^y 
'^•\nv n-nn^ n^is hv: K^t? linns' mpon 
r\i:2 ntt's ^ni (n' «ip'0 moK n-nnn 
ntao now ^on sn khk ^3 .3ipn k^ nriKoi© 
■»3 pnx^ 3n noK ^ntsK xsiyos .^Kin mn 
: nrs^ ij'3 p'DBD nro «1D"1* 
iiDK n':yn n^» 3n3 ^d p3T un (3"») 
-iD« .nnxn n« fDano i^nr iny^Di n^jjrr 
n« p33nD UK B|K 'jK'^Da p ]iyoir *3n 
]•>» 3in3^ lOHS DKr nyy: no ^3H nnxrt 
nnK 131 -yjBJ noitt' pK k"! .]'p^bdo ijk 
STjiDKm ^:^K ,^Dr»K3 f'iiD non IK'S j^k 
■^nn n»33 BnD3 no^ non nts'p pnx* 

I^K KCK ,3K3' 1^^ n»3 IK ("» ='"<) 1DKJ«^ 

3n noK .^T^K3 tr^aiD gnats' non ityi 



") ^WhUe1a™^™fThe -'ay^ after menstruation during wMch -^X,,^^^^V^Z IVilJ^" ""^^ 
cond- L is still prohibited until she counts seven clean and spotless days and b»Ui«a herself la « KtfctoA. 



no 



n 3 tr 



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pockets of his ^rarment^ on Friday evening 
when it is getting dark.'"" R. Joseph said: 
"This is a most important traditional law 
concerning the Sahbath." 

Our Ralibis taught: "He who comes to 
Tisit a sick man on tlie Sabbath shall say: 
'It is Sabbath and we are not allowed to cry^ 
but relief will soon come'; R. Meier said, 
he should say: "The Sabbath [if respected] 
may bring mercy.' (Fol. 12b) R. Juda 
said [one should say] : 'May the Omnipotent 
hare mercy on thee and on the sick of 
Israel' ; R. Jose said [one should sayl : 'May 
the Omnipotent have mercy on thee amongst 
the sick of Israel.' " 

Shcbnah, of Jerusalem, upon entering 
sa.id:Stialom, and upo leaving he would 
say: "It is Sabbath and we are not allowed 
to crj-, but relief will soon come, for His 
mercies are great, rest [meantime] in peace."' 
In accordance with whom did R. Chanina 
say that he who has a sick person in his house 
should include him [while praying for his 
health] amongst the sick of Israel? It is 
in accordance with R. Jose. Further said R. 
Chanina: "It is with reluctance that they 
(the sages) allowed the visit of condolence 
to mourners '" and the visit to the sick on the 
Sabbath [liecause it disturbs the Sabljath 
joy]." Rabba b. b. Ghana said: "\^nien I ac- 
companied R. Eliezer while visiting the sick, 
I sometimes heard him say [in Hebrew]. 
Hamakom Yiph-Keda.ch Leshalom}'^ and 
sometimes he said [in Aramaic] Rachmaimh 
Yedachrinach Lishlam."^' How could he do 
this? Did not R. Juda say: "Never should 
a man ask [of God] for his necessities in 
the Aramaic language," and R. Jochanan 
said : "He who asks for his necessities in the 
Aramaic tongue will not be attended to by the 
ministering angels because the ministerincj 
angels do not understand Aramaic." The case 
of a sick person is different because the She- 
china is with him ; for R. Anan said in the 
name of Rab : ""Whence do we learn that the 
Shechina strengthens the sick? It is said 
(Ps. 41, 4.) The Lord will sustain him upon 
the bed of painful disease." We have also a 
Baraitha to the same effect: "He who visits 
the sick shall sit neither on the bed [of the 
sick] nor on a chair, but he shall wrap him- 
self and sit in front of the sick because the 



0) To fee ■whether he has anything In It that l3 not 

10) .Virhi/m Aheilim. 

ID May the Omnipotent mind thee In peace. 

11) May the merciful remember thee In peace. 



cy nai:* any naaa cotyD^ mw n^-'n idik 
:n2U'7 Tim «n3^n r|D'i> ■'31 noK naiyn 

ic'.s r\z'Z'2 -r,nn ns ipn? Djrjn i"n 
D"T, ,«37 nanp ns'isni p"ij;t7D «m nsB' 
■".c'.K -r.n'' ''2-\ .cmnc K"'n n7i3^ -idi« 
''C'^ ""ii .7ST^"' ^^".n ?j;i "yiy nm^ u^pi^r] 
.7N-itt"' ''7in T;n3 yiy Dm-' D',p^n idix 

,m'7'J3 inaij'i n^zno iiDnm N3^ nnnp 
"i'7 tt'-'ii' -la si'':n >m noxT sn n7t« j«d3 
"i^.n ynn uanyi'^ ^nx in^z y.na n^^n 
ity-.pa srjn T'ni .■'CT' •'3-13 jsos ^ntj"' 
ins* .n3t:'3 wbin ■ip3^i di73n uni'? n^nn 
■"317 nnn3 p-i^TS mn -"S njn 13 13 n3T 
mpon m "icN piDT Nn^£n3 vr-^^ nty^^K 
■^inrT" sjnm nv ncs j-'ioni m^t:'^ -\ipsii 
D'7ij?'7 min'' ''31 lasm ••an i3j? '3"'n .D^ty? 
linT" n"«i •'onK ptr^s ranx ms ^nc' ^k 

^3K^D ps tQIK }1ty^3 r31X ^SltTH ^3 

]n''3n mtrn ""sk^o psB' i^ ppptj mt^n 
3n ■ii2ST,ovnj''3cin^in''jSB'.iDn« jrc^s 
-'7",nn riK ny^D nr3c"^' |^:o 3i icn py 
N-iin .'•n tyny ^y "inyD'> 'n (xo D>snn) -lONrj 
'7y 3*^'' «^ nr.nn ns np37 Dirjn Tn ••aj 
2^^'^^ Eicyno k'7« xd3 ^3: by k^i ntsan 13:1 

allowed to l>e carried on the Sabbatli. 



113 



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often that they abandoned its practice alto- 
gether] . " 

(Fol. 19a) We are taught: Thus it was 
the custom of the house of Eabban Gamaliel 
to give away white clotlies to the laundry three 
days before the Sabbath, but dyed garments 
they gave away even on a Friday. And from 
this we infer that white garments are harder 
to wash than colored ones. Abaye once gave 
away dyed clothes- to the laundry and he 
asked how much he would be charged for 
them. "As much as for white," answered 
the laundry-man, so Abaye said to him: "The 
Rabbis decided it long ago." 

CHAPTER TWO 



«'?ty KD^K «■?« T'D mojp ■'ri .niDJp --jn 
:niti'Si "•jn Ml 
•i:n:D n\T p pns ^2-1 ncs s^jn (a- =n) 
nc'^tt' D3'.3^ ]3^ --^s ]MnM vniy 3"-i no '?^ 
rott' 31^2 i'7''3s |''j?nsi nnD"'? CT.p cqi 

:pa-i "(imp -133 y'« .«irmD n-^^ 



D-'ic: 



■'0:30 



jnoi 



(Fol. 21a) Eami b. Chama recited that 
those wicks and oils with which the sages 
said that the Sabbath lamp should not be 
lit, are also forbidden to be lit in the Temple; 
for it is written (Ex. 27, 20.) To cause a 
light to burn always. After he learned it, he 
explained its reason: "The flame shall burn 
by itself and not through any other cause." 
An objection was raised from the following 
Mishnah: "Wicks were made from the old 
clothes of the priests and from their girdles 
for the lamp in the Temple" ; [and these were 
made of wool which is not permitted to be 
used for the Sabbath candles]. "The rejoic- 
ing of Succa is different." [was the ex- 
planation] . 

(Fol. 21b) Our Eabbis taught: "The prop- 
er observation [of kindling the light] at the 
■ feast of C'hanukah is one light for the whole 
household; but those who are strict light a 
candle for each individual member, and those 
that are extremely strict light up eight can- 
dles on the first day, decreasing the number 
by one on each succeeding day. This 
is according to the opinion of the school of 
Shammai ; but the school of Hillel says that 
we should light up one on the first day and 
on the remaining seven days the number of 
candles should be increased [*y one each 

day]." , , 

■ Ullah said : "There is a dispute between 
R. Jose b. Abin and R. Jose b. Zabula, two 
Amorites of Pa;:>stine, concerning this. One 
said, 'The interprt^ition of the school of 
Shammai is a remin(;?r of the future days 
[which are always decreasing], and the m- 



1 m'i'\-i£3 Nnn -13 •'m "'jn («;m) 
]^« n3D'3 ]n3 |"'p''^iD I'^s n"io3n nawt? 



(t; niBu-) 'NJti' DIC'D npD3 ]n2 ]^p''7ta 

ni nD« «im n'? "'^n Kin n^nn -\: m^>'n^ 

''K^30 jjn ,-inK n3i n^ ^y n^iy 
l-'jjipso "iM cn''r"'anDi c''jn3 
: •'jKi:' n3«''iti'n n"'3 nnatr .|"'p''^iD 



p ]imnDm nnsi in^ b^i i: ^mnam 
p^^iD iiB'Kn DT' D>-ioiN t:'"3 ^mnon 
m"! «"n3i ,i^im nms i^-'Si ]S3d mioa' 
."j'bim ci''DiD ■]'7^Ki 1S30 nn« p-i^in I'C'Ki 
••sn N3nyD3 •'S-nas nn n3 •':"''7S N^-.y io« 

"1D« "in Xl-iST -13 ••DT' 13-n I13K n3 ^DT" 

noi wnyaT ]^D:3jn cd'' n:j3 C'"3i Noyta 

7a Uiat the great Sanliedrin whea 



112 



n 3 r 



3^P 



ent through the frequency of persecutions). 
Is it so ? Behold ! I{. Isaac said : "Worms nre 
as painful to the dead body as is the pain 
when a needle is stuck into healthy fleshy 
for it is written (Job. 14, 22.) But his body 
on him fcckih pain." [hence we understand 
that a dead body feels pain]." Eabbaii Simon 
b. Gamaliel must have meant this: "The 
dead flesh in a living body feels not the pain 
of the knife." 

R. Juda in the name of Eab said : "How- 
ever, we should remember for fjood the mem- 
ory of Chananiah b. Hezekiah. Had it not 
been for him, the book of Ezekiel would have 
been suppressed because of the contradictions 
it offers to the words of the Torah. What 
did he do? Three hundred garahs of oil 
[for food and light] were brought up to hira 
in an upper chamber and he stayed there 
until he succeeded in reconciling all tht 
contradictions." 

(Fol. 14b) R. Juda in the name of 
Samuel said: "When (King) Solomon or- 
dained the rule for washing hands [before 
every meal] a heavenly voice came forth and 
said (Pr. 23, 15.) My son, if thy heart be 
wise, my heart shall rejoice, and again (lb. 
27, 11.) My son, mal-e my heart glad that I 
may answer him who approacheth me." 

(Fol. 15a) R. Cahana said: When R. 
lehmael the son of R. Jose took sick the 
Rabbis sent to him saying : "Rabbi, tell us the 
two or three things which you said in your 
father's pame." *" He sent back word to them : 
"Thus said my father, 'One hundred and forty 
years before the destruction of the Temple, 
the idolatrous (Roman) empire began the 
invasion upon Israel ; eighty years before the 
destruction of the Temple, a decree was is?ued 
by the Rabbis to the effect that all heathen 
territory and glassware were to be considered 
[levitically] unclean : forty years before the 
destruction of the Temple, the Sanhedrin 
were exiled and took their seat in chanu- 
yoth.'" For what practical purpose was the 
last ftatement made [as the Sanhedrin had 
not been in existence since the destruction of 
the Temple] ? R. Isaac b. Abdimi said : 'To 
inform us that they abandoned the admin- 
ictration of mulct laws." How can you im- 
B.Rine that it refers to mulct law? But say 
that they stopped administering capital laws ; 
[they noticed that criminal acts happened so 



DID*? Kinn c-iKn -nrr did m idh mm' 
iDD rm Kin ktoVki:' loty n^ptn ]3 n^::m 
no nT,n nm |nn:D insT iNniy ^sprn' 

n"»^jj:3 ^v''^ loty ^ma niKo '3 1'b I'jvn ntyy 

: itr-ni 

nvtra '?kidb' ic« mm"" m nt2« i'"v "" ">■') 

notr^ liV DDn c« ^:3 (33 '^="5) mDm '?^p 
nrs^'Ki ■'3^ nntt'i 'J3 orn ('= ob') "»j« d; ^n^ 

^KyD»' -tan n'bnB'3 wna an noK (i* i"") 

'i IK '2 IJ'7 -nOK ^DT \'7 IH^B? ^Dl^ '3"I3 

■\3 cn^ n^iy T3« °^'5'D u^ moKB' onan 
nmt n^nn mn K^tt' ly nity C'p 'KDK ick 
mn K^K' TV njB> 'c .^Kitt*^ ^v niD^on 
D'ojij naiyn pK ^y nKOita nta n^an 
n^sn 3-in k^ ly njiy 'o ,n^3"i3T ^'73 ^yi 
^KD^ .m^ijni n^ nnc^i |mnjD n^ nn^a 
in K^B* ntD",^ ^cn2K ID pnx' i"k Knr^n 



n) Tha wliole T»l»u<l »«■ •t»41»d orally «i«r»to»» all tt*aiUoiiB w«r« con«<«l from • lick pereon th«t « 
mlsht not gat k»t. 



115 



3pyi py 



IDp 



customed to lighting many lamps (on the 
Sabbath, hoUday and Chanukah) will have 
scholarly sons ; he who is strict in the observ- 
ance of the Mezuzah will be worthy of having 
a fine dwelling; he who is strict in the ob- 
Bervance of the Kiddush [on the Sabbath 
and festivals] will be worthy of having jars 
filled with wine." 

R. Huna was wont to pass by the door of 
E. Abin, the carpenter ; noticing that E. Abin 
was accustomed to light many lamps [on the 
Sabbath eve] he said: "Great men will come 
forth from this house," and so it was. There 
came forth from that house R. Ide b. Abin 
and E. Chiya b. Abin. 

E. Chisda was wont to pass by the door 
of the father of E. Sizbi ; noticing that [R. 
Sizbi's father] was accustomed to light many 
lamps (on the Sabbath eve), he said: "A 
great man will come forth from here." And, 
in consequence, E. Sizbi came forth from 
there. 

R. Joseph's wife was accustomed to light 
the lamps late, so E. Joseph said to her: 
"We have studied in a Mishnah: 'He took 
not away the pillar of the cloud hy day, nor 
the pillar of fire by night. (Ex. 13, 22.) 
We infer from this that the pillar of cloud 
was finished up with the pillar of fire [that 
it came ahead of time] , and the pillar of fire 
was finishing up with the pillar of cloud 
[that also came ahead of time].'" She then 
decided to light the lamps very early. She 
was then told by a certain old man : "We are 
taught in a Mishnah 'No one should do any- 
thing [whatever is to be done] either earlier 
or later than the time set fpr it.' " 

Eaba said : "He who loves scholars shall 
have children that are scholars; he who res- 
pects scholars shall have sons-in-law that are 
scholars; he who fears scholars shall himself 
be a learned man; and if he is not of such 
a class [because he did not study] then his 
words will be respected like unto those of 
learned men." 

(Foh 25 b) E. Juda said in the name 
of Eab : "Thus it was the custom of E. Juda 
b. Elaya to have a vessel with warm water 
brought to him every Friday afternoon. He 
would wash his face, hands, and feet and 
then wrapping himself in a linen garment in 
which were placed Tzitzis, he would sit like 
an angel of the Lord of Hosts." 

It is written (Lam. 3, 17.) And 
thou hast removed my soul from peace. 
E. Abuhu said : "This refers to the kindling 



.n«j mi-f? HDit nnmn nNnrn .n"n d^iz 

^•"n mn «:Tn m .!■'•> ••ma «^ddi nsir nvr\ 
KTn «iJ3 pas 'm Nnn"'D« ^ini rp^n mm 
^niDi na: nn ids xaie k:-ico ^•'JT mm 
I^DK 13 ''T'K m ini"':"'D "'ps: .ssno ''ps: 
mm "r^jn mn xnon m .|''3k nn K"n mi 
KTn •'DT'Ti' Dm KCJ ■'DT Knn-'BK •'jm cji^n 
pB3 nm Kin: nnK «mci Kniys ^""^i mm 
nm )nn'>:ii .^^v^ m in"''«j"'D psj .«3nD 
rpv 21 n^ iDH .n^ np^noi mnKO mn cjoi^ 
UQV ]ivn Toj; ts'''n'« k'? (^o fi'OB-) wan 
□"•'nro pyn nioyty no'i'D n^-^b tysn tdvi 
*]3V'"i iwy^ c^BD trsn noj;"! cwn Tioy^ 
«rjn «3D '«inn n^ noM nonp«^ mao 
^"in ]3y\ D''nm sm idw ,ins'' h'^v id^si 
«munn ni^ •'in pai TipioT ,p3-i p:n n^^ 
K3mx •'in nisij «in pmo ^■•nm .]m 
n^^^D ^yoritt'D Kin ^^n in ik^ •'ki .pmo 
:iJaio Kamxa 
-p 3n IDS mini m ids (^"i' n": en) 
v"y ""Ky^K 13 mm-" ^an bv ijnjo n\n 
vi^ v:s pmm ]''an nw'bD nany i^ pK^no 
l^x^iixon ]'jnD3 3B'T'i ^iDynm v^jm 
:mK3x 'n "jK^D^ ncm 
-iDK ,*trs3 m^tyD njrm (:i n3'«) 3^n3 
n3ita "•n-'B'i -n3B'3 nj np^n it in3K ^31 
ncK pnT« ''31 .fmon n''3 it n-iai^ ^31 noK 
Knsj pnx*" 'n .i''on3 c^am Dn-" m^m it 
•'3-1 .n-'^c CNi n-i^Di nw ntao nan ir idk 
ntsB'ipo nt^Ki nysio noo it ibk K3K 



114 



n 3 c 



TP 



terpretatioD of the house of Hillcl is for the 
passing days [which increase daily]'; and 
the other said, 'The reason of the school of 
Shammai is that just as the offerings of 
the best of the Tabernacles [was decreased 
daily],'' so are the candles of Chanukah, 
and' the reason of the house of llillel is that 
we may promote [a person or tiling] to a 
higher "grade of sanctity, but we must not 
degrade.' " 

Rahba b. b. Ghana in the name of E. 
Jochanan eaid: "There were two old men 
living in Zidon ; one acted in accordance with 
the opinion of the school of Shammai and 
the other acted in accordance with the opin- 
ion of the school of Hillel; one gave as his 
reason that the Chanukah lamps are to be 
lit in the same manner as the sacrifices of 
the feast of Succoth were offered [in a de- 
creasing manner] ; and the other gave as his 
reason that we may promote [a person or 
thing] to a higher grade of sanctity, but we 
must not degrade." ^ 

What is the origin of the feast of Chan- 
ukah? Our Rabbis taught: "On the twenty- 
fifth day of Kislev, the eight days of Chan- 
ukah begin. During this period no funderal 
address is to be made, nor are fasts to be 
held When the heathens (Greeks) entered 
the Temple thej' defiled all the holy oil they 
found in it; but when the Hashmonaim (Mac- 
cabeans) prevailed and conquered the hea- 
thens, they sought and found one remaining 
jar of oil, stamped with the seal of the High 
Priest [proving that it had not been defiled]. 
Though the oil contained in the jar would 
liave sufficed for one day only, a miracle oc- 
curred, and it lasted for eight days [during 
which time more oil was prepared]. On the 
anniversarv of this occasion a feast was in- 
stituted with the reciting of Hallel and other 
praises." 

(Fol. 22a) R. Cahana said that R. Nathan 
b Minvumi expounded in the name of R. 
Tanchum: "What is meant bv the passage 
(Gen. 37, 24.) And the pit u'os empty; there 
was no water in it. Since the text says The 
pit u-as empty, do I not know that there was 
DO water in it? And what is intimated by 
saving There was no water? Indeed there 
was no water but there were serpents and 
scorpions in it." . 

(Fol. 23b) R. Huna said: "He who ib ac- 



n^3T novo itsK ^^l rw^tT'n d''d"< i:j3 ^^n 
I'-Tvm n"3T Koytai ann ns ijj3 ■'«ob' 
n"« njn id la nan idk .]Mn",D ]^«i tt'-rpa 
r";3 nvy in« IT'S! rn c:?! 'n pnT* 
n:j3 man'? dvo inu n; n"2r ntry mm 
tsnps r'TyoT I'lsi'? DVt3 imj nn :nn ns 

^DT* T«'7DD3 n"3D n"m nDun ""Kd 

'7:\n^ csaiD '•naiy "iD3D:trDtt' ]in3 mjynn^ 
m3'7t: maJB'31 'bo^naty cjospn ^d ixob 

pa ^t? lomns nam rrnc' \ov 'fv nnn is 

n:tr^ ■d'^d"' njoc i:t5D ip-'^m dj is nt?y: 

-in ]n: an cm Ksns n idm (33 nn) 

sin3T •'«n Dinin ■'am n'oro ■•Di^io 

yotyOO D^D U pS pi "113m ('^ n'»Hi3) 
«■?« D"T3 13 ]'«»• rn' ^i^« P"! 113ni ItSKJC 

c^cm ^3« 13 r« ciQ CD 13 ]••« ^"n no 
: 13 V" D^3npjn 

ni^ p-'in n:3 '7"':nn win 3n now (j= «n) 



1) s»e Vum- 29. 13-34. „„„,«- „f Mi* ^T over a cup of wine which la nld after oomla« from 



117 



npv^ \'V 



b. Isaac said, Although we read Mal-rin, 
(horns) the word really written is Mahren, 
(horn, the singular) [Hence we learn that 
the one-homed beast is of the clean species]. 
Let us also decide from the same source that 
the badger was of the cattle species? [For it 
says. An ox or bull having a horn]. Since 
there is in existence the Keresh (antelope) 
which is of the animal species and has but one 
horn, so I can say, that the TacMsh was the 
very animal called Keresh. 

(Fol. 30a) The following question was 
asked of R. Tanchum of Noy: "Is it per- 
missible to extinguish the light on the Sab- 
bath for the sake of a sick person ?" He be- 
gan his answer by saying: "0 thou King 
Solomon! Where is thy wisdom and where 
is thy understanding ? Not only do the words 
contradict your father's words but [they are 
at variance with] thine own utterances also. 
Thy father David said (Ps. IIG, 17.) Not 
the dead can praise the Lord, and thou sayest 
(Ecc. 4, 2.) Thereupon praise I the dead that 
are alreadij dead, and again thou sayest 
(lb. 9., 4.) For a living dog fareth better than 
a dead lion. But this is not difficult to ex- 
plain. When David said. Not the dead can 
praise the Lord, he meant thus: 'A man 
should always occupy himself with the study 
of the Torah and meritorious deeds before 
he dies; for, as soon as he dies, he becomes 
free from the obligation of [studying] the 
Torah and [fulfilling] meritorious deeds and 
the Holy One, praised be He! accepts no 
praise of him.' This is what E. Jochanan said : 
'What is meant by the passage (Ps. 88, 61.) 
Free among the dead, i. e., as soon as a man 
dies he is freed from the obligation of [study- 
ing] the Torah and [fulfilling] meritorious 
deeds, And when Solomon says (Ecc. 4. 2.) 
Thereupon praise I the dead that are already 
dead, he refers to the time when Israel sinned 
in the deserts. Moses stood up before the 
Holy One, praised be He ! and offered many 
prayers and supplications unto Him but was 
not answered. However, as soon as he said 
.'Ex 32, 13.) Bememher Abraham, Isaac 
and Israel, Thy servants, he was forthwith 
answered. Now, did not Solomon say prop- 
erly Thereupon praise I the dead that are 
already dead." It may be explained m an- 
other "way also. The usage of the world is 
that if a mortal prince issue a decree, it is 
doubtful whether it will be complied with or 
not; even if it be complied with while the 
prince lives it may not be complied with 



n-'H ^•'m lynp sa^si ]V2 .«".n non^ ^-^m 

n^npD «m:T «r^n ■»^inD^ ina ^li pT 
K3^D na^tt' n:s nasi nns .Nnntrs kb>''«i 
•j-'imt:' Tin «^ imin^DiD ;« inaDn |n 
pimo "i^naw «^« -[•'as nn ''nm Dinmo 
K^ (mp DtSnn) nas T'3« iH ,nT n« nr 
nnts'i (T "''■■'P) ma« n«i n^ I'r^n'' D^nan 
Dtt') mawi mrm .ina instr a^nan n« "lix 
«^ -nan ni-i«n p ma Nin ""n n'?^^ •'D (u 
n-i i^^n"" D^nan «^ ^^^^ na«pT Kn x-'cp 
nisaai min^ Dn« piov' n'?^y'? nasp i^n 
pi nmnn p ^an naty 1^2^ maiti* OTp 
nasT ir\m ia naty n"3pn^ p«i nisan 
iifsn DTiaa (ns o^'-nn) n^nDT ■'S'a pnT" •'an 
pi minn p •'C'an nc^yj mw nati* ji^d 
cnan ns •'JW nnci na^ty na«pii .mixan 
nay nmaa ^Nitt'^ iKant^Dty ina nnsB' 
n-'iisnm ni^sn nas nasi n"Dpn •'jb^ ntra 
niDT (3^ fiia<»0 lascoi njjjj K'bi rjB'i' 
«^i njyj T'a ^nnj; ^snc"''?! pnx"''? nmnN'? 
inDti* D^nan ns "•is nnci na'?*^ nas ns^ 
pBD mnj -iTiJ n'7a D^iy ^tt* i:inja s"t ,ina 
y'riKi .nnis pa-'^pa ps pac nnis i^a-'-'pa 
nm« ]''a^''pa v'^nn .nnis pa-'-'pa 
nira "i^''Ki .nni« ^-^a'^-'po r« "'"'^^^ 



116 



n 2V 



ttap 



of the Sabbath lamp," And I fonjot happi- 
ness, (lb.) "This," said K. Jeremiah, "refers 
to a bath-house." R. .loehanan said : "This re- 
fers to the washiiii; of his hands and feet m 
warm water." R. Isaac said : "This refers to 
a nieelv lixed bed with eoinfortable bedding 
upon it." R. Abba said: "This refers to elc- 
.raut furniture and an elegantly robed wife 
Our Rabbis taught: "Who is to be con- 
sidered rich? 'Every one,' says R. Meier, 
'who enjovs his riches [whether great or 
little].' K.'Tarphon says: 'Every one who has 
a hundred vineyards and a hundred fields 
with a hundred slaves to labor in them.' 
R. Akiba said: 'He who has a wife that is 
becoming in all her acts.' R. Jose^said: 'Ho 
who has'a privy within his house.' " 

(Fol. -iJtia) R. Tarphon said: "The bab- 
bath lamps should be lit only by means of 
olive oil." Thereupon R. Jochanaa b. Nun 
stood up and said: "What shall the Baby- 
lonians do who have nothing else but poppy- 
seed oil? And what shall the Medeans do 
who have nothing else but nut-oil? And 
what shall the Alexandrians do who have 
nothing else but radish-oil ? And what shall 
the Kapadocian do who have none of 
these oils but naphtha? We therefore have 
no recourse but to accept the words of the 
sa'^es wdio pointed out those oils with which 
it'^is not permitted to light the Sabbath 
lamp [and claimed the others to be suitable 
for that purpose]."^ . , ,. 

(Fol. 28b) What remains of the discussion 
re<^arding the so-called badger (Tachash) 
vWch existed in the days of Moses? R. Elaya 
in the name of R. Simon b. Lakish said: 
"R Meier was wont to say that 'The badger 
which existed in the days of Moses was a 
creation of its own kind, and the sages were 
not able to decide whether it belonged to the 
domestic species or to the wild animal species; 
it had but one horn on its forehead ; it was 
assif^ned at that time to Moses, who made the 
coverimr for the Tabernacle of its skin ; after 
that it disappeared.' Since he says that it had 
one horn on its forehead, we infer that it 
was a leviticallv clean species, for R. Juda 
said: "The ox "which Adam, the first man 
sacrificed, had but one horn on its forehead, 
as it is written (Ps. 69. 32.) And this mil 
please the Lord better than an ox or buUock 
having horns and cloven hoofs.' " Behold! the 
word used is Makrin (horns) ! R. Nachaman 

r; — SI^ TT niT 7 9-1". thit the dedication of tha 

„nliV af^r "u^oth iJluding the Day ot Ato»m«nt. 



nn: i7 v"^ 'i's t'C'V 'ni^w pan "i:n .n'n'? 
1^ tyiu^ '73 icK n"-i .r)"n '•"ist iitt^V^ nn 
]n3 i-'i^'Vii* D-'nay 'pi nna' 'pi d-'Dis 'p 

:ijn'7ty? lino «D3n n^3 i*? v^v ^3 imK 'oi^ 

s^N pp^=nt: ]^« "iDi« T'SiQ ^31 (^"= '>^) 
^y ^-113 p i^m"- ■'3T iny 1373 nn ptt-s 
en? \'^v "733 •'ti'iM icy^ no id«i i^'i':"i 
;^sty >iD ^B'3S itry nor i^syaity pc k^k 
la'^K w;'' nm cnjK pty «'?« CiT? 
noT mii:x \'av «■?« nn^ ^^m n«m:D3^K 
13 vh^ 13 K^ cn'7 rsty «^ptDisp ^m)^ ib'J!' 

c^D3n ■nasc' no «^« i"? r« «'« -^^^ »^" 
:]^p^'7ia r« 

^D^3 n^niy tt'nm r^v '"^ '«» ^^"^ "= '^^' 
c'lp^ p ]iyctr ''3-1 -las «y7''« "^ io« •n**'^ 
n'^D ^0^3 r\^r\v u-nn t«d ^3n n^n "lO'.K 
c^D3n 13 ivn3n vh\ T\'r\ nnxy ^jb3 nns 
nn« ppi «in nrin3 ]^t2 c« «in n^n ro ck 
ncD^ i"? pnn nyiy •'£3^1 inxD3 T? nn^n 
y-n ^« ]np lowpno dwr pats iJca ntryi 
nv^ min^ 3n nc«T r\^^ i""^ ^"^ ^"^°^ 
I-? nn^n nn« pp lia'«"in cih 3^npna' 
IB nic'D 'n'? 3t2^n', (= d'^"") io«3*^ ■n:fn3 
3-1 IDS .yott'o '•mn inpo -dieo i^po 
nrn ourB^'71 ,3^n3 ]-ipD pns^ is pni 

Templo started on the seventh of Ti^^rel and continued 
Thua they profaned the Tom Kippur day. 



119 



3pj?^ py 



Q^P 



man's wife had become pregnant with a male 
child; because of all the good which God had 
done unto David his servant ^ that he forgave 
him that sin; atid Israel his people, for they 
were forgiven their neglect of the observance 
of the da}- of Atonement.^ And when Solomon 
said (Ecc. 9, 4.) For a living dog fareth 
tetter than a dead lion, he meant that which 
R Juda said in the name of Kab ; for R. Juda 
in the name of Rab, said: "What is meant 
bj- the passage (Ps. 39, 5.) Let me know, 
Lord, my end, and what the measure of my 
days is, I wish to know when I shall cease to 
be, i. e., thus said David before the Holy 
One, praised be He ! 'Sovereign of the uni- 
verse let me know my end.' Whereupon the 
Lord answered him : 'It has been decreed by 
me that the time of the death of mortal man 
shall not be known; And the measures of my 
days what are they (lb.), David again asked. 
'It is decreed by me answered the Lord,' that 
the measure of the days of a man shall not be 
kno^vn.' Again David asked: 'I ivish to know 
■when I shall cease to be.' The Lord then said 
to him : 'Thou wilt die on the Sabbath.' 'Let 
me die rather on the first day of the week/ 
begged David. 'The first day of the 
week is the day on which thy son 
Solomon shall be king, and one kingdom 
must not encroach on the other even by so 
much as a hair's breath.' 'Let me then die on 
the Sabbath eve,' pleaded David. Whereupon 
the Lord said Far better is a day in thy courts 
than a thousand (Ps. 84, 11), i. e., 'I like 
one day in which thou art studying the Torah 
better than a thousand burnt offerings which 
Solomon, thy son, will sacrifice before me up- 
on the altar.' (lb. b) Each Sabbath day he 
would sit and study. * On that Sabbath when 
he was to die, the angel of death came and 
stood before him, but was unable to do any- 
thing be.cause David never once ceased study- 
ing. [Said the angel to himself] What shall 
I do? There was an orchard in the back 
of David's hou.se; the angel of death went 
there and shook the trees. David [hearing 
the noise] went out to see [the cause of the 
noise] ; as he ascended the ladder the angel 
caused it to break. David fell down and con- 
sequently stopped studying; whereupon the 
angel of death took his life. It so happened 
that Solomon sent to ask the following ques- 
tions in the academy: 'Mv father died and 
lies in sun; what shall I do? [Am I allowed 



itt'K nmtan ^d ^v .nrr rni^i nnwi nn« 
.]iy im« ^ ^'7 ^noc nnj; in: 'n ncy 
•Di^DD c'^ py in^ ^•'m«i iDj; ^«nt:"'^i 
n'^-\iiiT\ ]T2 mt: Kin in 2^3^ •«3 no^c icspii 
*in« min"" ai-iDsiamnK nrnT^nr nan 
isp 'n '':j?mn (a'' o'^in) itist "•kd an 
-iDN MH ^nn no njrtK Kvn no lo^ dtoi 
'n liynin y'ti'ai t?in ina cnpn ""js^ nn 
^^ymo pstt* ijej^D «\n mnj n-''? "ton /sp 
mn:! ^?^^ na •'qi moi .mi nra ^c isp 
.ms '7'C' vv mo pymo psty •'ja^a «\t 
•men na^'s i^ idk .■»]« ^nn no nyiK 
mD7n yijn nss ib ids .nn^'a nnsa moK 
■;^''3N nmnnS ny:ij m^^o i-ixi -jja no'?^ 
(IS Dtr) y'K .r\2u nj;3 mnN .nd-'j k^od 

m^r; -.-i^sD m:na pmyi atyi^ nnw 
•"ij ^j; •'js? nnpn^ y^ nn^c 7\-ij;ty 
nTi'' n-,n Nnn'^'T kdti ^j (:";•) .namn 
nro^ ''ym Kor «inn .ndt' n^o d''i:i 
ni? 'jiD-' K^i n-iDp man -^k^o cp ^•':^'SJ 
TiajjK no nos kd-i^jo n'^ois pos mn n^t 
sns n-'n-'a ^nins xanoia n''^ mn m^ 
nn-'D^ p2j i:^>sn c^nm p^^o mon is^o 
nTnno Njni n'^ns'iN N^ma pi^o mn 
Nty-no •'3^ no^tr- nb^ .n^csj n:i p'^nty^x 
«2S ri>2 ^tr D-'S^Di .nona ^t2ioi no «2K 
n^3j ^inn n*'^ •n'Sr •nti'ys no n^ayn 



i) The angel of dea<h tas no Jurisdiction over a man who Is -studying the Torah. 



^nt 



n 3 a* 



n\: 



when he is dead. But Moses, our teacher, has 
issued many decrees and established many or- 
dinances and they endure forever and ever. 
Now did not Solomon t^ay properly (Ecc. 
4, 2.) Thereupon praise 1 the dead that are 
already dead! The passage, Thereupon praise 
I the dead, etc., may also be explained in 
another way, as R. juda said in the name 
of Kab ; for R. Juda in tlie name of Rab said : 
"Wliat is meant by the passage (Ps. 86, 17.) 
Display on mc a sign for good that those who 
hate me may see it. Thus said David before 
the Holy One, praised be He! 'Sovereign of 
the universe, forgive me thii; sin [of Bath 
Sheba].' "Thou art forgiven.' answered the 
Lord. David then said to the Lord : 'Show 
me a sign while I live.' Whereupon He answer- 
ed, 'During thy life I shall not make it known 
but during the life of Solomon, thy son, I 
shall make it known.' When Solomon had 
built the Temple he desired to place the ark 
in the holy of holies, but the gates had be- 
come fastened to each other [and they could 
not be opened]. Solomon then offered twenty- 
four prayer-songs but was not answered. He 
then began the prayer (Ps. 24, 7.) Raise your 
heads, ye gates and be raised wide, ye ever- 
lasting gates, and let the king of glory enter. 
Thereupon the gates ran after him and opened 
their mouths and wanted to swallow him up, 
saying: Who is the King of glory? (lb.) — 
Solomon replied. The Lord, strong and 
mighty (lb.). He then repeated Raise your 
heads, ye gates, and raise up, ye everlasting 
doors, and let the King of glory enter. Who 
is the King of glory, the Lord of Hosts, He 
is the King of glory, Selah (lb.). Still he was 
not answered ; but as soon as he said Lord 
God turn not away the face of thy anointed, 
remember the jnous deeds of David thy ser- 
vant, (11 Chr. 6, 12), he was immediately an- 
swered. At that moment the faces of David's 
enemies turned black like the bottom of a pot 
and then it was known to all that the Holy 
One, praised be He! had forgiven David that 
sin. Therefore, did not Solomon properly 
say. Thereupon, praise I the dead, etc. Thia 
is meant by the passage (I Kings 8, 66.) On 
the eighth day he dismissed the people; they 
blessed the king and went unto their tents, 
glad of heart, because of all the good that the 
Lord had done for David his servant and for 
Israel his people, i. e.. And they went unto 
their tents, meaning they found their wives 
levitically pure. Joyful, because of having en- 
joyed the Divine Glor}'; glad of heart, each 



ns"' K7i cn'r,)} 'D^ijj^i D^ip |n mD'«'»pi 
.inn i32ty cnan n« ^jn nnfi no^B' idk 

(ID oiSnn) a-iriDT ■'ND ni "iDM nr>n'> m icmi 
i5''n) m-m-'i ^s:!^ i«-i^i nails'? m« ■•dj; n-^y 
y"tr3n n"3pn ••js'? nn ncK (H"!t-ino 1?"^ 
-iD« ,1^ ^ino ^'? noK ']iy iniK ^y •>'? ^ino 
■•:"'« T-^na ^'? na« ."na m^ ^oy ntry i^ 
^:3t^•^ ,ymD ■»:« 122 hd'td' ^^na ymo 

-las nT3 nr Dnyc ipai nitripn ^cnp n'^^'? 
nns njyj «^i mj:T yaiKi c^na-j; no^a? 
^Hv:r^^ cD'^csn nnya' iNtr d: ov) ^t3KT' 
nnns itsm insn 170 xn""! c^iy >nnfl 
'n in^ 1DM Tiaon -pa nr ^0 ■no« niy^an^ 
DD*t7s-i Dnyc "iKc iDMi ntn -nsii n»y 
nr Kin '»o iiasn -['td «3ii o^iy "•nnss ikci 
n^D nu2n T7d Kin niKo:^ 'n luon -[^d 
2vn "rs c^n'i'K (1 2"m) -iokc \V2 myj «^i 
.n:>'j in: -[t^y in non^ hidt ■jn^tj'o ""jb 
^^itTD in ■'KJ1B' ^D ""js iDsnj nyir nnwa 
1^ ^niDB' ^KiB''' ^01 Dyn ^o lyi'i mnp 
"iDN ns"" K^i jiy iniK ^ Kin inn cnpn 
133B' Dinon DK ^JK nns'i (t rtnp) na^c' 
n^t? irotrn OTia (n h"d) a-inai u^mi .ino 
Dn'i'JnK^ 13^1 "I'Tian riK 13-13^1 oyn riK 
'n ntsT? nrK n3inn ^3 ^y 3^ '>3it3i cnoc 
Dn'''?nK^ i3^v .loy ^Kity-''?! n3y in^ 
vro unity cntitr .mnt23 nn^mcj ikitob' 
^3 '7B' jn^mtyj nsynat? 3^ >3id -nrsB^n 



121 



SPV' I^V 



«3P 



pncDC pina-D nrn n^iyn D^":inxn ^y Kin 
TiiDK pinty?! T"n"iy3 cyty-in 7j? n"npn 
D-'pnrfn cy n"3pn pntr-nc' pinty nt ^^inn 
IT nnncn n« "liN "TinsB'i -s^n d^iv^ 
IT nc'ij; IT na nnott*'?! msD '7C nnaty 

«^i nu:fj; 7,00 wr, m^i'v T^"'° ^'^ '^">^^ 
•^iriD «^"i D'«-i n-i^p T^'2 ^'^^ p■^t^' T'^o 

■''b inp nnyi (j ="o) 'k:o* mxD ?»' nnaty 
nDK .n:'7n nai^ p: min^ an ncs .'iJi p:D 

;"»«i 13T ■'js? 3'u:'Tit:' nan T'c?*-! '73 an nos 
B'"nB') -in«:ty nrian no msQU iimnsB^ 
'7S .-in-ij; mn mstau D'^jtyitr Trnnsty (n • 
^npn ^K nmj? na «^« 1="^ T'O '^pn 
nana wn «''cp «^ .n^jcty k^« o'-jtyity 
nann sm «n sd-'M rr'yn ''KI •n^o'i'na «n 
nnsn nna^ sn nns-'^n ""Dpo sn N^c'p s^i 
nD« pnn^ in^ nnsn n-^cpc nam «n ^3 
3^ni cjiD'? pan ■'mm «mn^nn «n^"«a 
:.«nyDi:'n nnsi «ntt''K3 

ftnm vnc> tij:'? v^'pa '''7t:'a nso ri.Hi 
^DS niTJj N'7 na >ism .nT ns nT inmo 
Kan «oj?i3 irna'w'wi p''J"'''y is^ n'i'np nsD 
nT ns nT inmo man ■'«di •p'^''^'^ ''05 

Hebraw doftt not affsot the n-ord Itself. 



He ! causeth unto the righteous in this world 
is better than the smile which the Holy One, 
praised be He! causeth unto the wicked in 
this world ; Of laughter I said, it malceth one 
praiseworthy, speaks of the smile with which 
the Holy One, praised be He! will gladden 
the righteous in the world to come. ^ There- 
fore do I praise joy fulness, refers to a rejoic- 
ing which is caused by a meritorious deed; 
And of joy what doth this do? alludes to re- 
joicing which is not the cause of a meritorious 
deed. We infer from this that Shechinah rests 
not upon a mood of indolence, nor a mood 
of grief, nor a mood of laughter, nor a mood 
of levity, nor a mood of jesting, nor a mood of 
idle talk, but upon a mood of rejoicing caused 
by the performance of a meritorious deed ; as 
it is said (II Kings 3, 15.) But now bring me 
a musician, etc, E. Juda said: "The same 
should be applied to the study of the Halacha 
(Laws)."» Eaba said: "The same is to be 
applied to a good dream." Is it so? [that 
Halacha should be preceded by a cheerful 
thing] . Behold, E. Gidel in the name of Eab 
said: "Any disciple who sits before his 
teacher without dropping bitterness from his 
lips [on account of respect] Tvall be burnt, 
for it is said (Songs 5, 13.) Eis lips like lil- 
lies, dropping with fluid myrrh. Do not read 
Mor (fluid myrrh), but read it Mar (bitter- 
ness.^ Do not read Shoshanim (lilies) but 
read it Sheshonin (who study) ; [hence we 
Bee that a disciple must act with deep respect, 
and not in a frivolous mood]. This is not 
difficult to explain: the former refers to the 
teacher and the latter refers to the disciple ; 
and if you wish you may say both refer to 
the teacher; and even then there is no con- 
tradiction ; for the former refers to the time 
before beginning [the lecture] and the latter 
refers to the time after the lecture has begun. 
Just as Eabba did before he began [his lec- 
ture] before the Eabbis. He said something 
humorous which caused the Eabbis to be 
cheerful, and he then sat down with deep res- 
pect to expound the Halacha. 

The sages wanted to suppress (declare 
uncanonical) the Book of Proverbs also, be- 
cause of its contradictions. Why did they not 
suppress it then ? They said : "Have we not 
scrutinized the Book of Ecclesiastes and found 
explanations of the contradictions? Let us 



120 



r\ 2 V 



3P 



to remove him from the sun?] And the dogs 
of my father's house are hungry, wliat shall 
I do!*' ' They answered him: "Cut up a car- 
rion and place the pieces before the dogs. 
As to tliy father, place a loaf of bread or an 
infant upon his body and then you may carry 
it away from the sun.' Did not Solomon, 
therefore, say properly? For a living dog 
fareth better than a dead lion. And as to the 
question, which I have been asked in your 
presence, I say this: a lamp is called Ner 
and the soul is called Ner; it is better that a 
human light (lamp) be extinguished than 
that God's light (life) be extinguished." 

R. Juda the son of K. Samuel b. 
Shilath in the name of Rab said : "The sages 
wanted to suppress (declare uncanonical) 
the book of Ecclesiastes because its words 
are contradictory; but why did they not 
suppress it? Because it begins and ends 
with words concerning the Torah. It begins 
with the words concerning the Torah, for it 
is written (Ecc. 1, 3.) lT7ia/ profit hath a 
man of all his toil which hejoileth under the 
sun? Whereupon the school of Janai said, 
for a thing which [was created] under the 
sun he hath no profit, but for a thing which 
is beyond the sun (before creation) ° he will 
have profit. It ends with words concerning 
the Torah, for it is written (lb. 13, 13.) The 
end of the matter is, let tis hear the whole; 
fear God and keep Ilis commandments; 
for this is the whole (duty of) man. What 
is meant by, this is the ivhote man ? R. Eliezer 
said: "It means the wliole world was created 
for the sake of him (who fears God)." R. 
Abba b. Cahana said: "This [fear of God] 
is equal in importance to the whole world put 
together." Simon b. Azai and, according to 
others, Simon b. Zoma, said: "The whole 
world would not have been created if not for 
the purpose of providing him ' (who fears 
God) with cftmpany." 

And what are the words which contra- 
dict each other? It is written (Ecc. 7, 3.) 
Better is vexation than laughing; and again 
it is written (lb. 2, 2.) Of laughter I said, 
it maketh one praheworthij ; and it is also 
WTitten (lb. 8, 1.5.) Therefore do I praise 
joy: and again (lb. 2, 2.) And of joy what 
doth this do? There is no contradiction ; Bet- 
ter is veration than laughing, means that, 
the vexation which the Holy One, praised be 



■;« 122 '^'r; mn yaNi .o'D^^n ■•jb? mm 
p:>'^i .ncn nns- jc 3',c n:r\ -"n n^i? ^o 

■■ n"3pn ^c n: •'jsd cm 

n7T 12 '7«iD'^' 2-n -^12 nT^n"^ 21 ncs 
nSnp isD Tijjv c^nrn icpn 211 .tid'jo 
N7 no 1JSD1 HT n« n* p-imo in;ic' ^jbd 
.n-i:n naT -iBidi n"T in'rnnt:' ""jbo ".iTitj: 
C1K7 inn'' no (« nsn?) striDT n"T '.n^nn 
''21 nowi t5T2tt*n nnn 'b-.ojj^tt' iboy '?22 
cmp .1'? i-'Ki sin iT'ttti'n nnn ^«j^ im 
c*) i-'nn m-.n nm -.bid a'? ty* vmvn 
ns-; N-i"« cn'rsn n« yn-^j 73n nin r^io (:> 
^3 nt ^3 ''«D .mNn ^3 nr '3 "nntr vmxD 
Ni3i K^ 1^13 cbiyn ^3 nry^K '1 nns msn 
'7-p'^ -iDK «:n3 n3 «3« ■«3n .nr ^^3C3 k^k 
nn'.s ""sr; p ^-.ycty .1^13 D^iyn ^3 n;:3 nt 
73 «i3: N^ na'S ndit ]2 jivctt' n^ naKi 
in3T INC"! .nT'7 mis7 K7S ';7';3 crrjn 
DJJ3 3112 (' OS-) 3^13 ni ns nt ]i-iniD 
^^ino imoK pintj*'? (= Q!?) 3''n3i pintyo 
3''n3i nnott'n n« ':« ■'nnsa'i (n qs-) 3^n3i 
3112 Kityp K^ .ntt'iy n no nnoty^i (3 oi?) 
"[1-13 cnpn Dvi3*^* Dy3 310 pintro oya 

O Thesf tww auestlon<! having happened together may refer to either the Interior political trouble* or to 
«^/>^.i Having Men David dead. th« enemies arcs* to cause trouble to Solomon. 

«" Before the creation See further Fol. 89a, tbatihe Torah wa-s In eilstence lone before creation. 



123 



3py> py 



J2P 



noon, and Hillel was washing Himself, when 
the man passed by the door of his house, 
shouting : "Does Hillel live here ? Does Hillel 
live here?" Hillel wrapped his mantle round 
him and went out to meet him. "My son," 
he said to him, "what do you wish ?" "I have 
8 question to ask," was the reply. "Ask, my 
Bon, ask,"' said Hillel. "Why are the heads 
of the Babylonians round?" the man asked. 
"A great question hast thou asked, my son. 
Because they have no trained midwives." The 
man went away and after a wliile, retiirned 
calling out, "Does Hillel live here? Does 
Hillel live here?" Hillel again wrapped his 
mantle round him and went out to meet him^. 
"My son," he said, "what do you wish?" 
"A great question have I to ask," he said. 
"Ask, my son, ask," said Hillel. "Why are the, 
people of Tarmod (Palmyra) weak-eyed?" 
asked he. Hillel said: "Thou hast asked a 
great question. Because they live in a sandy 
country."" The man went away, and after 
waitinsr a while, came back shouting: "Does 
Hilleriive here? Does Hillel live here?" 
Hillel wrapped his mantle round him and 
went out to meet him. "My son," he said, 
"what do you wish?" "I have a question to 
ask." said the man. "Ask. my son, ask.," said 
Hillel. "Why are the feet of the Africans 
so broad?" "Thou hast asked a great ques- 
tion! Because they live in marshy land."'^ 
"I have manv more questions to ask," said 
the man, " but I am afraid lest I shall make 
thee angry." Hillel, drawing his mantle 
around him, sat down before the man, saying 
to him : "All the questions thou hast to ask, 
please ask." "Art thou Hillel," said he., "who 
is called Prince of Israel ?" "Yes," answered 
Hillel. "If thou art the one, then I pray 
there may not be many more in Israel like 
thee." "Why is that, my son ?" asked Hillel. 
"Because," said the man, "I have lost four 
hundred zouzirn through thee." "Be cautious 
with thy temper," said Hillel. "Better is it 
that thou shouldst lose four hundred zouzim, 
and four hundred more zouzim, but that Hil- 
lel should not become excited." 

Our Rabbis taught that a heathen once 
came before Shammai and said : "How many 
Torahs have you?" Shammai replied: "We 
have two; the written Torah and the oral 
Torah." The heathen then said to him : "In 
the written Torah I believe thee, but in the 
oral Torah I do not believe thee. Make me, 



nn« in^n nns ^y nayi i^n iD'tn nx eis^n 

c'l n'7«ty y's c'p3D nriK nn ''Ji r\^'7 nas 
nn-'tysn no '•jso .^xa' ''33 '?«»' '?"« ^istt*^ ""^ 
n^na n^sty '•in y« .m^3'7:D n^^ni '^^ 
17n .mnpD nvn ur\'? i-'Sty "^izd n^su' 
^D '7^n ]«3 ■'D "ii3«i "iTn nn« nyj ^TiDm 
no •'J3 ^"« .insnp^ «s''i fiiayn^ '?'?n |«3 
■rHtt' y'« ^i«&*'7 ""^ ty"" n'bKty ^"« cpaa nriM 
^■'•'TDnn 'Jc tn''rj; na •':eo .^Kty "'JS 
n'7«ti* n^nj n^sc ''n n''^ ncs .munts 
nj?*^ ^Ticm -pr] .n-.'i'inn ^-^a ]mc' •'jso 
V-?r\ ]K3 ■'D ^^n ^SD ''D "IDS"! ntn nn« 
nns no '':n n-"^ na« .insnp'? «i"'i PfiV^i 
^sc V'x '7i«w*'? •'^ v> n^Ktt' n-'^ nas cpna 
D''''pns« ^B* cn"'^:"i na '•jsa .'7«t:' '•in 
•lasa n^sB* n'7n; n^sti* ■':a nv nD« .msm 
c'l nmn m^siy y'« .can ly^-a ^3 ima- 
r,avn3 D^vrn saiy "':« sniTiai ^".sc*^ i^ 
-^^ ty-'a' m^«ty ^d n--^ nan vjd'? ac^i 
^mpty '7^n «"n nns i'? nas ^sb' '71«c''? 
«in nn« n« ^'k -p y's .'^h-ic^ n^^'J ims 
■«2Da "-^n n-i^ naw .^snty-'n -[maD ut" «^ 
Vai« IT' ^y Tnnsti' •'jsa n-i^ naw .no 
^'7n «in ''S13 "imni -i\nT ''in ^'s .tit msa 
.T,E3p^ .«? ^^m nt 'm tit 'n ^v ^v lasnt:* 

S3ty in« caDO nniyn ntr'va pm lin 
-ia« US'? tt'"' nmn naD n^'? na« •'saty •'JS^ 
ns "zynty n-nm nnaaty mm dtiit n"*^ 
i3''s s"j;ntt*i "ij-'asa ">:« ansnc ^'s 
min i:ia^ntt' nja ^y "'i-i": "^rasa 

:aDd from er.tfring them. 



— ' . «!««. «# fh^ AirAQ It ■nrpvents lic" sand from er.tfring them. 

^V ^V'^^V'1S?*'^r"o?'^e^ t;^Twlu^r^°*Uft«rte<l «na their feet b^e broadened. 



122 



n 1 B' 



D3P 



search the Book of Proverbs also, until we 
find explanations."' 

Whieii are its contradictory words? It is 
written (Pr. 2G, 4.) Do not answer a fool ac- 
cording to his folly, and it is also written 
(lb.) Ansuer a fool according to his 
folly. [After a study they came to the 
conclusion that] there is no contradic- 
tion ; the latter refers to matters of the Torah 
and the former refers to secular matters. In 
what respect can the subject of the Torah be 
explained? In the following way: liabban 
Gamaliel was once sitting and lecturing: *'In 
the future women will give birth to children 
every day, as it is written (Jer. 31, 7.) The 
pregnant woman and she that travaileth with 
child together." A certain disciple sneered 
at him and said : There is nothing neiv under 
the sun (Ecc. 1, 9). Whereupon Rabban 
Gamaliel said to him: 'Come, I will show 
thee the like tliereof in tliis world." lie went 
and showed him a hen. Again Eabban Ga- 
maliel lectured : "In the future the trees will 
bring forth fruit every day, for it is said 
(Ezek. 17. 23.) And it shall produce boughs, 
and bear fruit, i. e., just as boughs are pro- 
duced ever}- day so also will fruit be brought 
forth every day."' Again that disciple sneered 
at him and said: There is nothing new tinder 
the sun (Ecc. 1, 9). ''Come," said Rabban 
Gamaliel to him, "I will show thee the like 
thereof in this world." Wliereupon he went 
and showed him a Caper-bush. Upon another 
occasion Eabban Gamaliel was sitting and 
lecturing: "In the future Palestine will pro- 
duce readv-made cakes and fine woolen gar- 
ments, as "it is said (Ps. 72, 16.) There shall 
he an abundance of corn in the land." The 
disciple again sneered at him and said : There 
15 nothing new vnder the sun. ''Come,"' said 
Eahban Gamaliel, "I will show thee the like 
thereof in this world." Wliereupon R. Gama- 
liel took him and showed him mushrooms 
and as to [something corresponding to] gar- 
ments, as it said (Ps. 72, 16.) There shall be 
palm-shoot [which is covered in the form 
of garment]. 

Our Rabbis taught: A man shall always 
be as patient as Hillcl and not as excitable 
as Shammai. Once it happened that two 
men laid a wager with one another (Fol. 31a) 
that whichever would succeed in putting 
Hillel out of temper should receive four 
hundred zoj/ztni" "I shall go and put him out 
of temper." said one. It was on Friday after- 



Kn n"i3 «n p'"? in^i«3 ^"02 n:jj (d*) 

.",in'» mr.'^i mn («^ -tct) nosity m» 
'73 ]''« (« n^np) ncs* T'D'rn imx V7j; j'?:? 
incan •]«nNi «a ^'w .cctrn nnn cin 
i"-[ sTii "im .n7i:nn n-"^ nns psj f'nya 
■baa nn-'B ]i«''S"ict:' nu^^K piTiy trmpi 
no ns niT'jn rpy stt'ai (" ''xp'n') 'n:^ d',i 
•,n",« '^'?v ^^^^ -c'^ ^23 ""ns r,K c,^ 723 tijy 
.tt'Dtt'n nnn tnn ^3 rs "Tirm now T!27n 
n^^ nns pEj t"nj?3 |ncr,T isnsi K3 7"« 
••"K nTiny tri-npi J"n 3"'n"" im .ci^x. 

(:y Qi?nn) 'sr^' n'7^o ""^ri n".HpC",^3 N-'X^nC' 

Tc^n imN T''7V :^:'7 ]ns3 -i3 noa \t» 

■^sns'i S3 7"N .rnt:'n nnn tr'-n 73 ps -los", 

^''no3 n"''? nns ps: nrn cr.ys pa:n 

: sTip -i3 Nn3J n^''0 •'73S1 n'^iasi 

'77n3 \n^^:v ms xni c^-iV7 \i2i •i:n 
ms ''J3 ^iti'3 na'yo .•'sntto pap wn^ 'tki 
^'7v^ -.0 ^3 TiDK nr cy nr -nnnti' («^ »n) 
Dnn ins ins t-.t 'n r.u-' ^7- n« ta-'jpM 
^^m n-'n n3a' 3t; crn im« .:jtt"'jp« ••:« 



125 



IPV^ t-y 



n3i> 



written, And the stranger that cometh nigh 
shall be put to death, how much more doe3 
this apply to the mere proselyte who came 
with but his staff and traveling bag?" He 
went to Shammai and said to him: "Am I 
then eligible to be a High Priest? Behold! 
It is written in the Torah, And the stranger 
that cometh nigh shall be put to death." He 
then went to Hillel and said to him: "0 
thou forbearing Hillel, may blessings rest 
upon thy head, because thou hast brought me 
under the wings of the Shechina." Later 
all the three proselytes happened to meet in 
one place and they said : "Oh, the impatience 
of Shammai could drive us out of this world, 
but the patience of Hillel brought us under 
the wings of the Shechina!" ^ 

Eesh Lakish said : "What is meant by the 
passage (Is. 33, 6.) And the stabilitij of thy 
times and the strength of thy happiness shall 
be wisdom and hnowledge; the fear of the 
Lord is his treasure, i. e., The stahility, 
alludes to the Order of Zerain."-* Of thy 
time, refers to the Order of Moed; The 
strength, refers to the Order of Nashim; 
Of thy happiness, alludes to the Order of 
Nezikin; Shall be wisdom, refers to the 
Order of Kadshim; And knowledge, alludes 
to the Order of Taharoth. And after all these. 
The fear of the Lord [shall be] his treasure." 

Rabba said : "Wlien a man is brought to 
Judgment [after he dies] he is asked: 'Hast 
thou dealt honestly? Hast thou had regular 
time for the study of the Torah? Hast thou 
married? Hast thou waited for salvation 
{Messiah)? Hast thou been a searcher after 
wisdom? Hast thou [cultivated thy mind 
to] conclude (to bring out one thing from 
another) ?' And after all these if The fear 
of the Lord is his treasure, it (His Torah) 
counts ; if not, it does not count. It is likened 
to the man who said to his messenger: 'Bring 
up to the upper floor a Kur" of wheat. 
The messenger went and when he had brought 
it up the man asked of him: 'Hast thou 
mixed a Kab" of the Sand of Chumta m 
if" 'No,' answered the messenger. Where- 
upon the master said : 'It were better if thou 
hadst not brought it up altogether.' " 

It was tausht in the academy of K. Isn- 
mael that a man has the right to mix a Kab 
Chumtin in every Kur of crop and he 



~ibe Talmud consists of slity-^hree MasecMotli or 
A pSTe^Tii Juda containing salty soli which It 



••js^ «i .nDT" 3ipn nrm m-.ns n-rio K^m 

i;inTj n''Q>'? .nracn ""ajD nnn ^ananpnc 

■r^n '7K' imjmjy n^'.yn p uimta'? ntypn 
: nr j'^'H ''DJ3 nnn uai^ 

n^m {!^ n'vB") ninsT ■'«c tt"'p^ c^n "ins 
'',:i nyn noon myit?^ pin ^ny njioK 
.ly-iti "no nr iny .a-^ynT mo nr nr,t3« 
•ppn: mo ht myitt"' .ccj mo nr ]mn 
.nnnn mo nt nyn .c'cnp mo nr noon 
nyB's «m noM ."nx«i Kvn 'n n«T' n"BKi 
nnai nxtt'j i^ onDiw jn^ di« ]"'dij3DB' 
nnsn npoy .mm'? D-inj? nyap .njio«3 " 
n:3n .noDns n'bs'^s .nj?"tri^ n-iisx .n''aTi 
«^^ 'n n«T« •>« n"s«i .idt lino nm 
-iDxii' Dn«^ ^tro .«^ «^ "*« .ps nxi« 

n'''? "IDS ]it2Din np ]n2 niTiy n^^ -ia« n^ 
••m sjn .n'^'Tyn s^ ds 212112 n'*'? ids .ik^ 
'7tt' nnn pt2t2in ap ms anyo 'bKyotr^ 'n 
'73 srin 31 ns nan nns .tt'U'in irsi nsinn 

treatises, which are grouped into six Sedarim or Ordera, 
mixed in the crop prevente it from rotting. 



124 



n n c 



13? 



therefore, a proselyte on condition that you 
teach me the written Torah only.'" Shammai 
rebuked him sharply and scut him away 
angry. The heathen then appeared before 
Hillel, and the latter made hiiu a i)roselyte. 
On the first day, llillel taught lum the Aleph, 
Beth, Gimel, Daleth}^ On the morrow, Hil- 
lel reversed the order of these letters (begin- 
ning with the last letter). "Thou didst not 
teach me so yesterday," said the proselyte to 
him. "True," said llillel. "Dost thou not 
rely upon me? Why then dost thou not 
rely upon me with the oral Torah?" On an- 
other occasion it happened that a heathen 
appeared before Shammai and said : "Con- 
vert me to Judaism but on condition that 
thou teachest me the whole Torah, while I 
am standing upon one leg." Shammai drove 
him oil with the builder's cubit (measure) 
which he held in his hand. Then the heathen 
appeared before Hillel, and he made him a 
pra«olyte, and said unto him : "That which is 
hateful to thee do not do unto thy neighbor, 
this is the whole Torah, and the rest is 
merely its commentary'." 

Again it happened that while a heathen 
passed by the rear of a sj-nagogue he heard 
the voice of a scribe who was saying, And 
these are the garments which they shall make; 
a breast-plate and an Ephod and a robe. (Ex. 
28, 4). "For whom are these?" asked the 
heathen. "For the High Priest," replied the 
scribe." So the heathen said to himself: 
"I shall go and become a prosehle on condi- 
tion that I be made a High Priest." He came 
before Shammai and said to him : "Make me 
a proselyte upon condition that you make 
me a High Priest." Shammai drove him away 
with the builders cubit which he held in his 
hand. The heathen then came before Hillel ; 
the latter made him a proselyte, and said to 
him : "Is it possible for one to be made a 
king unless he knows the court ceremonials? 
Go, study first the court ceremonials." The 
proselvte thereupon went and learned the 
Torah. When he came to the passage (Xum. 
3, 10.) And the stranger that cometh nigh 
shall be put to death, he asked: "For whom 
is that passage meant?" "Even for David, 
the King of Israel," Hillel replied. Then 
the praselyte came to the following conclu- 
sion : "If for Israelites, who arc called th", 
sons of God. and who on account of God's 
love shown to them, were called (Ex. 4. 22), 
My son. my first-born, Israel, a warning is 

13) The names at the Hebrew aJphal)**. 



ino^ .T'a n"N y'K sop Kaf" .niT>"«j ^^n 
••rn ''^ mD« h^ ^xn« xm ^'k .T"^ ysH 

"1"DD ^DJ ns "ryi nrco sp n-'i ^y; ',n'? V'« 
snr -ins c^ro naiya r}'Z']io 2\v .i^v 

ism .nns ii^ 'by ic,)? ••:si:'r nr.2 m-.nn 
ncs n"'"!"; ^bn ■'js: «n .-n^zz' ]"'33n noKn 

.-1103 7V K-'H KS'iT'B "IT'S", nT,2 m'.nn 
la'j; nvity nns caao i3",ya ntyyn mB> 
motr) ID'S WT}':; iB-.D 'bip v^tyi n"3 mriK 
-OS iissi ;i:*n -,::•>"' t^'S cnann nbsi (n: 
iTij; ims nos ^nj ]-27 y's "'d? i'7^n 

niD ^ •'n^j y's •'sotr ''is'? ss .j"3 
S3 .n"'2ts' pjan nnsa ism a"D ^jid"'B'^b' 

SbS 1'7D I^DVO m^3 '?"« -^"^^"^ ^^''' ■'Jfl^ 
iD^DDQ TID'? -p mS^O iD"'D3t2 yTl''t5' ^D 

-itm'b (^ 11T22) y:inc' it's sipi "pr: .nn^D 
y's -los: •'D ^ nt snpD y's no*,"' z^pn 
V'p n: ims styj .^sic*"' i^o nn 7y i^^ss 
mpnb cja -.snpr^* 'rsT^"« nn: loxya 
>33 (T ner) cm Sip crnstJ' nans ^ino'. 
.na""" 3ipn ntm nn''^>' 2Tir '?ir\u'' ^nU3 



127 



2py> py 



rrp 



nor feel any pangs concerning the day of 
death,-" but that their heart within them is 
becoming as strong as the vestibule hall';^^ 
and that also is meant by Eabba, for Eabba 
said: '"What means the passage (lb. 49, 14.) 
This is their way, their folly, i. e., tlie wicked 
know that their (wicked) path leads them 
to death, and their kidneys are becoming fat 
[without worrying over it]. Perhaps you 
will say that this is the cause of their forget- 
ting it; therefore it says (lb.) And they heep 
the future with pleasure in their mouth, 
Selah.'" 

(Mishnah) For three sins, women die of 
childbirth: because they are not careful [in 
observing the laws] concerning Niddah," 
Challa-^ and lighting [the Sabbath] candles. 
(Gemara) What is the reason for such 
punishment for Niddah ? R. Isaac said : "Be- 
cause she committed corruption in the inner 
part of her womb, therefore should she be 
beaten in the inner part of her womb." This 
may be true regarding Niddah. but what is 
the reason for Challa and the lighting of the 
candles? It is as a certain Galilean expound- 
ed before E. Chisda : Thus said the Holy One, 
praised be He ! "One fourth of a Log of blood 
did I put in your body ; ^* concerning blood 
(menstruation) have I warned thee. (Fol. 
32a) I have called ye the first product and 
have charged ye concerning the first of your 
dough; the soul which I have put in you is 
called Ner (light) and I have charged ye 
concerning Ner (the Sabbath light) ; if you 
observe the^e things then it is well, but if 
not I shall take your souls." And why just 
at the time of childbirth ? Eabba said : 
"When the ox has already fallen down, sharp- 
en the knife for him." -° Abaye said : "Let 
the maid continue her rebellion., it will go 
under one rod." -^ E. Chisda said : "Leave 
the intoxicant alone, he will fall by himself."-^ 
Mar TJkba said : "The shepherd is lame and 
the goats are running away swiftly. [When 
they appear] at the gate of the fold, there 
are words (bargaining), but in the stalls 
(where the sheep are delivered), strict ac- 
count is taken." °' E. Pappa said : "At the 
gate of business [you have] many friends, but 
at the gate of disgrace, no friend." 

And when are the sins of men investigat- 



nn"'D^ c2-nr wyu-i ]^]}t,> -d^ 7D3 n^m 
nmrty noxn koc .c'7DD ^v 3?n en*? *j*^i 
irr* nniss cnnnsi (q=*) 7"n jno n\t 

:n7D 

n'7n3i mn rrnvnt ijixty 'ry imi'? nyco 

i3"i ittK NDyt2 ""Kn m: .kid: 
np'i'n la-iB^ n:t23 •••nna n'?p'?p «^^ prrs» 
np'rim n'rn .mj niTi .miaa ••-nna 
n«^"'^: Kinn trms •hd-'d^ ns-'k •'ko in 
DT n'«yiDT n"3pn idk tnon D*n ni^y 
(2^ «n) .D3n« ^mnTH m ^pDv ^ dd3 ^nn: 

nj iT>np Dsn ^nn^c mm .ddhm ^mnrn 
D"'D^ipD nns DK .D3nN '•mnrn "i3 ^poy ^y 

K-nn ^B3 nm ick ]m^^ nvt?n wtr ^Kot 
Knos Dn^n cisn isk ''^ns •wdd'? nnn 
n-ipnc "iDK Kion 2t .••in'''? Knonts nn^ 

im ""axi •'^"'D NiQin d3k pm •'fyi tn:rt 
^tysj Nn«ijn 23K lOK «SB 2n .Kniym 
.•"Dmo K'71 ""n^ «^ •'Jinn 22N "•omm ^nK 
nytya V'p'? t?n -ids •'pm-'n ">3%n t-i3Ji 



20) CTiarfjuSotft (fetters), is divided In two, adding a suffix to the flrat part and a prefix to the eeeond part, 
hence reading Charad "fear", Etzeb "pain." 

21) Of the Temple which was wide and open. 

22) The menstrual flow. 

23) The separating of a piece of dough when baking. 

34) This Is the minimum portion of blood with which a human body can be eu.<!talned. See Nazir Ftol. 52. 

16) Id erltle&l momentt a womAu'a sins ara Invutl gated 



126 



n a tr* 



T3P 



need not worry [in fear of doing wrong, 
for the sand preserves the crop]. 

Rabba b. R. Iluna said: "Whoever pos- 
sesses knowledge of tlie Torah without having 
(lb. b) i'ear of the Lord is likened unto a 
treasurer who has been intrusted with the in- 
ner keys [of the treasury] but from whom 
the outer keys were witliheld." 

E. Janai announced: ''Oh, for him who 
has no courtyard but makes a gateway for 
his court \" " 

R. Juda said: 'The world would not have 
been created by the Holy One, praised be lie ! 
if not for the purpose that people should fear 
Him, for it is said (Eec. 3, 14.) And God 
hath so made it that man should be afraid 
of Him." 

R. Simon and E. Elazar were sitting; 
they noticed that R. Jacob b. Acha was walk- 
ing and passing by them. "Let us stand up 
before a man who fears sins." said one, 
to which the other replied : "Let us 
get up before a man who is a great scholar.'' 
Whereupon the former remarked to the lat- 
ter: "I tell thee to get up before a man who 
fears sins and thou saycst to me to get up 
before a man who is a great scholar."' It may 
be deduced [from the following] that the 
one who said "For a man who fears sins," 
was R. Elazar, for R. Jochanan in the name 
of E. Elazar said: "The Holy One, praised 
be He! has nothing [better] in His world 
but fear of Heaven, as it is written (Deu. 
10, 12.) And now, Israel, icliat doth the Lord 
thy God require of thee, but to fear the Lord 
thy God. It is also written (Job 21, 28.) 
And he said unto the man. Behold, the fear 
of the Lord, that is jvisdom. And in Greek 
Hen means one.'* The deduction is correct. 

R. nia expounded : '^Wliat means the pas- 
sage (Eco. T, 17.) Be not wicked too much? 
A man should not be too wicked, but he 
may be a little wicked? [It means 
rather that] if one has eaten garlic causing 
him to have a bad odor, shall he eat again 
and let more bad odor come?'"" 

Raba b. R. Ulla expounded: "What is 
meant by the passage (Ps. 73, 4.) For there 
are no deadly fetters for them; but their 
strength is firm ? i. e., the Holy One. praised 
be He! said 'It is not sufficient that the 
wicked do not fear [for future punishment] 



nST' (:"l' cr) -.2 ]^S': nT.n 13 l?v^ m« 

•,'? nca s^ ni''j"X'«n- n:nnsD", nro^jsjn 

«7 m-.n-" 'I ncs .my xmi^ «y-im xmi 
M2 x^s iD^iy ns «",n 7,-13 tynpn «n3 
-•:•>• c\n'7Nn'; (=' n^np) iDSic T':b7d ■■,«-i^ia' 
v,n -it>'7« ■'3-n iicD ^3T .",'':37a "iKn^^iy 
-"'7 -lON sns •\2 3pj;^ ''3"i '7nKi ri''7n '•sn' 
•;san ^■<m n3:T nicpn c:p: nn3n^ in 
-i3 -i3;t n-^Dpn cip^j ■;i\s n^^ -ir:« -Kin 
-o:i Njs 17 «j"'DN ni7 nos Nin ]^m« 
.s-.n ]^i-n« 13 n« ■«^ mcsi s"- psiin ^^m 
^"'m 13:1 -iDST Kin -uy7N -"s-n c^non 
ity^N •'3-1 mc'D ]:m'' ■'3-i host t?in p«tan 
13^3 CDtr nxT' S7N •a7v;3 n"3pn7 i'? p« 
-pn^s 'n nn ^st^-i nny. (• c'^-) -.asr^ 

:i<k) 3T13"; '1J1 nNT'7 CK ''2 -D>'0 '7K1U' 

|3>^ /i;i norn 'n nsT" p cin^ ids^t (ns 
: c^non \n nns^ p-i:p •<:",'> |"iB»'73 

(1 n7np) 3"'n3T "'XD N^'.J? 31 tt-ll (3"jf) 

sn j?ty-i^ «^T Kin nsnn '"i:i n3-in ya-in ^k 
"ij mm cit:' ^3n*^' ■'d K7s .vj"17 cya 
B'-n .p,Ta "inn sn-'"; ins mt? '73n''T -i-.rn^ 

13 (i? D'^nn)- 3in3T "•NtS «'71j; 31 13 SSI 

triipn "it3« D^i« «n3i cn'.c^ ni3is-in p« 
pinn ]:^Hu cytn'? ^"'"'"^ ^^ ^"" T''^ 



"! S^'n^m'^nf/. T.bo.d" '"use".," 1 n1he°tU' He'^c'e'-.the meaning of tt>e passage rjob 28. 28, U ^n<, he ,<.ii 
""iS,"'<;."'2" J:: 11*.L°£.1,UI^"T. 1S?M' n«;'.S^^'"?epert and not add to hi. 



If a man trao^ressee, he should neTertbelees Tcppr.i 



129 



3pv^ py 



ODP. 



■'D'' na'trts ^is^'? ht ^ini .uao 'bsun 

^V nmm ^^<3T n"' ^y ma; j^'i'j^:iDty «^h 
n',D^ niDJi n^nty "id ]j:an un : 3'«''n •'T' 

noDiB' ""OD T'j''j;3 nan M'' p',c*'7 MXi"" di« 

nnn ■'n'' ,^sjt ntsn'? n^y .n^'.pn ^m3?^y^^' 

C7W ^'wJ' ^■'tD'''7pns ;n i^«i -^iiiJ ir« in"? c«i 
T''7y c''1d'70 t3"xpnn i'?iswi C'ym nav^n 
;i'H) ncwjc ^lifj niDT T'^j? to^d '«i nsin 

Cl^« "'3D inK P'70 >*'70 V^y C'"" D« (-'' 

m-iD inyns idnii i3:n''i nt:''' ci«^ T:!n^ 
•"Dii •«3n '7tt' 122 -iTy'''7S ""^n .'i:i nnsy 
D'^ycm mso yc'n i^^as inis •''7"''i'jn 
'i'lxj m:T^ nnwi nmn^ is'?tt imsn nyii-m 
: p|^« ■'jn nns 'sjtt' 

mr^n -I'DiN '7S"'^d: p pyoty ]3-i N''jn 
min ^Bi:i ]n ^n mntyym mnnn trnpn 
-iQiK p: ■'3-1 M-'jn :psn •'oy'? Tionii 
nDN:ty ci« ^tr m'^'S nno cnij ;iy3 
■jiDti'D np^ no') c^tt''? 1^ r« Ds (3= '^tt-o) 
DTiD D-'n D^mj pya "inis ''m .iTinno 
•]^s ns ^nn ':« (" "''"p) iosji:' cjcp jnt^D 
■by cn'i'sn cjiifp"! nc^ 'i:i intra riN «it3n^ 

27) FYom the roof.— The past tPBse "fell" is employed though he has not yet actually fallen. This Is 
explained by the fact that since he was predestined to fall, the incident Is reparded as having actually occurred. 
27a) Not having a railing around hi.-; roof as it Is ordered (Lev. 22, 8.) it constitutes him a guilty perfon. 
27b) ©y court martial. See Sanhedrin 43b. 



his right to rise from his sickness]." In 
the academy of R. Ishmael it was taught: 
"That the fallen fell from thence''' i. e.. 
This one was destined to fall o£E since the 
creation; behold, he has not yet fallen and 
the passage calls him [already] Nofel (one 
who has fallen). This teaches that good is 
brought about through the agency of good 
persons, and evil is brought about through the 
agency of wicked persons.'"-'^ 

Our Eabbis taught: "He who becomes 
eick and is at the point of death, should be 
told to confess, for all those who were about 
to die-"'' had to confess. When a man goes to 
the market place, let him deem himself 
handed over into the custody of the officers 
[to be brought before court]. If he has a 
headache, let him deem himself fastened 
with a chain around his neck. If confined to 
his bed, let him deem himself brought upon 
the scaffold [to be punished] ; for when one 
ascends the scaffold [to be punished], if he 
has prominent interceders, he is pardoned, 
but if not, then he is not pardoned; and 
these are man's interceders [before divine 
Judgment] — repentance and meritorious 
deeds. Even if nine hundred and ninety- 
nine plead against him and only one in 
favor of him he is saved; as it is written 
(Job 23, 23.) // there he now about him one 
single angel, as one defender out of a thou- 
sand to declare his uprightness for any man, 
then is He gracious xinto him and saith, 
'Deliver him from going down into his pit.' " 
Rabbi Eliezer, the son of E. Jose the Gali- 
lian, said: "Even if nine hundred and 
ninety-nine parts in that one angel are 
against him, and but one for him, he is stil! 
saved, for it is written Mailitz Echad (one 
defence) out of a thousand." 

We are taught that R. Simon b. Gamaliel 
says: "The laws concerning holy offerings, 
Teruma and tithes are the principal parts 
of the Torah and yet their observance was 
intrusted to the common people." 

(lb. b) We are taught that R. Nathan 
says: "As a punishment for not fulfilling 
vows, the wife of the man dies, as it is 
said (Pr. 22, 27.) If thou have nothing to 
pay, why should He take away thy bed from 
under thee?" Rabbi says : "For the sins of 
[unfulfilled] vows children die when still 



128 



n 2 B* 



nrp 



ed? Kesh Lakish said: "When they pass 
over a bridge." A bridge and nothing else? 
But he intended to say all dangerous places 
like a bridge. Rab would not embark on a 
ferry where there were any heathen ; he said : 
"His time to be punished may happen to be 
due [whilo on the boat] and 1 may be seized 
with him." Samuel [on the contrary] would 
not embark on a ferry unless there was also 
a heathen abroad, for he said: "Satan has 
no power over two persons of different na- 
tionalities.'' R. Janai always examined the 
ferry first and then he embarked on it. For 
R. Janai followed his own principle, and he 
said: "A man should never expose himself to 
danger expecting that a miracle will be 
wrought for him ; for it may be that such a 
miracle will not be wrought, and even if a 
miracle be wrought for him, it will be de- 
ducted from the rewards due him for his 
merits." R. Chanin said : "What is the Bibli- 
cal passage for this? I am not worthy of all 
the kindness, and of all the truthfulness that 
Thou hath done unto thy servant. (Gen. 32, 
11)."' R. Zeira never walked under date-trees 
on a day when the Shuthn wind blew. 

Our Rnbliis taught: "For three sins wo- 
men die of childbirth." R. Elazar says : "Wo- 
men die prematurely'' finstead of child- 
birth]. =' R. Acha said: "For the sin of 
washing the dirt of their children on the 
Sahbath"; and others say, "Because they 
call the holv ark. The chest." 

We are "taught that R. Ishmael b. Elazar 
Bays: "For two sins common people die; be- 
cause they call the ark, The chest, 
and hecaiise they call the sjnagogue The 
people's house.'" 

We are taught that R. Jose says : "Three 
breaches through which death enters were 
created for a woman. Others say tliree 
causes of premature death were created for 
woman; Niddnh, Challa and lighting the 
lamps." One is in accordance vdth. the opin- 
ion of R. Elazar and the other is in accord- 
ance with the opinion of the Rabbis. 

E. Isaac, the son of R. Juda, said : ' A 
man should always pray (for mercy) that 
he may not become siok; for when one is 
taken sick he is told 'Bring evidence in your 
favor and then vou will be acquitted [from 
the illness].'" Mar Ukba said: "What is 
the Biblical passage [to prove this] ? That 
if the fallen fell from thence (Deu. 22, 8), 
i. e., from himself must come evidence [ as to 

86) YaWoth means "young," Yoldoth, "chlldWrtli." 



•nty: pyD wn-'S s'7 -n: -iu*i ."iran ^y Diiaiyiy 
c^32',2 12']! n''3 3'nn K-i2a3 nsy «^ y\ 

n-isi «-i3n3 «7« nay k'? '7«",a*^ .nnns 
«7 'c.K nna K:t:tr ncs c'ar'3 i-iy n'3 
-•'DyD'7 •'Mr '1 nr;-. pi2 ■'sr 'n .i2''^iy 

■•SD ]'':n '•m 10K "iTii^DTa \b j-'^jd d: i'? 

'72D^ ClOnn ^:0 Tir.ttp (^^ n«!rKna) Kip 

vbu '71) n"n .''^pn •':''2'7 p-'SJ «^ smtt'T 
Qv^*: ic'.s «"i .nn^r mno a^m nn'«ny 
mD33Dir jiV's "in-.K «n« '-\ .nn'i'^ mnn 
;i"npB' '^ onms tt""-! .natro in-'js nwis 
p ^syr:'^^ 'i N"':n .«:n« tnpn iiik? 
cno ps*n •'Dv cn3T ijtt* jiyn la-.K itv^h 
in-.pir ^yi 'Kn« \i'r,pr: ]n«'7 i-'iptr '?v 
iDiK iD"^ '1 s"'jn .cy rrii riDjrn n''3'7 
n^ ncsi ntt'S2 is-iaj nn-'o •'pia nr^a' 

c"?!!;^ m-.n-' am nna pns'' 2-1 ick 
n^n"" CSC n7n"' K^iy c^cm n-i« tr-ps'' 

'7-.B'' ^2 ^KytSC^ ■'21 'Jn .iTKT «^2n^ "IJtSD 



131 



spv^ py 



K^p 



nations, shall take hold — yea, they shall take 
hold of the skirts of him that is a Jew, say- 
ing. Let us go with you, for we have heard 
that God is with you.' " 

We are taught that E. Nechemia says: 
"As a punishment for gratuitous hatred, the 
penalty is strife at the home of that man; 
and his wife will have miscarriages; and 
the sons and daughters of that man will die 
prematurely." 

R. Elazar, the son of E. Juda, said: 
"The punishment for the sin of neglecting to 
separate Challah^° is an unblessed harvest 
gathering; a curse will be sent upon the 
prices of food ; and they will sow, but stran- 
gers will eat them up, as it is said (Lev. 26, 
16.) Then will I also do this unto you; I 
will inflict on you terror, consumption and 
fever that consume the eyes and cause sor- 
row to the heart; and you shall sow your 
seed in vain, for your enemies shall eat it up. 
Do not read Behala (terror) but B'chala^^ 
(on account of Challah), and if the separa- 
tion of Challah is observed, then, blessings 
will follow, as it is said (Ezek. 44, 30.) And 
the first of your dough shall you give to the 
priest, to caut* a blessing to rest on thy 
house." 

The punishment for the sin of neglect- 
ing laws concerning Terumah and tithes, 
is that the sky will withhold rain and dew; 
high prices [in food] will prevail; there 
will be no profits, and men will run about 
to earn a livelihood and will not succeed ; as 
it is said (Job 24, 19.) Drought and heat 
tpeedily consume the snow waters; so doth 
the grave those who have sinned. What does 
that prove? In the academy of R. Ishmael 
it was taught that it means: "On account 
of your failure to discharge the duties which 
I commanded you to perform during the 
summer you will be robbed during the snow- 
water winter." But if they do give [Teru- 
mah and tithes] they will be blessed, as it 
is said (Malachi 3, 10.) Bring ye all the 
tithes into the storrhouse that there may 
ie provision in my house, and prove me hut 
herewith, saith the Lord of Hosts, if I will 
not open for you the windows of heaven,^ 
and pour out for you a blessing Aad b'li 
duy. What is meant by Aad b'li duy? 
Rami b. Chama in the name of Rab said: 



wvn mjity^ '7Do d''b'jk mcy ipnn^ tjk 
D2Dy ns^j nD«^ ■>tiiT' tyx rjJDa ipnnm 

n'7fiD inc'Ki GIN '7ty inu I'.nn nan nnno 
ontya DTiD DIN '7^ TTium v:m ni^s: 
n^n I'l^a "idis mm'' '-\2 -iry'i'X 'n .cijtip 

«ip'i) nnwc p^aiN nnn«i D-^ynr |^jmn 
D3i^y Tnpsm d3^ nsr ntt-yw i:s cin (13 
Dij-iy m^3o nmpn n«i nentt'n nw n'jns 
im'7DKi DDynr p^n^ cnjnn csj nnnoi 
D«i .n^nn k^« n^nn i-ipn ^« .dd"'2"'i« 
n^tjt«-n (TO ^«ptn') "iDWty paiano pjnu 
.71^3 '?« nsia n-'jn'? |nD^ unn D3>mD^nj; 
nnsyj D''DB' nncyai monn ^10^3 ^lya 
12K "lats'm mm iprm noDi ^ts nmn^ 
cy^jn pm jnojiEj nnM i'':;t mK ••jm 
i'?^ ''on: ibTJ' Din c:; n^x (1= :t»<) -ibk:k> 
im ""ai Kjn yoi^tt ^kd .iNtsn ^iiw 
mD''3 D3nK ^n^ii^fty d^idt 'b^ntt'n 'rNyoB'* 
main j^c* ^o^n 020 i^tj^ Dn'>c*y s^i nonn 

in-"! -ixiKn nu ^« ntyyon '73 n« iK'«3n (a 
mK3X 'n -iDK n«t2 kj liunai "'n''33 rpD 
CDtyr, mnnH n« D2^ nriEN n^ ck 
1^3 ny iKD .n ''^3 ly nsns 03^ ■'mp''nni 
i'73''tt> ny 3n ins «an -13 ^ai nos n 
n^iy ^S3i3n bn py3 .n idi^o c3'»mnBty 
Dn''i3 it:'3 j"'^3i« DIN "»:3i mm nynm 



'Until your lips grow tired of saying it is 

,„> The priestly share from .the dough (Cev. 15, 17-31), ., . .. , , 

31) The Hoy and the Chcth, are interohangeable according to the rules of gramm: 
Changed to Bechala. 



Hence Behala eould b» 



130 



n 2 u 



*?? 



young, as it is said (Ecc. 5, 5.) Suffer not 
thy m&uth to cause thy body to sin, etc. Why 
should God be angry because of thy voice, 
and destroy the work of thy hand? We 
must say that this refers to the eons and the 
daughters of man." 

There is a difference of opinion between 
R. Chiya b. Abba and R. Jose; one said: 
"The sin of not having Mezuzoth is the 
cause of children's death," and the other 
said: "The sin of being remiss in the study 
of the Torah is the cause of children's 
death." Tlie one who laid the affliction to 
the sin of Mezuzoth, holds that a passage 
can be connected with another one preceding 
it and thus explained, but not with a pas- 
sage that comes before the preceding one; 
and the one that laid the affliction to the 
sin of being remiss in the study of the 
Torah, holds that passage can be connected 
even with one that comes before a preceding 
passage, and thus explained.-* There is also 
a difference of opinion between E. Meier 
and R. Juda. One said : "It (the death of 
children) is due to the sin of Mezuzoth," 
while the other said: "It is due to the sin 
of Tzifzith." It is right according to him 
who said it is due to the sin of Mezuzoth, 
for it is written (Deu. 11, 20.) And thou 
shalt write them upon the doorposts of thy 
house, and immediately following is written 
In order that your days and the days of your 
children may be multiplied; but according 
to the one who said it is due to the sin of 
Tzitzith, what is his reason? E. Cahana, 
and according to others, Shila Mari, said: 
"Because it is written ( Jer. 8, 34.) Also on 
the end of thy skirts-^ is found the blood 
of the souls of the innocent needy ones." 

R. Nachman b. Isaac said: "The one 
who says it was due to the sin of Mezuzoth, 
derives his opinion from this (lb.) Not 
while brealcing in {thy house) didst thou 
find them, i. e., making the doors like a break- 
ing in (witliout a 3/e2W2a/i)." 

Resh Lakish said: "Whoever observes 
carefully the precepts concerning Tzifzith 
will, as a reward, have two thousand eight 
hundred servants to wait upon him ; for it 
is said (Zech. 8, 23.) Thus said the Lord of 
Eosti, 'In those days it shall come to pass 
that ten men out of all the languages of the 

2H) The passaRes (Deu. 11, 21.1 In order that j/our Oaya and the day) of your children may »» prolonged, 
JoUows the passage of Mawiah. and the one preceding that of Mauzah dells with studying the Torati. 






]'V2 nD«i JSD^ nmn ^",0^2 Jip 
;Knr, /,^J3 ■'is'? K^i T>aB^ u^^2 Kipn nnro 
c-nj «ipD m-n ^•,d''3 pyn idmt 
121 na "•Ji^s .ris •'JS^i T'JS^ 
nt'iiD ]-.p no« in niso 12m rmni 
-icKi ]ND^ KD^cn ni2f:f pjjs ncK nm 
■ry cnanai («' onan) n^nsn nnrn pp 
•oT« ivo'7 (0-) nnnn ^'^ny, inia mrno 
1KD n^sis ]^y^2 i"d'7 «^« .D^ija inii ddiq' 
2"'n2T ""no K'7"'a' Mcnixi kjhd n"« .Koya 
mirsi DT '.kxd: t»dj33 oa (= "'0^) 
n"o'7 -icK pns'' -13 pni nn .D"pj D'»ri^3« 
«^ (av) n^naT Krno ^d: ntiTO pyn 
: mnnoD D^nns its^jiy Din«xo mnnos 

'wjtr cn^y n"ni dis^n '2 1^ ptrotr-Di 
nann D^cn n''.«2s 'n -ic« hd (n n^i:») 



This refers to the Ttitzith which are aX Xhe eul ot the sarment. 



183 



2pv' rv 



i'?D 



And I will send out against you the leasts 
of the field, etc. [Hence we know that the 
above punishment is for swearing falsely]. 
It is written concerning swearing falsely 
(lb. 19.) And ye shall not sivear by my name 
falsely and thou shalt not thus profane the 
name of God {Chilalta) ; concerning the 
defamatiop of the name of God it is written 
(lb. 22, 13.) So that they profane not my 
Holy name {T'chalalu), and concerning the 
desecration of the Sabbath, it is written 
(Ex. 31, 14.) Every one that defileth it {Me- 
chalalfha) shall surely be put to death. We 
infer from the word, Chillul (profanation) 
which appears in all three places [that the 
punishment for defaming God's name and 
desecrating the Sabbath is the multiplication 
of wild beasts, as it is in the case of swearing 
falsely]. 

As a punishment for the sin of shedding 
blood, the Temple is destroyed and the She- 
china departs from Israel, as it is written 
(Xum. 35, 33.) And ye shall not defile, etc., 
and ye shall not render unclean the land 
which ye inhabit, in the midst of which I 
dwell, i. e., htii if ye do render unclean the 
land which ye inhabit, then ye will neither 
inhabit it nor will I live in your midst. 

As a punishment for the sin of adultery, 
idolatry and for the neglect of the laws con- 
cerning land in the Sabbatical years and the 
years of Jubilee^*^ exile comes, and other 
nations come and occupy the places of those 
exiled; as it is written (Lev. 18, 2.) For 
all these abominations have the men of the 
land done, etc., and again (lb.) And the 
land became defiled, etc. ^Vherefore I have 
visited its iniquity upon it, etc. It is also 
written (lb. ib. 28.) That the land may not 
Kmit you forth when ye defile it. _ Concern- 
.ag the warning against idolatry, it is writ- 
ten (Ib. 26, 30.) And I shall cast your car- 
casses, etc. It is also written further And 
I will make desolate your sanctuary, ^etc. 
And ye will be scattered among the nations. 
Concerning the warning in the matters of 
the Sabbatical year and the year of Jubilee, 
it is ^Titten (lb. ib. 34.) Then shall the land 
satisfy its Sabbath, all the days of its deso- 
lation, when ye are in the land of the ene- 
mies, etc. Alt the days of its supposed deso- 
lation shall it rest. 

As a punishment for the sin of lascivious 
talk, many oppressions and severe decrees 

33^ See TH. 23, 10-12, 'LeT. 3. 18, 55, that every 
Jlttleth year a genera.! declaration of freedom is to De 



cty riN i^^nn «^i (== otr) n^na ccn 7i7n3i 
n"'7'7nD (K^ ninr) nTiD nac '7-.7na"i ■'unp 
.npty nyutt'D ^i^n ^i^n pp^M nDT- ma 

s'71 (n? -tz-iaz) '«:::• '^Knti-'o np^noa 
ens itr'N jnsn n« "iNDcn «'7i 'ui is''jnn 
Dn« cs sn nrmn ]zv^' ■'is Tw'« na c^tr'T' 
pity ■'JWi nn caa'r carN nms pKotats 
n"'n3"i3 rrnnj;". mnj? ""i*?: ]'iV'3 .nainn 
n^iV'7 «2 n',"?: n:'7m^", ]''t2"'oc' ncncm 
p^pna ]^2'Z"r. c^-.nH ]"'«2i cnix ]>^:aT 
^«n n";3y.nn '?d n.s •'r (-' x^P'i) "ia«r^ 
]-,Kn KDtsm 3^131 .::: |nsn ■'tr'iw ic*j? 
K^i (Ds-) 2'ny> .'131 n-'^y nr.j; Tip-jsi 
misyn .nn-.N CDsnun c^ns jnsn s-'pn 

'131 D3n:!S ns Tin:! 0- Qk-) nTID csdid 

'•:i DD-'trrpo ns "Tix^tr'm (qs') nTisi 
3^13 n",'7n''."'3i ;''t2''oa'3 .n^m mis oansT 
10'' '?D nTi'.nit:' n« |nsn nnn tk (c=') 
2"'ri3i '121 d:''3''tn r"i«3 nn«i nt^'Z'n "'O'' 
:nini:Ti nc^-n ^c ^3 (qs-) 

nwp mnrji ni3-i nns nsn ni^3j pv'3 
cnt: ^snr' ''sr.ty ''■iin3i nmnnno 
cjj/'i crwi n-'pyix mjo'7«i cnin-'i 

serenth ■■-far the land Is to be left uncultiva'ted and on the 
proclaimed. Th« former is called Smitta, the latter YobeU 



132 



n 3 ly 



3V 



enough;'" The penalty for the sin of rob- 
bery is an invasion of locusts; famine pre- 
vails, and people will be fed on the flesh of 
their own sons and dauj;hters; as it is said 
(Amos 4, 1.) Hear this word, yc cows of 
Bashan, that are on the Mount of Sainaria, 
who opprcsseth the poor, who crush eth the 
needy. (Fol. 33a) Rabasaid: "For instance, 
those women of Mechuza who eat but 
do nothins [tliey force their husbands 
to deal dis^lionestiy and to rob] ; and it 
is also written (lb. ib. 9.) I had smitten 
you with blastiiir! and mildew, etc., and your 
vineyards, your fig-trccs and your olive trees 
did the caterpillar devo^tr. It is also written 
(Joel 1, 4.) ^Vhat the caterpillar left hath 
the cankerworm eaten, and that which the 
cankerworrn left hath the crickets eaten; and 
it is also written (Is. 9, 19.) And he snatch- 
eth on the right hand and is (yet) hungry; 
and he eateth on the left hand, and is not 
(yet) satisfied; every man shall eat the flesh 
of his own arm. Do not read Zrro'o (his arm) 
but read Zaro (his children)." 

As punishment for the sin of delaying 
sentence, perverting sentence, corrupting 
sentence, and neglecting to study the Torah, 
the sword [of an enemy], with its terrible 
preying system, pestilence and famine, will 
come. People ■n-ill eat but will never be sat- 
isfied; they will eat their bread by weight; 
as it is written (Lev. 26, 25. )_ And I will 
Iring over you the sword, avenging the quar- 
rel of my covenant. And it is also written 
(Ib. ib. 2G.) ^Yhen I break unto you the staff 
of bread; and ten women shall bake your 
bread in one oven, and they shall deliver 
your bread by weight, and ye shall eat and 
not be satisfied, i. e.. the word Brith (coven- 
ant) refers to the Torah, for it is written 
(Jer. 33, 25.) If my covenant (Brith) were 
not by day and night, etc., and it is written 
(Lev. 26, 43.) Because even they despised 
my ordinances. 

As punishment for the sin of swearing 
in vain, swearing falsely, defaming of the 
name of God, and desecration of the Sab- 
bath, wild beasts multiply, cattle are de- 
stroyed, the people decrease, and the roads 
become desolate, as it is said (Lev. 25, 23.) 
And if. notwithstanding these things, ye 
icill not be reformed by me. Do not read 
B'aile (these things) but read it Bala 
(swearing), and it is written (Ib. ib. 22.) 

„) x<Kl meant "uMV Bli, "tlrM." Duy "enough" 



nm nam lyoty (t d-.ciO 'k3>^ cnTnjDi 
mpD'",vn y.^^vy nna -it:'s |can nno 
^:n jur «an icn •cji-'ss mxxnn w'n 
z^r\2\ .ji^y i<b' ^^3KT (j^ «n) «tinoT ^tyj 
'•:^ i-,pT«3i I'sntya D3n« Ti-'rn (av) 

•bsK n^M^n nn-'i ri2-\Hr\ ^:s cun nn-" 
(•.: n'r-"') aTisi .b^unn '7r« p'i'\n inv p^^^ 

-itt'n npn '?« .•.'72N1 ly-iT -\V2 c"'S v;y^ 
niij,'", y]n •'li-'j; ^-yn -lyiT nc'n «^k lynr 

p-iKT f-?2:i^ c-iN ^^2^ ,«:: nmxai isni nn 
NiP'i) n^HDT 'i'pctsa con'? y'p^^ni pyat:' 
nn:: cpj ncp",: 2^n C3''^y Tisam (i= 
-itt'y 1SS1 Dn"? nan cd'? nstt'S (='-") n-riDi 
iDNjiy mm N^« nn3 ]"«! .'i:n ctrj 
.'•i:i n^'^^i ccT" "Tina «^ c« W^ n-oT) 
.'>DKD ■'DStt'Dn ]vm tv^ (1= «^P'0 2''nz^ 
ctt*n 'b'.^m -ipty nyuci «".»• ny:aty v.ya 
"isi n^3 r[tn2'i nm nyn n-'n n^sy ^'.^rr: 

n'7«3 npn "?« ^^ no-.n s^ n'rsi cs: efts'/ 
n« 033 Tin^cm (0=-) 3\-i3^ n7S3 s^x 
(c or) -ipty ny,3tt*3 3^131 .'121 mcn r.^ 
.yr.bi^ cv n« n'b^n", ipty'? ''oiyi TV^cn 40;i 



135 



2P 



r*; 



n'?p 



delay of discharge) than are those killed by 
starvation." [Hence it shows that with Kaba 
it was caused by neither hunger nor the 
pot for he surely must have taken warn- 
ino- against it.] It is different with Eaba 
because he was compelled to delay easing 
himself when he was lecturing and was not 
able to leave. 

Our Eabbis taught: "There are four 
eigns [which disclose secrets] : Dropsy is 
a sign of sin; Jaundice is a sign of gratui- 
tous hatred ; Poverty is a sign of pride, and 
Croup is a sign of slander." 

Our Eabbis taught: "Croup comes upon 
the world as punishment (lb. b.) for the sin 
of not giving tithes."^'' E. Elazar the son of 
R. Jose says: "It comes as punishment for 
slander." Eaba, and according to others, R. 
Joshua b. Levi, said : "What is the Biblical 
passage [that proves this]? But the Icing 
shall rejoice in God: everyone that sweareth 
hy Him, shall be stopped (Ps. 63, 12). The 
following question was asked Ijv the scholars : 
"Does R. Elazar the son of E. Jose intend 
to say Only for slander? [dif- 
fering with his contemporary' on the whole 
subject] or does he merely add slander to the 
previous one?" Come and listen to the fol- 
lowing: AVhen our Eabbi entered the acad- 
emy of Jabnai, they found R. Juda, R. 
Elazar the son of R. Jose and R. Simon 
there. The following question was asked 
in their presence: "Why does this sickness 
(croup) begin with the bowels and end with 
the mouth?" Whereupon R. Juda the son 
of Elaye the chief speaker in every instance, 
answered and said: "Although the kidneys 
are the seat of deliberation and the heart 
understands and the tongue forms the sen- 
tence, nevertheless the mouth finishes 
(makes it irrevocable)." R. Elazar, the son 
of R. Jose answered, and said: "Because 
they eat unclean things [committed by the 
mouth]." How can we imagine that croup 
is the punishment for eating unclean things? 
We must therefore say: "Because they eat 
unprepared things [not having given the 
tithes thereof]." R. Simon answered and 
said- "For the sin of neglecting the study 
of the Torah." The Eabbis then said to him : 
"Women [who die of croup] prove the con- 
trarv."" "Because," said E. Simon, thev 
cause their husbands [to neglect the Torah] . 

■"TT; ZZ N-nin 18 21. One tenth of the crop must be 

.Z\J^ the levitical share, the penalty is prema ure 

37) Sel Kedushin 29a that women are exempt from 



^CD .\n ]^:d''d 't pan un .n^niD ^p 
jip-i"" D:n nxri'^ i^D .pmn nray^ 

nB'>'Dn bv n^iy'7 «s mDD« T'n .mro« 
«2n nsN .^"r\'7 ^y noiN idii ■'mn H"n (:">') 
•]'7Dm (JD o'^"n) nsnp ^«r: Van Na^n'^Ni 

-ana s"t in? «"'y3"'N •ipa' nnn ^s nrD-" 

irnun "iD:rjt:a tt'"n .nnsp ''d: yin ]r:;'p 
••312 «"m ni)::'' ""m na' "fn n:r2 ms^ 

.nD2 ma:ji cyo ""isn n^nno no ""JSD 
cnaion t:'KT •'nj;^« 'is m-.n"" ""an njyi 
n'71 msy'i'' nT''7rc' s"j;s insi mpo '733 
■«a"i nayj .na-,: ns .-nnn pc^i r^D 
ni i-'^DiKi^ ■'jat: nosi id*:'' 1^2 nry'TS 
.n"D csnt: ci^t .c^s^3t2 onDi 

]«,y3 -10S1 T'Voti' ''2"i njyj .n-iipintt 
c^oncty .in'«DT' cc: i^ nas .mm 'rits^a 
c'i'usoii' .inirT' csDia nmy .p"«'ry3 ns 

!!rt aside and given to the Levite. and if eaten without 
death by Heaven, 
the command to study the Torah. 



134 



n 2 u 



i^p 



are renewed, and the youth of Israel die, and 
orphans and widows cry and receive no an- 
swer as it is said (Is. 9, IG.) Therefore will 
the Lord have no joy in (heir young men, and 
on their fatherless children, and on their wid- 
ows will he have no mercy; for every one is 
an hypocrite and an evil-doer, and every 
mouth spcaketh scandalous words. For all 
this anger is not turned away, but His hand 
still remaineth stretched out. What is 
meant by And his hand still remaineth 
stretched out? E. Chanan b. Raba said: 
"Everybody knows why a bride enters tho 
nuptial chamber, yet he who speaks about it 
with profane language, even if a divine de- 
cree granting seventy years of happiness 
Were sealed for him. such decree would be 
changed to evil against him.'' Raba b. 
Shila in the name of R. Chisda said : "Who- 
soever defiles his mouth (by lascivious talk) 
has Gehenna made deeper for him; for it is 
said (Pr. 22, 14.) A deep pit for the mouth 
of strange words (immoral talk)." R. Nach- 
man b. Isaac said: "Even he who but lis- 
tens to such talk and remains silent will have 
the same punishment inflicted upon him ; for 
it is said (lb.) And he that is abhorred of the 
Lord shall fall therein." R. Oshia said: 
"He who makes himself free [from all other 
thoughts] devoting himself entirely to sin, 
shall have bruises and wounds spread u{K)ii 
him, as it is said (lb. 20, 30.) The bruises 
of a wound are a means of cleansing for the 
evil.^* Moreover he will be punished with 
dropsy, for immediately following is said 
And stripes (will reach) the inner cham- 
ber of the body. R. Nachman b. Isaac said: 
"The sign of an evil act is dropsy." Our Rab- 
bis taught : "There are three sorts of dropsy : 
thick swelling of flesh, resulting from sin; 
round and smooth [filled with water] due 
to hunger; and swelling [with a feeble ap- 
pearance of the body] due to sorcery." Sam- 
uel the junior suffered [with dropsy] ; he 
said: "Sovereign of the universe! Who 
can determine its cause? [And I may be 
judged wrongly]." Whereupon he became 
well. Abaye was afflict-ed with it, so Raba 
said to him: "I know perfectly well that 
Nachmeini'* does not eat sufficiently [and 
hunger is its cause]." Raba himself [also] 
suffered with it. Has not Raba said : "More 
numerous are those killed by the pot (by 



HDiy* «^ T'mns ^y p 'tj? (o 'Tvb") nowts' 
^3 cn-i'> «'? i^m:iD'7« nwi roin^ n«i 'n 
K^ riKT ':22 iTJaj lan ns 'boi vnm qjn i^3 

no^ n'?3 j-'yT,-' ^an wan -\2 pjn m ids 

nniD^ njty cync 'jt? ]n -\n p^y pomn 
noK «'7''B' -13 «3n nn« .njjn'? v'?]) p3sin 
1'? ]ip''Dj;a lis riN ^ajon ^3 vnou 3n 
IS np'^T^i! nnw (=3 '''=«) -iDSJty cjnia 
yoicn r,« it2« pnx^ i3 jcn: n .nnr 
iDK .cr '?\s'' 'n Diyr {av) idwc pmn 
nT«3V^ "lOify ^« piDon '73 «'«j;triN •'m 
(2 OB') noKjty 13 \^v^\'> DiyxsT nnnn 
]ii:u K^K nj) «^i j;n3 pnon yss nmsn 
IDK .jts3 '«mn m3Di (pv) nowty jpnnnn 

'7B' \n ipmn ''J'<d 'a jm un (3"y) 
•pT cstrs ^B'l nisn 3jn ^tri nay m''3y 
••D D^iy ^ty um -io« '^3 trn jopn ^kic^ 
siyT" «an IDS .T"! ts'n "sk .''Dn'«K can 
.Tia tyn K3n .t\'>usi pb3dt '•jcn^a n-ia 
"•me^ mp t^ep sb>^£33 noNn Kin N3n n-i 
n'»rT>y3 pan ni^ idj«i «3n ^JKt? .j23 



84) Tamrik can be defined "to eleanee," also "to free." 
as) Ab&je'a real ULme was Nachmelul. 



137 



3pV' ]-.y 



T^p 



of study. Every day his wife brought them 
bread and a cup of water, with which they 
maintained themselves. Then the decree be- 
came more severe [to discover the con- 
demned]. R. Simon said to his son: "Be- 
hold ! Women are easy-minded ; the 
Eomans may cause her pain and then 
she will disclose our hiding place." So 
they went away [from the academy, with- 
out telling even his wife] and hid them- 
selves in a cave. There a miracle occurred 
and a carob-tree and a fountain of 
water were created for them. They took o£E 
their clothes and, absorbed in study, sat in the 
sand up to their necks^' the whole day. At 
the time of service they would put on their 
clothes, but after they were through with 
the service, they a^ain took off their clothes 
60 that they might not become worn out. 
After they had been sitting thus for twelve 
years in the cave, Elijah came, stopped at 
the door of the cave, and said: "Who will 
inform the son of Jochai that the King has 
died and his decree has been annulled?" 
Upon hearing this, they left the cave. When 
they noticed some people plowing and sow- 
ing, one of them exclaimed : "Behold, these 
people are neglecting eternal life and occupy 
themselves with the transient life!" Upon 
whatever they fixed their eyes, a fire came 
end devoured it instantly, until a Bath-Kol 
(heavenly voice) came forth and said to 
them: "What! Are ye come forth to de- 
stroy my world ? Get ye back to your cave." 
Accordingly they returned to their cave and 
sat there twelve months more. They then 
pleaded, saying: "Even the judgment of 
the wicked in Gehenna lasts no longer than 
twelve months [and therefore it ought also 
to be sufficient for our crime ]."*' Upon 
which a Bath-Kol came forth and said: 
"Come ye forth from your cave." They 
finally came forth. Whatever R. Elazar 
Btruck [with his look] was healed by R. 
Simon [also with his look], until R. Simon 
said to his son : "My son, it is sufficient for 
the world that you and I are learning the 
Torah." One Friday afternoon they saw an 
old man hurrying along with two bunches 
of myrtle in his hand. "Why dost thou need 
these?" said thev to the man. "[To enjoy 
the smell] in honor of the Sabbath," was his 
reply. "Would not one bunch,"' they re- 



n^p inyi xi-^m nnn^ ^"k wmnj tiv^ 
iK'D i^t« .\'7 (S-i^jDi n^ nysD «D^n JiTi^j? 
»yr\n in^ nn^s xdij tt"»n-in« «myt23 

jT^ya ''Dn: «dti ■•^is «'7n3 injnKi:; ny 
\r\'^''yQ "in^cr: mm I'b^foi idd-'c ityn^ ''m'?^ 
•>i^ nonn i3"'n''« .I'^a-'^ «^t i^rn -"d 
«n-ij?Di «nnsN Dpi ini'bs «ns xmyoa 
^"iD^i iD"'p n-'DT imi "12^ n^yiiv j«d "id« 
•'jnn "•niD (Kpi ''ttTK irn ipsj .nTiT'tj 

ntn Dn«s> ""d^ij; annn^ nn"? moxi ^ip 
^nv nonn utt's '7itK inn .□Dmvo'? 
trrn a"^ cj.T'jn cycn qejit'd """inH «nty 
ips: .DDmyoD -isx mn«": '?^p nn nnx' 
^3*1 iDts -"in nry^x '»m "•no mm ksm '73 
'>in2 .nriNi ijn n^iy^ n ""ja '?"« jiyoty 
tt^pj mm K3D ii'^nn nn «nat:' ^'?]}Ki1 «''J3 
TiDN mtyott-n pa t2\mn kdk •':sid nn 
•«:Dm naiy nuD^ in^ nD« i^ no^ ^jn n^^ 



S8) A naked man is prohibited from studying the Torah. 

■9) Their conduct upon first leaving tie cave was coaHdered a crlm«. 



136 



n 3 {y 



i^p 



"Gentiles who die from it disprove your 
opinion." "Because they cause Israel [to 
neglect the study of the Torah]."' "Infants 
who die of croup will prove tlie contrary." 
"Infants die of it because they interrupt their 
fathers [while studying the Torah]."' They 
finally asked him: "Children attending 
school [and having no time to interrupt their 
fathers] who died of croup will prove the 
contrary to your opinion."' "Such cases," 
replied R. Simon, "are as R. Gurion said; 
for R. Gurion, and according to others, R. 
Joseph b. Shemaye, said : 'As long as there 
are righteous people in a generation, they are 
seized for [the sin of] their generation; but 
if there are no righteous people then the chil- 
dren are seized for [the sin of] their genera- 
tion.' " R. Isaac b. Zeira, and according to 
others, R. Simon b. Nezira, said: "What 
is the Biblical passage [that explains it] ?" 
// ihou l-nowest this not, thou fairest of 
women, go but forth in the footsteps of the 
flock and feed thy kids around the shep- 
herd's diveUings (Songs 1, 8.) And we are 
told that it means the kids that are pawned 
for the sins of the shepherds."^' We con- 
dude from this that R. Elazar merely added 
slander. It is concluded. 

Why was he called the chief speaker in 
every place? For R. Juda, R. Jose, and R. 
Simon were once seated together, and Juda 
b. Gerim was seated near them. R. Juda 
opened the conversation by saying: "How 
beautiful are the works of this nation! (the 
Romans). They have established streets and 
markets, built bridges across the rivers and 
established baths." R. Jose listened to these 
remarks, but kept silent. R. Simon b. Jochai, 
however, replied, saying: "Everything they 
have established is for their own benefit. They 
have opened the markets that they may place 
harlots there ; they have established baths for 
their own refreshment, and bridges [were 
built to enable them] to raise tolls." Juda b. 
Gerim thereupon went and disclosed their 
conversation, and it reached the ears of the 
government. WTiereupon an edict was issued 
[to the effect] that R. Juda, who had praised 
[the works of the Romans] should be pro- 
moted; [consequently he became the chief 
speaker in every place] ; that R. Jose who had 
remained silent, should he exiled to Sephoris ; 
and that R. Simon who had censured [their 
•works] should be executed. Thereupon R. 
Simon and his son hid themselves in a house 
38) Mishkenoih, means "dwellings." If slightly changed 



cnn AU'^y^ pn r^a r:; n-ipuTi .cn"«3K 

y\ KDTliNI pnu ""aT 1DK1 Jim: '«3ni3 

-ins D-'p-'ii- pK nnn ^y CDsnj c^nx 
n"K .nnn 7y n^Dsn: pn n"«3 'bu' iripuTi 
p^yct:' ^3T -iDN n^ nD«"i n-'yt 13 pns^ 

V "pn N7 CS (« =-"ne-) Nip ^KO SnMJ p 

'ir, ;si-n '3py3 -['7 "iNi' ccjs ns\n 
VCw .c^>"nn ^>' cjic-iDcn cnj pnoKi 
.nro yet:' nnsp ynn \;z'i ^y r,s nj''D 
c-pa '733 Dn3iDn irsi n"'^ np •'Ndmi 
^-.yct:' ^3m "y ^i-\\ m:n'' ^3"i ^3nn 
m-.n"! •'3T nns •,n''''3: en: p min^ 3"'n''i 
"!:pn n ne-.K ^'j cn^tryo d^sj nD3 ioki 
^3T .n-.Ksmo upn cnty: "iipn n'pnty 
no '73 ncKi •'xn:-' p c"-! nj^i -pn'^ ^d-j* 
ijpn pxy yi'.:;? k^k ijpn vh \i^rw 
]-rj;^ n"i«smo .ri:r,T cn3 3''a'";n^ D^nsr 
•j^n .Q''C3n cno 'b^cv c^nir: .]tt:;v oni 
m3^c^ lytstyji Dni-i3i isoi en: p mrn^ 

K-n '7T« .3in'» nritt* i".>;Da' •■•n^sx^ n^a^ 
Ti-'^D nv.r! «£:";•' ^3 .srmo ^3 wta nn3i 
■«3 /3n3-; x'CT «v.3": «nEn inn^sT in^ 

to ifoiMtenoth It mean ■■ "oiwn," or "pWge." 



139 



Dpy^ rv 



taV 



dug] he declared it purified, and around the 
Boft spots he made marks [so that priests 
should take heed not to cross them]. When 
he had finished, he heard the old man re- 
mark : "Ben Jochai purified cemeteries." 
"If thou wert not with us," said E. Simon, 
"or even hadst thou been with us but didst 
not agree, then thou mightst fairly say it, 
but now being one of us and having agreed, 
people will say, '0 since harlots paint one 
another [to look nice], how much more 
ought scholars [be regardful of one another's 
honor].'" Thereupon E. Simon fixed his 
eyes upon the old man and the latter died 
instantly. As E. Simon went out upon the 
street, he noticed Juda b. Gerim (the 
tale-bearer). "0," said he, "does this one 
still live and exist in the world ?" E. Simon 
fixed his eyes upon him and Juda became 
instantly a heap of bones. 

A man must say three things in his house 
on Friday when it is becoming dark : "Have 
you set a^ide the tithes?''*^ "Have you put 
up the Erub?"" and "Light the [Sabbath] 
candles." Whence do we learn this? R. 
Joshua b. Levi said : "The passage says 
(Job 5, 24.) And thou shalt know that there 
is peace iri thy tent, and thou wilt look over 
ihy habitation, and shalt miss nothing." 

Eabba b. E. Huna said: "Although the 
Rabbis said that a man must say three things 
in his house on Friday, etc., he must say 
them in a gentle way so that his family may 
accept them in good faith." E. Ashi said: 
"Although I never heard what Rabba b. 
E. Huna had said, yet I have always done so 
as a matter of common sense." 

(lb. b) What time of the day is called 
Twilight ? From the time that the 
sun sets [and] as long as the eastern horizon 
is red [form the reflection] ; when the lower 
horizon is pale, but the upper horizon is 
not, it is still Twilight. When the up- 
per horizon is as dark as the lower one, night 
has set in. This is according to R. Juda. R. 
Nechemia says: "[The duration of twilight 
is] BO long a.9 it takes a man to walk half 
a mile from the moment the sun sets." R. 
Jose says: "Twilight lasts as long as a 
twinkling: this one comes and that one goes, 



■roi nnntD ^typ mm w»n ^:> ^on idj i.t'w 
nniQ K2D «inn now .n'<j"''':f ""sn mm «3\t 
«!? ""^D^s n^^ nD« .miDpn n''2 ""wnr p. 
i:Dy JTiiDJ H'?^ uoy n"n i^b«i uay n^'n 
nijDJi uoy n''\nB» rcDj; .ims nns ns* 
n"n It HK IT mo^-isQ nun noN'' UDy 
psj •n-'tr'BJ ni) nijij; n-in 3ni .piy "73 n^ 
i:"i ]iny idn on: p min-"^ n-inn «pic^ 

•in-'n "^inn.nDi^ din ti-ix onn nc'i'B' 
noK y'nnN D"no .'i3i ns-'tt'n cy nac my 
mpsi i^n« m^tt' ••d nyT"! (n nrx) snp 
:«Qnn N^i lu 

psn mo«T :"yK «jin an ns nm noK 
"inif '131 noi^ Dn« inx D-inaT nc^c 
inr^ap'-'i'T ^3vn ■«3 Nnini:n inrnn^n'? 

"IDST Nn ^'b yoty «'? SJK •'tt'K -f'S •H^J'^O 

: «nnDD 'incipi siin m -i3 nm 

yptt'ntyo nitt-otyn ]^3 inriM (3"y ot?) 
ci-iDDn .pnn«o niTO '•jsty pT ^3i nonn 
.nirocn pi ^''^yn q-'DDn N'71 ]innnn 
nai n^''^ inr ]innn^ nitt'm pi^yn si''D3."i 

DIN I'^n-'ty 113 lOIN n'^DHJ •"31 .miH"' ''3T 

]^2 nms' ''D11 '-I .'b-'D •'sn nonn yptr'nir'n 

The act of setting aside Is 



«3) One tenth of all grains must be set aside for the Levite before using the rest. 
Dot allowed on the Sabbath. 

44) A courtyard consisting of separate dwellings and residents is considered legally to be divided into different 
territories, each belonging to the separate residents ; the carrying of things is thus prohibited in the courtyard. By 
an act of an Brub. these different territories become a common place, and the carrying of articles from one to 
another becomes legalized. This act consists of every resident of the entire courtyard contributing his share toward 
a dish which Is deiposited in one of tie dwellings on Friday before sunset. 



1S8 



r\ 2 \ff 



n'7p 



marked, "be enough for the purpose?" 
"Nay,"' the old man replied, "one is in honor 
of Zachor (remember)^" and one in honor 
of Shamor (keep).'' Thereupon R. Simon 
remarked to his son: "Behold! How dear 
are the commandments to Israel." 

Upon hearing [that they had gone out of 
the cave], R. Phinias b. Yair, R. Simon's 
son-in-law, went out to meet him ; he took him 
into a bath-house, washed his entire body 
and tried to soften his flesh [which had 
hardened through sitting so long in the 
sand]. While he was cleaning R. Simon's 
body, he noticed that his skin was blistered 
and cracked; R. Phinias began to weep, and 
the tears whicii fell upon R. Simon's wounded 
body caused him such severe pain that he 
also wept. "Woe unto me," said R. Phinias, 
"that I see you in such condition." "Happy 
art thou," said R. Simon unto him, "that 
thou seest me in such condition, because, 
hadst thou not seen me so, then would I 
not have been what I am." Before tliis inci- 
dent, when R. Simon b. Jochai asked a ques- 
tion of R. Phinias b. Yair, the latter would 
reply to it in twelve different ways ; but after 
this incident, when R. Phinias b. Yair asked 
any question, R. Simon b. Jochai replied to it 
in twenty-four different ways. R. Simon then 
said: "Since a miracle happened to me, I 
shall therefore improve something." For [thus 
we learn from Jacob, as] it is written (Gen. 
33, 18.) And Jacob came safely, upon which 
Eab said, "Safe with the body, safe with hia 
wealth and safe with his Torah"; And he en- 
camped*^ before the cUt/. (lb.) Rab .^aid : "He 
invented a coin for them," and Samuel said : 
"He established streets for them." R. Joc- 
hanan said : "He established baths for 
them." "Have you anything which lacks 
[religious] improvement?" R. Simon in- 
quired. "Yes," they answered, "there is a 
place which is considered doubtful [and] 
unclean, (Fol. 34a) and it causes the priests 
annoyance because they have to go around 
that place."*- He asked them: "Is there 
anyone who knows if that place ever had the 
status of levitical cleanliness?" An old man 
replied : "Here, I remember, b. Zakai 
plucked lupines of Terumah." Whereupon 
E. Simon did likewise. 'Unicrever tlio 
ground was hard [showing that it was not 



40) In the first commandment (Ex, 
(D«u. 5, 12.) Seep the Sabbath. 

" 'Vnrjimped.'* al?o "favor 



iDM niDC' 1J33 im '^\\^2^ n:i2 nn ina i'? 

«p n\n '•'jn "in? •T'^iiy n-'ax'? psj n'^jnn 
iTisija •'^13 n-in nm ^sin .nn'^a'? n-''? inx 
miiTDpi n-ij-iy nym pnj spi ""^n sp n:n 

mn '•3 K-ip"«yDT .^3 •'3 nSi-D N^ •]33 

cms '3n n^'7 piso r\\r\ Ni^np '<"3ttn ''cpo 

^3-\ •'D'pD '»3 SJID^ .""PIT'S "ICnn T'N'' p 

'«"3t:n r\''i pnsn mn 'S^tt'ip n^K"" j3 onjs 
«D"'i c-'mn-'Ni ^isin ncs .^p-T'D T'3 

«3il [i'j n.tt-K-13) 3in31 Kn70 JpiT'N '7n"'« 
1i1DD3 C'7ty 1B1J3 D^C 31 IDMI D'7B' 3py' 

iDN ■ygn ■'js n« jn-'i (qs-) .irmn3 cr^ 

D^plVJ IDS ^M-iOCI Dn'7 jpn J?3t:D 3T 

.Dn^ Ipn m«:fmr) noM ]in".^ '-n cn^ jpn 

K3''« '?"« 'Jipn'7 ""ysi Kn^''D H3^« ^'K 

iT'K'i (1^ =n) .hncVl: pso n^3 n-'Si sn:n 
ti'^rK K3^« iDN ^aip«'b '':n3^ «iyx in^ 
Kinn ni^ ick .mnD «3n prnnKT pn 
n3>' .rronn iDo-nn indt p ]>sp ]S3 n3c 

8.) » Fays JJememSfr tie Sabbath and In the second commandment 



4t) YicJian means 'Vnrampe<l. al?o favor c* t ~„ 91 1 

«a) Priests are forbidden to cross a grave or ft cemeterj. Se« X.ev. Ji, 1 



141 



apy^ py 



«Di> 



eminent of Edom had once decreed against 
Israel, that whoever would wear Tephilin 
on his head should have his brain crushed. 
Elisha put on his Tephilin and went out on 
the street. An inquisitor saw him and E. 
Elisha fled before him, being pursued by 
the inquisitor. When he was caught, R. 
Elisha removed the Tephilin from his head 
and kept them in his hand. "What have you 
in your hand ?" the inquisitor asked. "Wings 
of a dove," replied Elisha. The inquisitor 
stretched out his hand to investigate, and he 
found them to be wings of a dove ; therefore 
he, Elisha, was called Elisha, the man of the 
dove wings." Why did he say wings of a 
dove [and not of any other bird] ? Because 
Israel is likened to a dove; for it says (Ps. 
68, 14.) The wings of the dove covered with 
silver and her pinions shining with flaming 
gold, i. e., just as the dove defends herself 
with her wings [not with her beak], so does 
Israel defended itself with its Torah. 

CHAPTER FIVE 

(Fol. 53b) Our Rabbis taught: It hap- 
pened once that a mans vfile died leav- 
ing him a nursing son. The man was so 
poor that he could not pay for nursing the 
infant. A miracle happened, and the man's 
breast spread open like that of a woman's 
and he nursed his son. R. Joseph said : 
"Behold! How great that man must have 
been that such a miracle was wrought for 
him." Abaye said to him: "On the con- 
trary, behold how wicked that man must 
have been that the order of the Creation 
(nature) was changed for him [that he was 
not of sufficient merit to earn enough to pay 
for nursing]." R. Judasaid: "Behold how 
difficult is the [providential] support for 
man that the order of the Creation had to 
be changed for him." R. Nachman said: 
"The fact could be proved that in many 
instances miracles happen and no support 
ie created [for any one without looking for 
it]." Our Rabbis taught: It once hap- 
pened that a man married a woman of one 
hand, and did not discover that fact until 
she died. Rabbi said : "Behold how modest 
that woman must have been that even her 
husband did not discover the defect in her 
until she died." R. Chiya said to him: 
"That is nothing. It is natural for a woman 
[to hide such things] but see how modest 



"i">:sD p nn« nnop "imNi pic^ K:f:^i 
itTK-iD p\i: i'7XK y^ini? jt'di .innK p^ 
1^ iDK .-in"'2 nr no i7 ids jit's nnwi 
m^i ""SJD issr::i it" ri« tatr's ,niv ''fl:D 
1KDT .D'sja ^3 yB''''7K ims ]mp 13^B^ 
'7T1DS1 cx'D .msiy nstyo nji^ '«SJ2 kjb' 

1SJ3 (n"D D'^nn) -iD^Jt? n:*"''? ^K1B>^ riDJD 

.Ttsja n:i'> no .'ui eiddi hbdj njT» 
: p-i^y mr;o mso '7«-ia"' ci« n-i^y nu^Jio 

^B^^nn pns nana nan 

nntitt' iHKn nt^ya j33-i ijn (:*yj"5) 
np^iD nrtt* i^ r^'r[ s^i pr"? p nn^jm incw 

rros HKm «i3 cidi"" n"« .'JS n« p-'im nt^K 
n"«^ -ii2« .ntD d: i'? ncyjiy nr m« ^ni 
1^ ijiityjc nt DiK ynj no3 nsntN •'■'3« 
HDD HK-n K13 mi.T' 31 noN .n^tt'*n3 •'mo 
imo Ti^y uncity m« ^c iinuito ]^^'p 
tr-'mnoT ynn pnj 3-1 now .n^trKia 
m«3 nt?yo n"n -^jitd ti3^k k^i «d"«i 
Di"" Ty n3 I'rn k^i noT': nr« «trjti' inK 
niy« nyus rras ntm «i3 ■»3"i no . nmo 
ram ir K^-in ""sn ^'k .n^j?3 ns n^on n'pw ir 



140 



n 2 tr 



op 



and it is impossible to determine its exact 
time." 

(Fol. 35a) R. Chiya said: "Whoever de- 
sires to see the well of Miriam," let him 
ascend to the top of Mount Carmol am!, 
looking down, he will observe in the sea a 
stone in the form of a sieve, and this is the 
■well of Miriam." Rab said: "A movable 
well is clean (not subject to levitical unclean- 
liness).'*' This concerns only the well of 
Miriam." 

CHAPTER THREE 

(Fol. 41a) R. Zeira tried to avoid the 
sight of R. Juda because he wanted to go up 
to Palestine and R. Juda had said: ''Who- 
ever goes up from Babvk)n to Palestine 
transgresses the positive law which says 
(Jer. 57, 2.) Unio Babylon shall they be 
carried, and there shall they remain until 
the day that I think of them, saiih the Lord." 

Wc are taught: ''If he eats but does 
not drink, his food will turn to blood and 
this is the beginning of stomach trouble. If 
he eats and does not walk four cubits, his food 
will rot and this is the beginning of the 
cause of the had odor [from his mouth] . He 
who must ease himself and eats before doing 
60, is like unto a stove which was heated 
upon its ashes ; this is first to cause a bad 
smell [from the body]. Washing in warm 
water and not drinking anything, is like 
heating a stove without, and not within. 
Washing in warm water but not having 
gushed with cold water, is like an iron which 
was put into fire but was not put into the 
water afterwards [to harden it]. Washing 
without oiling oneself is like pouring water 
upon a barrel." 

CHAPTER FOUR 



•iKI 



(Fol. 49a) R. Janai said : "Tephilin re- 
quire as clean a body as that of Elisha, the 
man of wings.'' What does that mean? 
Abaye said : "It means that he must be care- 
ful to wear it on a clean body."' And Raba 
said that it means "He should not sleep 
while he wear? the Tephilin." And why waa 
he called the man of wings? For the gov- 

4}) s7« Ta&nlth. Fol. 9a. A tradition based on Biblical Inference, that tie wfV T-hlrb furnished the I?raellt9f 
■with water, while they were In the wilderness, ciiated by reason of the virtues of Miriam, and Is therefore called 
"the well of Miriam " 

«8) See Ley. 11. Sl-4. 



n"',«n'7 nxnn K"n ""aT noK (n? rn) 

'jt:* ms2 N\'i "ii: en r-32 pc^ riKn^i 
: CID '7'S n-i«3 

nr.ri'' 3-iD ti-'cntr'D n-,- «iv •'ai (»<t2 '^) 
m-.n"" an ncKT vxntt""! «y-is7 po'^oi ^ym 
'wiy ntt*ya la'rj? ^"k: 72212 '7;];^ '?d 
c' ly r.T notyi isar ni22 ('2 n-aT) 

inn m in'JnK nna' sr. ?:« k^jd 
n-.DS ya-iN i^n «:i ^rs c^yo ■'^•.n n^nn 
insin jn nn n7nn inn napio in7nK 
nsK a"jj in'ip^Dn';^ Tiin'7 nnn "jasi T^apj? 
nnty «'7i i^nnn i^m Htrw] mi n'jnn inn 
«^i I'inDQ inip"»Dnr min^ non cna 
r|t2rT.r'i s'71 pnns j'm c^jssts inip-ion 
: n-ian y'j? n^o^ non ^d s'ti }>m pis2 

^ri"i P^ V^y^ nan 

r,-: i^-ins ji^-'En ••«:'' ^21 idh (=t3 »n) 
naK in« .K-'n '«a d''B32 '?y2 yiy^^Ms ^pj 
.^ns ]B« K^c' icK N3"i .jn2 n"'B'< nbu 
mT3 nnK Dysc csas '?V2 n>^ ^ip ^«d«i 



143 



npv^ py 



:cf> 



master reprove those princes of the exile." 
Whereupon E. Simon responded: "They 
vould pay no heed." "Even if they do not 
pay heed yet the master ought to reprove 
them," said E. Zeira, "for E. Acha, the son of 
E. Chanina, said: 'Never did the Holy One, 
praised be He ! issue a benevolent decree and 
reconsider it and substitute a bad one, ex- 
cept in the instance written (Ez. 9, 4.) 
And the Lord mid unto him. Pass through 
the midst of the city, through the midst of 
Jerusalem, and inscribe a mark upon the 
foreheads of the men who sigh and who com- 
plain because of all the abominations irhich 
are done in the midst of it, i. e., the Holy 
One, praised be He ! said unto Gabriel, 'Go 
and set the sign Tov.^ in ink upon the 
foreheads of the righteous, that the destroy- 
ing angels may have no power over them.' 
Whereupon the attribute of justice pleaded 
before the Holy One, praised be He! thus 
eaying, 'Sovereign of the universe, what is 
the difference between these and the others ?' 
'These,' said the Lord, 'are perfectly right- 
eous people and the others are grossly wicked 
people.' Again the attribute of justice pleaded 
'Sovereign of the universe, it was their duty 
to warn them [against wicked actions] and 
they did not do so.' Whereupon God an- 
swered : 'It is revealed and known to me that 
if they warned them, they would not have 
heeded them.' Again Justice pleaded : 'Sov- 
ereign of the universe, this was known unto 
Thee, but was it known unto them?' 
Therefore it is written [immediately follow- 
ing] The aged, young, and little children 
and women shall ye slay and destroy, but 
come not near any man upon whom ye find 
the mark, and from my sanctuary shall yo 
begin. And it is written (lb.) Then they 
began with the elders who were before the 
house.'" E. Joseph recited [a Baraitha] "Do 
not read Mikdmhi (my sanctuary) _ but 
Mimkudashai (those who are holy), i. e., 
they are the men who fulfilled the whole 
Torah from the Aleph (the first letter) until 
the Tov (the last letter) ; soon [after this 
is written (lb.) And behold! six men came 
from the north, and every man with his 
weapon of destruction in hand; and one man 
in the midst of them was clothed in linen, 
with the paraphernalia of a writer by his 
side, and placed himself beside the copper 
altar. Did then the copper altar ex- 
1) The last letter of the alphabet. 



n^'? IDS .Nn-,^:i en ^21 •'jn? no inrrui^ 
«^i 23 ^ cjs ni'7 noK ••'Km ••^apo «^ 
"•ans «nK ■'an nosi no ■in:''nDi^ •'^apo 
n"2pn •'SD naiQ n-ra nnx'» k^ a^iyo «rin 
^NPTH') ain^T nt imo ]'in ny-1'7 nn mm 
lins "iiyn -jinn nuv ''^k 'n nnK""! (» 
D''cj«n mnsD ^y vn n-'inm o-'^cn"' 
mcyjn nuyinn ^3 ^y cpjxjm o-imwH 
^y Ditrm -p '7«n3J^ n"3pn ^'? nox 'ut 
ita^ty x^c' ri ^c' rn D''pnx ^ly irrsD 
Diytt-i ^ty Dnsa ^yi -n^nn ■'dk^d cna 
.n^nn 'dk^d onn in'7tyty ^id m '?^ vn 
cr.y ^c ::m r\"2pr\ •>jb'7 inn mo moK 

rjB'7 mns .nn":nj cytrn i^'rm nmn: 

K^ Dm in-iQ CKB' ""jsV yin '•i^j n^ ids 
7js^ DK y"e'aT rjs^ mo« .cno i^np"" 
IPT (D*) 3^131 ir-'m .''17; •'o on^ ii^a 
^yi nintrn'? unnn nityji qtai n^inai mna 
lanpnoT ity:in '?« "inn T'^y ntyx tys '73 
D^jprn D''tyj«3 i^n*"! (os*) 3^131 .i^nn 
npn "bK riDT' 3n •«:n .nnn ^J£5^ nc'x 
iD-'-'piy mK •'J3 i^s ^tynpan «'?« ^sfipoD 
n:m tdi .vn lyi ci^«d n'7*,3 minn nx 
nti'K ir^yn lyc -p-ra d"'K3 d^uh^ n^^ 
in« ?r^Ki IT'S ixBD ""^s VKi nr,BX n:BD 
i'':nD3 "iBion nopi Dn3n ^13^ D3in3 
n3TD .ntrnin n3TD "jxk noyi iksm 
i^'^nnn n"3pn 1^ noK .mn ••o nc'njrt 



14: 



n n •^• 



3Dp 



that man must have been, if he did not dis- 
cover it until her death." 

(Fol. 54b) (Mishnah) A cow belonging 
to R. Elazar b. Azariah would go out on the 
Sabbath with a rope around her horns, 
without the consent of the sages. 

(Gomara) Had he only one cow? Behold, 
Bab, and according to some, R. Juda in the 
name of Eab said that "Twelve thousand 
calves were the yearly tithes of R. Elazar b. 
Arariah's herds ?"" We are taught that "The 
cow [mentioned in the Mishnah] was not his 
own, but his neighbor's, and because he did 
not protest against such an act, it was there- 
fore credited to him.'"' 

Rab and R. Chanina, R. Jochanan and 
R. Chabiba, studied together, in the entire 
Order of Mo'ed (Festivals). Wherever this 
combination of authorities appears, some 
eliminate R. Jochanan and insert R. Jona- 
than. [They said :] "He who has the power 
to protest [against wrong] in his house and 
does not do so, will be seized for [the sin of] 
every one in his house. In the city [where 
his protest would prevail] he will be seized 
for the sin of every one in his city. In the 
entire world [if his protest would be heeded 
and he does not protest] he will be seized 
for the sin of the entire world."' "And the 
princes of the exile," said R. Papa, "will be 
seized for the sin of all Israel, just as R. 
Chanina said : 'What means the passage ( Is. 
3, 14.) The Lord will enter into Judgment 
with the elders of His people and their 
princes. If the princes sinned, (Fol. .").5a), 
what fault have the elders in it? Because the 
elders did not protest against the princes." " 

R. Juda was sitting before Samuel when 
a certain woman came in, complaining ; Sam- 
uel paid no attention to her. R. Juda said 
to him: "Is the master unaware of the pas- 
sage (Pr. 21, 13.) Whoso stopped hi$ ears 
from listening to the cry of the poor, he also 
uill cry nimself, hut shall not he answered." 
Whereupon Samuel said to him: "Keen 
scholar, thv chief (I) shall be punished with 
cold water! but thv chief's chief (the prmce 
of the exile) with boiling water. Behold, 
Mar Fkba. the chief of the judges sits here 
[and it is hi.s duty to attend], for it is writ- 
ten (Jer. 31. 1-2.) house of David thus hath 
the Lord said. 'Exercise justice every morn, 
ing and deliver him, etc' Jonly to those 
who have power to do justicel." 

E. Zeira said to R. Simon: "I^t the 



n-irn Kr^ nj dik yus noa K7k 123 

: iniTKa 

p 1TV7S ""ai 'b'j ims .njtyn i-'v ■'J) 
«?::• n"«np I'^sc ny.xnn ns:f,i nn'^n -"•nry 
: ccrn px"i3 

21 ics N,-: n"!? n-.n ms s-ni .'c: 
i^:v •«S7« nonn n"x T\Tin'< ids n'? iidki 

^•^' «*?« nn\T i^tt' «^ Kjn .snty': «nB> 
nsnp: na nn^ts «'7U' "iino": nn-'n in:^:? 
nil i^n-"" ^;m wan ""n-n nn .iDty ^y 
"iKn ">3 ^3 ly.D mo •''i'-.ra i:no waian 
"D 73 ]nj'^ '1 ■'7^"'j,'ci j:mi •'m 'Si7n «:"!T 
nn'o sr, •n"'3 ■'r:«3 n:no^ -la'awty 
^y DEnj n^y •'trj«3 in-'n •"::•:« /y csnj 
7y c£ni •7",3 C^-.yn 733 -.T'y ''^jk 
'':m NS£3 31 nns .'1^13 c^iyn "73 
SD7y '''7"'.3 7y CDsnj Nn:'7J ti-n ''ii 
'n (- nv'S") n"D Nrjn '»3t na«T kh ''3 
cnc D« mtt"! "iCy ""jpT cy k3' dsu'ds 
«nis K^« iNun no n^:pi (n^ «n) ".wDn 
n'.n nTn-" 3-1 .cntyn ",n"'D k^c' cjpT ^y 
sp Nnns KTin "'wnx 7K"',t:n nicp 3^1^ 
n''7 -icN ."3 nia'D nin «^i iTcp nnv,x 
npyra ",:ts ct:-,« ("«: '^=*o) no n-"^ n3D w^ 
wjjitr? n-i^ -ia« .nr;-" «'7-, snp"" s",n d: ^t 

n<B-i') 3''n3i i"'! n"'3 3S S3p';y nn sti^ 
csttTS "ip3^ irn 'n ncK n3 rn n^3 (^a 

^ItS-'D ■'3-l'7 KTT •'Sn H"*^ nO« .'"131 I'T^xm, 



145 



spy 



rigUeotisness, from henceforth and unto 
eternity, the zeal of the Lord of hosts will 
do this." 

E. Ami said: "Death does not come 
except through sin, and afBictions do 
not come except through iniquity; death 
does not come unless through sin, as it is 
written (Ez. 18, 20.) The soul that sinneth, 
she alone shall die; afflictions do not come ex- 
cept through iniquity, as it is written (Ps. 
89, 33.) Then will I visit their transgres- 
sions with the rod, and their iniquities with 
plagues. (lb. b.) The following objection was 
raised: "The ministering angels said be- 
fore the Holy One, praised be He! 'Sover- 
eign of the universe, why hast Thou decreed 
death unto Adam, the first man?' 'Be- 
cause,' said the Lord unto them, 'I gave him 
one light commandment and he transgressed 
it.' They then said to Him, 'Did not Moses 
and Aaron die although they fulfilled the 
entire Torah?' Whereupon the Lord an- 
swered, 'There is but one chance for the 
righteous and for the wicked; for the good, 
etc. (Ecc. 9, 2). [This is contrary to R. 
Ami's opinion.] E. Ami said like the 
Tana of the following Baraitha; for we are 
taught that E. Simon b. Elazar said: 
"Moses and Aaron also died on accoimt of 
their sins, as it is said (Num. 20, 12.) Be- 
cause ye had no confidence in me, etc. But 
if they had had confidence, then their time 
to depart from the world would not have 
come." Another objection was raised from the 
following: [It is taught in a Baraitha.] 
"Four died in consequence of the instigation 
of the serpent, viz., Benjamin, the son of 
Jacob ; Amram, the father of Moses ; Jesse, 
the father of David, and Chilab, the son 
of David. We know of all by tradition ex- 
cept that of Jesse, the father of DavicT, 
which the Scripture explains, for it ia 
written (II Sam. 17, 25.) And Abshalom 
placed Amassa instead of Jo'ah as captain 
over the army; and Amassa was the son of 
a man, whose name was Yithra, the Israelite, 
who had gone into Abigail, the daughter of 
Nachash, the sister of Zcriiyah, Jo'ab's 
mother. Was Abigal then the daughter of 
Nachash? Behold" she was the daughter 
of Jesse, as is written (I. Chr. 2, 16. And 
their (Jesse's sons) sisters ivere Zeruyah and 
Abigail. We must therefore say that it means 
'the daughter of him who died [for the sin 
committed] through the instigation of the 



T>""i nnyD npi-^^} tasjcnn myo^i nniN 
:nHT nifyn n^Aas 'n riNjp n^iy 
pMi «uin N^:: nn-'D |i« •'cn an ic.s 
nTi^T «tDn N^3 nniD p« .jiy N'72 |n"D^ 

''3"'n"'0 (2"J? Dtp) .Daij; Dipjn Dyes tD3B'l 

liim n"3 tynpn ijs^ mtyn ''3k^d noK 
Dn« ^ nn-io nojp nn ""iSD d^ij; '7^ 
"layi i^n''ix n'7p msD an'? nos jwbnn 

its-'-'pt:' ]^r}i<^ nva «^m n^^ noN .ni^j? 
(u nSnp) cn^ nD« iDDi n^i3 minn '7J 
Kin .'::^ mub ycn^i pns? nnw n-ipn 

iDKiiy mo DNunn pnNi ntyn c]« nai« 

Nn '1J1 ''3 Dn^DKn s^ Jj;'> (2 -iman) 

p nuiD^^ DDiDT yijn «^ pny ■'3 cnjoNn 
iB'*^i nc'n 12s tnoyi apv p pn-'in p 

"13^ KIQJ in^131 in p 3N^31 ITT •'IK 

2"tr) 3-in3T vnp n^2 cnsm in ''3« •>t"'a 
^y 3Ki^ nnn m'i'tr'nK ctr nctsj? n«i (" 
''^«itt"'n Min'' intrn ti*"'« p Wtti3j?i «22fn 
n^ns mns cm nn 'i'-'anN '?« sn itys 
"•ty riD nS-ii is';n u'nj ni 131 .nsr dn 
n-^nx cnTivnKi (.'3 'k n"i) 3-1037 s-iin 
.tyn: ^t^• iiays neti' 10 n3 k'7N .'^''j^nxi 



144 



n 2 t? 



nop 



ist at that time?' The Holy One, praised 
be He ! said unto them : "Begin from the 
place where they used to sing before me 
[with copper instruments], i. e., from the 
Levites." And who are the six men [men- 
tioned in the above passage] ? E. Chisda said 
they are Anger, Wrath, Rage, 
Destruction, Devastation, 
and Ruin. Why was the letter Toe used? 
Rab said: "The" letter Tov may be ex- 
plained [as the initial] for both, to live, 
and to die."' And Samuel said: "[The 
Tov means] Tama (the end), i. c., it has 
ended [the privilege of relying upon] the 
merits of our ancestors (Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob)." Resh Lakish said the Tov in the 
last letter on the seal of the Holy One, 
praised be He ! for E. Chanina said : The in- 
scription on the seal of the Holy One, praised 
be He! is Emcth (Truth) .'"^ R. Samuel b. 
Xachmeini said: "The Tov refers to the 
men who fulfilled the whole Torah from the 
Aleph (the first letter) until the Tov (the 
last letter)."' 

Since when did [the privilege of relj-ing 
upon] the merits of our ancestors end? 
Rab said: "Since the days of Hosea b. 
Be'eri (the prophet) ; as it is said (Hos. 2, 
12.) / will lay bare her disgrace before the 
eyes of her lovers, and no man shall deliver 
her Old of my hands." Samiielsaid: "Since 
the days of "Chazel. as is said (11 Kings 13, 
22.) But King Chazel of Syria oppressed 
Israel all the days of Jehoachaz; and it is 
written further. And the Lord became gra- 
cious unto them, and had mercy on them 
and turned Ilis regard unto them because 
of His covenant u-iih Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob, and u-ould not destroy them and 
he cast them not off from His presence even 
until now." R. Joshua b. Levi said: "Since 
the davs of Elijah, as it is said (I Kings 18, 
36.) And it came to pass at {the time of) the 
perpetual evening-offering, that Elijah, the 
prophet, came near, and said, '0 Lord, God of 
Abraham, of Isaac, and of Israel, this day 
let it be l-nown, etc.'" E. Jochanan said: 
"Since the days of Hezekiah, as it is said (Is. 
9, 6.) For the increase of the government 
and for peace without end, upon the throne 
of David and upon his l-ingdom, to establiih 
if and to support it through justice and 



\rM^i ]«m .''JS^ nT'j cnoiNB' cpoo 

-iQN .vn «yj "'«m -n^rm ^2U^'. n-incDi 
nnn -id« 'tx-iCC'i .n-.on rn n^nn vn si 
n',:T ]'.nn ncs pn*,"' "lam .n",2S n".3T 



.nes n"2pn 



icn-n f^^yin '•ai -id«t 



.V'ln ijji ci"7«a n'jo nmnn 'jd iDiip?'' 
n",o"'o an now .n:3iS mrr nan inn-'KD 
n« n^j« (3 I'tt-m) -iDKrj ns3 \2 v^^n 

ncsjtr '7KTn •'n'^a idk '7K",Dtyi •n-'a 
'7«-ir'« ns I'n? ms I'i'a 'bstm (i' 3 b':k''o) 
cms 'n p^i (°^) mDi Tns',n"« •'a*' ^o 
cmnw n« inna ^ya'? nn-i^x ]z''^ camv 
c2<Tsn H^i cninc'n nns s^i apyi pnsi 
ia"'a nas •'i^ p ''"■n -nny ly v:s ^ya 
nn:an m'Tya \t't ("' « °«') "lasja' in^'i'S 
cm^N ^^'?s 'n nasn «''33n in"«^« c:m 
na« i^n-.-' ■'ai", .'"J" yTi"" CT-n 'bsntyi pns^ 
m'.i'an nana'? (-j 'Iiuu") 'njc- wprn ^a'^a 
]'':r,'7 '.nrraa ^y, in «D2 ^y j*p ]"'« n",7K'^i 

.) ^rcopprauar was erected by'lOnB Sotomon to tte first Temple and was not lu existence lu the seooad 

''""ar^'r^"-;:! rto1?ve?beSnf,Tt'h ::: imetrov. and so do« the word Ta^utH (to die,. 
♦) Emeth consUta ot the letters A.leph, Hem, Tov. 



147 



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TDp 



R. Samuel b. Xachmeinij in the name 
of R. Jonathan, said: "Whoever says that 
the children of Eli sinned' errs, because it 
it said (I Sam. 1, 3.) And at that place 
were the two tons of Eli, Chaphni and 
Phineas, priests of the Lord." He agrees 
■mth Rab who said that Phineas did not sin. 
[And since the Scriptures put both Phineas 
and Chaphni on an equal footing, we under- 
stand through this that] just as Phineas did 
not commit any sin, so also Chaphni did not 
commit a sin. But what does the passage 
(I. Sam. 2, 22) signify? Because they pro- 
longed the work of the confinement offer- 
ings, the Scriptures censure them in this wav. 
This is the substance of the text. Rab said : 
"Phineas did not sin, for it is said (lb. 14, 
3.) And Achiyah, the son of Achitub, the 
brother of Echabod, the son of Phineas, the 
son of EH, the priest of the Lord. etc. Is it 
possible that the Scriptures would describe 
minutely the genealogy- of a man who commit- 
ted a sin ? Behold it is said (Mai. 2, 12.) The 
Lord will cut off unto the man that doth 
this, sons and grandsons, out of the tents 
of Jacob, and him that bringeth near an 
offering unto the Lord of Hosts [which was 
thus explained] : 'If he is an Israelite, he 
shall have none who would be master among 
the sages, nor a scholar among the disciples ; 
and if he is a priest, he shall have no son, 
who will bring near an offering.' " Is it not 
to be concluded from this that Phineas did 
not sin? But behold, it is written (I Sam. 2, 
22.) How they lay with the women. Yish 
Kaban (he lay) is written (referring to one). 
But is it not written (lb. b.) Nay, my son, 
for it is no good report that I have? R. 
Nachman b. Isaac said : "Benni (my son) 
is written." Is it not written, Ye make the 
Lord's people to transgress? R. Huna the 
son of R. Joshua said : Maabiram (you make 
the people transgress) is written. But is it 
not written (lb.) Now the sons of Eli were 
sons of Belial? Because Phineas should have 
protested against Chaphni's action, and he 
did not do so. Scripture considers it aa 
though committed by himself (Fol. .56a). 
Further said R. Samuel b. Nachmeini in 
the name of R. Jonathan: "Whoever says 
that the children of Samuel (the prophet) 
have sinned, errs, because it is said (I Sam. 
8, 1.) And it came to pass, when Samuel 
was old, etc. But his sons walked not in 

e) See Z Sam. 2, 22. 



^3 \r\iv n"N ""ranj nn ^s'd*^ 'n ids 

Dnjsi ijsn "''7JJ "•:3 •'Jt:' ct:n (« « ^kids-) 
K7 cnjE m noNi 2-ir n? -\2a .'n'7 cjnr 
isen «7 Dnjs nc ems'? "ijan t:*''pD «i2n 
(3 Ds-) cispD i:k no N^s Nt:n n^ ■'jsn r,N 

cni^y n'7j;a ^r;"'7j;3 'bi'« ir^n N'btr \n'':>p 
cms 2-\ ncs Nii-j .cinrc' •.7"'«3 a-.n^n 

'',:\ 'n ]-;: •'^y p cnjs p tsj ik ^hk 

nt:'N tt'"'«7 'n mai (= ':K^n) idw nao 
nmn c-iitn apy ■'7n«D n3ij;i ny njirj;^ 
ly 1'? n%T' N7 Nm '7snc"' cs .n-,K2s 'n'7 
Nin jnD DK1 aiT'D'7n3 n:-,j; «^i D-'Dsna 
r!"ty i«'7 K7S .nn30 tt'-iiiD p :'? n^'' «7 
-iti'« (3 «"!?) 3:.in3 «n N'7N .sen n'7 dhjs 
•':3 ^K (OS' 3TiDm OTiD p:ty paDty^ 
pn^t"* "12 :"-\ "IDS .ny.DCM nn-.c «^ ^d 

(Dtr) D>n2m .aTis cn-'aya vc'in^ am 
Dnja'7 i'7 nvnt:' ^int: .^v''^^ ijs ••'jy ^js 
mnon r'i'j? rr^D nn-ia n^i ijsnn nirra'? 

in:-.'' •'Dmos •'jam is ^siatr •'21 naN 
s'7S' irs i«an 'i'siat:' ""jn (1311) naisn ^d 
^«"iac' jpT "i'w'S3 \T'i (n H"v) nos:'^ nj;";ts 
«in r^mn .TiD-nn T'jn iD^n n^i 'iji 



146 



n a » 



1DP 



serpent.'" Xow, according to whose opinion 
has this been taught? Shall we say it is in 
accordance with the sages of the ministering 
angels [mentioned above] ? Behold, [accord- 
ing to that one], Moses and Aaron also died 
in consequence of tlie instigation of the ser- 
pent [why then but Jesse] ? We must ass\ime 
then that it agrees with the opinion of R. 
Simon b. Elazar, who, though he says that 
Moses and Aaron died on account of their 
sins, nevertheless contends that death is pos- 
sible without sin. We therefore derive the 
fact that there is death without sin and af- 
fliction without iniquities. Hence the theory 
of R. Ami is refuted. This refutation is sus- 
tained. 

R Samuel b. Nachmeini said in the name 
of R. Jonathan: "Whoever says that Reu- 
ben (the son of Jacob) sinned, errs, for it 
is said (Gen. 35, 22.) Now the sons of Jacob 
were twelve. It is intended to inform us 
that they were all equal [in righteousness]. 
How then shall we explain the first part of the 
above-mentioned passage? It is intended to 
teach that he (Reuben) deranged his father's 
bed, and the Scriptures charge him as if he 
had been lying with Bilhah." 

We are taught that R. Simon h. Elazar 
said: "That righteous one (Reuben) is 
cleared of that crime, that such an occur- 
rence never happened to him, for how could 
it possibly be that a man whose descendants 
were to stand on Mt. Ebal and proclaim 
(Deu. 29, 20.) Cursed be he who lieth with 
his father's wife, would commit such a sin. 
But how then is the passage (Gen. 35, 22 ) 
And he lay with Bilhah, his father's concii^ 
line, to be explained? It is intended to in- 
form us that he demanded redress for the 
humiliation inflicted upon his mother saying : 
'When my mothers sister lived and proved a 
vexation to her, it was bearable ; but that the 
servant of my mother's sister should be a vexa- 
tion to my mother is unbearable !' \\Ticreupon 
he went "and deranged the bed of Bilhah." 
Other-s sav he deranged two beds, that of the 
Schechina and that of his father, and this 
explains that which is written (Gen. iS, 
4.) Unstable as water, thou shalt not have 
the excellence, because thou did go up to 
thy father's bed; then didst thou defile the 
Shechina of my couch. Do not read Yet- 
zu'ey (my bed), but read Yetzuay (the 
beds). 

5) Naehath meaiiB "a serpent." 



-iTV^K jn pytDC "-aT i«^ «7K .jinKi na'o 

inji-' '-\ IDS •'ronj 12 ^k-.o*^ 'i idk 
-iDNJB' njj'ita K7S "i:''« Ktan piK"i nDi«n "73 

■TD^D nc'V C^:V ^pV ■'J2 l-'n-'l (n^ fi'ir«ia) 

(dt?) c"'"'po •«:« no «^« nnK3 D-'^'ipB'B' 
^3*731? nn'i'D ."fnK ty;^''E nn'73 riK aDty""! 
•,7iND r.nan ii^y n^yoi i-iss ^ty ij«d 
'7:i"iD imK «"3ti'"i ''in •m'^z ns SDty 
iT^ nr nt^yn «2 «'7i \^v im«Q pnx imw 

«2"»i i"'n« nty« ny d3ic mns 0= o'"'^'' 
riK 3DB''i n"pD ^:h no «^ ii^'? nr wtsn 
c« ncK -van icn ]u^y .rnK m'}''Q nn'73 
mns nnsty nsK^ m:* nn'^n ^dk mnw 
.nyxD nK ^3^21 ^dk^ mx «nn "»dk 
nn« ^73^3 n-.y::D '3 n^nn« c^nn« 
3in3i 'i:"m .'i''3« ^tr nnsi '«i nrsty '7U' 



149 



apy* py 



taop 



R. Samuel b. Nachmeini, in the name of R. 
Jonathan, said: "Whoever went to war 
■with David's army first divorced his wife, aa 
it is said (I Sam. 17, 18.) And these ten 
cheeses shaJt thou bring unto the captain of 
the thoiisarui, and inquire of thy brothers 
how they fare, and take away their pledge. 
What is meant by And talre away their 
pledge? R. Joseph explained: It meana 
that their marriage vows to one another 
[.«halt thou take away — through a di- 
vorce].' "° And him (Uriah) hast thou 
slain with the sword of Amon, i. e., just as 
you will not be punished on account of Amon, 
80 also will you not be punished for the death 
of Uriah. Why? Because he was a rebel, 
for he said (lb.) And my Lord Joah, and 
the servants of my lord, are encamped in the 
open fields" Rab said : "After examining 
carefully the conduct of David, thou wilt find 
no fault in his conduct except that of Uriah, 
as it is written (I Kings 15, 5.) Save only in 
the matter of Uriah the Hittite. Abaye, the 
senior, offered the following contradiction : 
"Did Rab indeed say this ? Behold Rab said 
that 'David listened to slander.' " The con- 
tradiction is sustained. 

This is the substance of that which is men- 
tioned above : Rab said : "David lent an ear to 
Blander, for it is written (II Sam. 9, 4.) 
And the King said unto him, Where is Hef 
And Ziha said unto the King, Behold, he is 
in the house of Machir. the son of Ammi'eJ, 
from Lo-debar, and immediately following 
this, it is written And the King David sent 
and had him taken out of this house of Ma- 
chir, the son of Ammi'el, from Lo-dehar. 
Thus, when David found that Ziba was lying, 
regarding his statement^^, why then did 
David give heed to Ziba's second accusation ? 
For it is written (lb. 16, 3.) And the King 
said (unto Ziba) And where is thy master's 
son? And Ziba said to the King, Behold 
he remained at Jerusalem., etc. And whence 
do we know that David lent an ear to this 
elander? From this passage (lb.) Then said 
the King to 7Aha, Behold, thine shall be all 
that belongeth unto Mephibosheth. And 
Tiiba said, I prostrate myself; let me but find 
grace in thy eyes, my Lord, King." But 
Samuel said: "David did not lend an ear to 
elander. He himself noticed that about the 



tD3 nmo nn n-'n non'JD^ «!fi\n ^d (p 
DKi (" « '7«iottO iDw:c' intJ'N^ mnns 
rj'i'Kn nt:*'? x-^nn n'bNn n^nn "'xnn mirj; 
•npn Dnnnj? nsi di'^b'^ iipan ^nx nxi 
cmiyon cnai pp',i an •':n .cnsny ^«d 
annn nnn im«i (=' = ^xiotyj .nra'j ira 
""S jioy ^:3 3-in nn (jo I's-np) ptsy 1:2 
nriK ^« 'nnn nms p,« ii^j? vyj: nn« 
V'H-i mn ms'i'Da inia ia"D -ii^j; tyjy: 
•'js '7J? ijns ii2j?i 3«i^ 'jnm («' cts-) 
"rna it's n:"'"'j;n ij m idn .dijih mtyn 
(IB N"D) a^nrn nmsTO nn n'^a nn3B>D k^ 
^on s*^*"'ti'p "'•'3K .^nnn iTn-.N nma p^ 
■^ap nn nD«m inn an noN •'D ann« am 
mn ^ap noN an ssia .s^typ v'\r[ y,\^'? i^i 
■pin 1^ nosM (^ 2"*) a^nan ynn ]ity^ 
«in njn i^ian '?« Ka-'S noKM Kin ns^x 
(D!s>) a^nai nan i^a ^K^iay p n-iao n^a 
^«''ttV p niatt n-'aa innp'", i^nn n^c-'i 
nnn ^a K",n snptrn n-^nn naa nan i^n 
(Tu cu') a^nan n'^ro n^ap a"a (T'?v j-'ty'rw 
^K «a''X noKV ^jinK ]a n-'Ki i^cn nnK^i 
^apn y'Jtti .'1JT D^cn-'a ati'T" njn i^an 
^a 1^ njn -[^on nos"'! (db-) aTian n'':io 
^n-'inntrn sa-ix ncK-ii nciaisn^ new 
noK ^KiDtyi -i^on ^JHK ^rya jn k^tok 
«Tn cna-'in D>nan yin pt:'^ mn ^ap s^ 

91 Thi' was a conditional divorce made to favor deserted vromen, whose husbands did not return at «nd of 
war. and to whose death there was no witnesses. 

10) Blth«r because he did not obey the order of the King or because he palled ,loab Lord in the King's presenc*. 

M) Beln-debar the Talmud defines to mean "where he did something" and Milo-iieljar to mean "where he did 
Boithlng" (the first Lo Is spelled Lamed Vov, and the second Lamed Alef.) Thus it means thai Ziba accused Mephi- 
tKMheth of plottloe, «Drd Darld found Cb«t be did notiUng. 



148 



n a c 



nop 



Aw ways. It is true that they did not walk 
in *»•- -rays, neverthelofs they did not sin. 
But now iy the passage (lb. ib. ib.) And 
they inclined, after their own advantage to 
l;o explained? It means thoy did not act 
as their father did; for Samuel, the right 
eous, travelled through all parts of Israel, 
and held court in each city; as it is said 
(Ib ib.) And he went from year to year 
and travelled in circuit to Beth-el, and Gil- 
gil, and Mizpa, and judged Israel, while 
his sons did not do so, but were dwelling 
in their respective cities, in order to in- 
crease the wages of their superintendent 
and scribes [for representing them]. There 
is a difference of opinion among the sages. 
It is written (Ib. 8, 3.) And they inclined 
after their own advantage. E. Meier says: 
"This means that they claimed their priestly 
allowance in person.'"' E. Juda says: 
"They forced goods on private persons [abus- 
ing their station by making these persona 
their agents to their customers]." R. 
Akiba says : "By force, they took a basketful 
of tithes more than that to which they 
were actually entitled." R. Jose says: 
"They took by force the priestly gifts.'" 

R. Samuel b. Nachmeini in the name of 
R. Jonathan said again: ""Whoever says 
that David committed a sin, errs, because 
it is said (I Sam. 18, 14.) And David was 
successful in all his ways; and the Lord 
teas with him. Is it possible that he com- 
mitted a crime, and the Schcchina should 
rest with him? But how should the passage 
(II Sam. 12, 9.) Wherefore hast thou de- 
spised the words of the Lord to do what is 
evil in ITis eyes be explained? He wanted 
to, but did not do it.'" Bab said: "Rabbi, 
wlio is a doseendant of David, endcavor.s to 
interpret the passage in favor of David: 
Wherefore hast thou despised the words of 
the Lord to do what is evil in His eyes. 
Rabbi says: 'This evil is different [in spelling 
and meaning] from all other evil mentioned 
in Scriptures. In all other instances it says 
Vaya'as (and lie has done), while here it 
Bays La'asoth (to do). This implies that 
he only wanted to, but did not do it.' " 
Uriah the Iliflife. ha.9t thou smitten with the 
sword, (Ib.) i. e.. You should have had him 
tried by Sanhedrin, which you did not; 
And his wife hast thou taken unto thee, 
(Ib.) i. e.. Thou hadst a right to her; for 



^:k no «^K' ."iKtan «^ ^oj Ktsno is^n «^i 

iTHD p'^i'^n '7K".Da' HNna' CiTiDM nB^c: 
CT^n^'s cn",N pi 'i'Nnir'' maipo ^ra 
ssDi nj'j3 n:u nn -jTm (» ov) nnwa' 

'rwnii'' n« CDiyi nsscm '7J7jm '?« nu 
113 cnnya inti'^ «?« p v^-y «? cm 
••wjna .cnnsiDTi cmitn? nra' nmn'b 
•,'?«c cp'i'n -loix D"i y:f3n •'nns ■;d''i 
^■jya ^y ■i'7''Dn •'N7d -i»i« nr^n'' '•n .cTisa 
'7B' m'Ti'' nsip na";K Nn-^pj; -"m .o^ni 

: vnT3 

]nji^ 'n nD« ^jon: in '7x10^' ^21 ncx 
nowty nyita «!?« ij^« xun in -lOiKn ^3 

'm ti'>DB>D Vam '73^ in \T«"1 (rr « Skids') 

«'?« icy nj-iDtyi ni^ «n «Dn ntrD« icy 
131 ns nna yno (=' 3 d;?} n-'-'pa "'JS no 
It nyn nr.co imx '«3i yin nvjy^ 'n 
rrnnnty myi ^Jty nnnna' myi ^ra 

typ^DK' n'.tt^'b DTID ]SD1 tt'pil 1.13 3"'n3 

n-isn Tinn nmx ns (q^) .ntyy k^i mc^? 
n:i k'71 ^ninjDS i:n^ "jb n-inty 3in3 
1^ «'•« ]''mp'''7 nc*«^ "1^ nnp'7 intr« nsi 



T^'^^.')T'isz'':..^:^:'i^.Li'f-^^^^ 



from the owner. 



151 



apy^ ]>y 



NJP 



would Israel have practiced idolatry, nor 
would we have been exiled from our land. 

Further said E. Samuel b. :N"achmeini in 
the name of R. Jonathan: "He who says 
that Solomon sinned, errs, because it is 
written (I Kings 11, 4.) And his heart was 
not 'undivided with the Lord, his God, like 
the heart of David, his father. It is true 
that his heart was not as undivided with God 
as was his father's, nevertheless he did not 
sin. But how shall we explain the passage 
(lb. 11, 1.) And it came to pass, at the time 
that Solomon was old, that his wives turned 
away his heart? Tbis, R. Nathan ex- 
plained, for E. Nathan raised the question 
of contradiction. It is written And it came 
to pass at the time when Solomon was old, 
that his wives turned away his heart {to sin). 
Behold, it is written in the same chapter — 
His heart tvas not like that of David, his fa- 
ther, nevertheless, he did not sin. [We must 
therefore say that] His wives tried to 'turn 
away' his heart toward idolatry, but he did 
not practice it. But it is written (lb. 11, 7.) 
Then did Solomon build a high-place for Ke- 
mosh, the ahomination of Mo'ab. This also 
means that he only wanted to, but did 
not build. But according to this, does the pas- 
sage (Josh. 8, 30.) Then Joshua built an 
altar unto the Lord, also mean that he 
wanted to but did not build? Surely we 
must say that in this case, it means he did 
build ! Then why not the same in the pre- 
vious case? But [the incident of Solomon] 
means, as it stated (in the Baraitha) R. 
Jossi says: And the high-places that were 
before Jerusalem, which were to be right of 
the mount of Mishcha which Solomon, the 
King of Israel had built for Ashtarta, the 
abomination of the Zidonians, etc. "Is it pos- 
sible that neither King Assa nor Jehoshaphat 
had cleaned them out until Joshiyahu 
came and cleaned them out? Did not Assa 
and Jehoshaphat cleanse the land of Israel 
of all the idols? But [it is intended rather] 
for the purpose of comparing the former 
(Solomon) to the latter (Joshiyahu) ; 
just as in the case of the latter, it is assigned 
to him although he did not destroy them 
[merely for having abolished those that 
were established after the death of Assa and 
Jehoshaphat]. The same rule is to be fol- 
lowed in the case of the former (Solomon) ; 
although he did not build, but since he did 
not restrain [when done by his wives], the 
Wame is credited to him." But it is written 



«:i D"",ry ^KiB''' niy «'7i nn n"»a m37a 

rn'7« 'n Djj D'rtf lan"? hnt k'71 («' « q'^^o) 
mn N7T K-n lus in nn^D .vas rn nn^D 
(ctr) Qiipn -i:s nn «'?« .Ncn «^ ""m wnna 
.',3n'b ns mn itj rro^ir n:pT nj?'? %t'i 
nj;'? "'HM DTi^ ""m |n: 'm ]r\: '•n^ «\-in 

in 3273 3\"13iTl 'UT 112.1 liC: .ID'tB' Dipt 

•"Di snnD mn s'71 sin iiax m 33'73 .rax 
itsn \''t': nD?^ napr nj?'? "'n-'i p"n .ndh s'? 
.■[^n N7T cnns cm7s nns nD'7b US'? ns 
fpt:* tyiD37 ncn no?::* njia"! t« (o^) a'<nrm 
nn>'D S7N .n::: s*7i mj^'? C'p2tt* .2N',o 
li'paty 'n'7 narn v^in'' njn"" t« (n ys-m-) 
N7« .n:ai :"n njai n'7« .n:3 «'?i niJ2'7 
nsi (- 2 D^i'^'a) ims IDT" lai «''jni3 
in'7 ]''D''D i'»:'s c^c'n'' "<:£! 'Ty ib-'N niann 
'i'Nit:''' ']'7a nD7a' nji ir« ri'^nti'Dn 
ND« sn ic2« .'1:1 cjns |-ipty nnntrj?'? 
waty ly Diy^n s^i ufjtrin^ Diya n'7i 
^3313 nn",3y ^3 «Si ciy''3i n''C'«'» 

S7S* .Cny"'3 DBC'in"'! «D« 7NT^*'' p«3ti' 

s"? cjnnK na c^nns^ cjiirsi tt-'pa 
ic*y N'7 cjvrsi ?,« n3r'7 in3 n^m 11:7 
li'y'; (»<' « c~) 3^13-1 .•'Sj:'? p3 n^m 
•,'7 nMC' '•iEr; n'7K .'n ^i''y3 yin na^tr 
3',n3n T''7y n'7yo nn-'o s"?! i''tr'J3 mno'? 
nij ^NioB' ins min^ 3i ins .sun i^"'N3 
^si ins 131^ tyaty sn^ty pnx ims^ i^ 



150 



n s c 



3p 



conduct of Mephibosheth which corrobo- 
rated and affirmed Ziba's accusation; as it 
is written (lb. 19, 25.) And Mephiboshfth, 
the grandson of Saul came down to meet the 
King, and he had not dressed his feet, nor 
trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes, 
etc., and further in the same chapter is writ- 
ten, And it came to pass, when he was come 
to Jerusalem to meet the King, that the 
King said unto him. Wherefore didst thou 
not go with me, Mephibosheth? And he an- 
swered, My Lord, King, my servant de- 
ceives me, for thy servant said, 'I will saddle 
for me the ass. that I may ride thereon, and 
with the King; because thy servant is lame.' 
(lb. b) And he slandered thy servant unto 
my Lord, the King, but my lord, the King is 
like an angel of God; do then what is good 
in thy eyes, etc. And the King said unto 
him, for what purpose spealeest thou yet thy 
U'ord>!? I hare said Thou and Ziha 
thall divide the field. And Mephibosheth 
said unto the King, Yea, let him take the 
whole, since that my Lord, the King, is coma 
(back) in peace unto liis own house. He 
(Mephibosheth) thus said to him, I have 
anticipated your safe arrival home with 
anxiety, and since thou acteth toward me in 
6uch a (strange) manner, I have nothing 
to complain of to you, but to Him who 
brought you safely back." And thus it 
corresponds to what is written (I Chr. 8, 
34.) And the son of Jonathan was Merih- 
ba'al. Was then bis name Merib-ba'al? Bo- 
hold, it was Mephibosheth? But it is in- 
tended to mean that just because he had a 
strife with his master (David), a Bath-Kol 
(heavenly voice) wont forth saying, "Thou 
quarreler, the son of a quarreler. 'Quarreler* 
as we mentioned above, 'The son of a quar- 
reler,' as it is written (I Sam 15, 5.) And 
Saul came to the city of AmaJek, and he 
quarrelled in the valley; R. Mani explains 
this to mean that he had a quarrel concern- 
ing the valley.'- R. Juda, in the name of 
Eab, said : "At the moment when David 
said unto Mephibosheth: Thou and Ziba 
shall divide the field, a Bath-Kol went 
forth sajing, Rechaban and Jerobom will 
divide thy kingdom." R. Juda in the name of 
Rab said : "Had not David listened to slan- 
der, the Kingdom of the house of Darid 
would never have been divided, neither 

IS) This Is explalnrf fulTr In Toma 22. 



ns^ I'i'cn '>'? nc«M -pan riKip^ D^^iyn^ 
"l'7cn ^jns ics"'". n'i"ia'«SQ ■'cy nzbn h'? 
■I'.onn •''7 nir^ns -|in>' iitn ■'2 ^m ^lay 
(:"p) ncs '2 i^cn riN i'7S"i r^^'-r; nrnwi 
'jnsT I'i'cn ^rn« ^« ■^^2Va '73"i^i •pay 

ynm -ny nann no'? "pi^n ^'? -id«m 'ui 
iDSM r\T:^n n« ip'bnn sa^xi nnn ^mis« 
nnw np^ ^an ns a: i^on ^k ntru^sD 

"[o '>'} nv^y nn«i di^b's «3n ino TnoH 
ItoanB' V2 ^j? «^« ntmjnn ">^ ui T''7y n^ 
]n:in^ jai (a « n"i) 31^21 ir\T Di'i'tra 
«^« iDty ntri3"«£5D K^m "iOty ^yn ano 
^',p na nns'» v^3 dv na^no nts^B' ^^nD 
13 .pD«i Kn ^?xa .«:fj ns kxj ''? me«i 
ry ly ^-.sty «3V (10 « ^«ios') i^riDi nsj 
'pcy ^' ""JO '31 noH .'7n33 3nv p^y 
"iDKiy nyty3 3t idk min"" 3t ids .'jnj 
men nK ip^nn K3^si nriK ntyn^Do'? nn 
D5J3V1 cysnn 1? moK'. 'bip n3 nnx^ 
3-1 iDW min'' 31 iDK .na'.^n ns iprn"' 
np'bnj K^ ynn r,tt'^ in ^3p «^ '''7D^« 



C53 



2pV' vv 



w 



of E. Jeremiah b. Abba, for the master said : 
*K. Abba and Acha were brothers.' " 

R. Joseph said: '"There is one more in 
our generation." Who is he? Ukban b. 
Nechemia, the Prince of the Exile. And 
he is the same one called Nathan Tzutzitha. 
"Once while studying," said R. Joseph, "I 
dozed oS, and saw in my dream an angel 
stretching out his hands and accepting 
[Ukban's repentance]." 

CHAPTER SIX 

(Fol. 59a) Nor with a golden city.' 
What does A golden city mean ? 
Eabba b. b. Ghana, in the name of R. Joch- 
anan said: "A golden ornament on which 
tte city of Jerusalem was engraved, such as 
R. Akiba made for his wife."* 

(Fol. 6Ua) What is the reason for the 
prohibition against wearing an iron-riveted 
sandal [on the Sabbath]? Samuel said: 
"It was the end of the period of persecution ; 
a company [trying to escape destruction, 
while remaining true to the Jewish faith] 
hid themselves in caves, and they said that 
whoever desired to enter [the cave] could 
enter, but none should leave [lest their per- 
secutors discover their hiding-place and kill 
them] . It so happened that one of their num- 
ber wore his sandals reversed [and his foot- 
prints made it appear as if some one had left 
the cave]. Believing that some one had gone 
out, they feared their enemies might dis- 
cover their hiding-place and would invade 
and kill them. Panic-stricken they began 
to push one another [in order to reach the 
exit]. They killed themselves in greater 
numbers than their enemies could have 
done." R. Elai, the son of R. Elazar, said : 
"The cause of the panic was that they heard 
a voice from outside the cave, and thinking 
that their enemies were coming, they began 
to push one another; thus more were killed 
than their enemies could have killed." Rami 
b. Ezekiel said : "While they were sitting in a 
place of study, they heard a voice from the 
back of the house," and thinking that their 
enemies were coming, they began to push 
and trampled upon one another with their 
iron-riveted sandals, so that they killed them- 
selves more than their enemies could have 

1) This Is part of a Mishnah in which U enumerates 
BtroU on the Sabbath. 

g) See Nedaritn. Fol. 50a. 



:nyi vpv n"« .nn ""nK Kn«i «3S 'n id 
B"!-! i-TiDnj -13 ]::p^y ijd' -.nna ins 
mn vpv m ntss .snixtx ]n: irim sm'?: 
iKTm ciojo sp mm Kpn^ss «J3^n^ 
: n^b2p) nn^ Da's spi «D'7ns 

'^^ piB ntt's nan 

ci'7C-iT' jim> n"« n:n la na nan onr 
: •nn'^m? sa-'pj; 'n n-"^ layno samn 

^«".DB> noK .D"D noiDon '?'i:u (o ^n) 
ncKi rmvD3 D^snnj rm vn norn "^B^ty 
'7B' \'n:D isnj ks'' ^« si",\m ojd*' D:3jn 
m«m s:^ ino '« en d^udd ana '« 
nta nr ipm cn'^^j; ]^H:i rtysyi cn-iiK 
cnn i:nnir nan ^nv nr riK nr ijnm 
mjmn nn":K nry'^s na ^kv^''« 'i -Q's^isn 
myon ^a: ^j;d '?\p lyocT j-'ntyi^ vn 
nt ipm cnMs cni^ iKsty rn jmnos 
]r\2 ^:^nu noo nm> nt ns nt lanm nta 
B'man n-i^D idk ^wptn"' 12 "on .n''2'>i«n 
DmnoD !:"n3 imnNO ^ip ^ycn j^aa*'!^ rn 
unm nrn nt ipm ca-'is cm^j? isaty T^n 
.D^n'^'iS cn2 ■;2nm:' nca nm'' nr nw nr 

the thtogs -with -which a woman Is prohibited co take a 



302 



n 3 tr 



33P 



(I_ Kings 11, 6.) And Solomon did what is 
evil in the. eyes of the Lord. Because Solo- 
mon should ]iave restrained his wives and did 
not do so, Scripture credits him with 
ha\-ing committed the deed himself. R. 
Juda in the name of Samuel said: "It 
would have been better for that pious man 
(Solomon) had he been a slave in an idola- 
trous temple, only tliat it might not be writ- 
ten about him. And he did what is evil in 
the eyes of the Lord." 

R. Juda said in the name of Samuel: 
"When Solomon married the daughter of 
Pharaoh, she brought to him about a thou- 
sand different musical instruments. Each 
of these was used in the worship of the separ- 
ate idols, which she named unto him, and 
yet he did not object to it." 

R. Juda said further in the name of 
Samnel : "When Solomon married the daugh- 
ter of Pharaoh Gabriel, went down and 
stuck a reed into the sea, and it gathered 
about it a bank on which the great city of 
Rome was built." In a Baraitha we were 
taught that on the day, when Jeroboam in- 
troduced the two golden calves (a.s idols), 
a hut was built (on the site of Rome), and 
this grew to be Greek Italy. 

R. Samuel b. Nachmeini in the name 
of R. Jonathan said : "He who says 
that Joshiyahu sinned, errs; because it is 
said (II Kings 22, 2) And he did what ia 
right in the eyes of the Lord, and walked 
in all the ways of his father, David. But 
how shall we explain the passage (lb. 23, 
25.) And like unto him there was not a King 
before him, that returned? etc. [which 
means that he repented after he sinned]. 
All amounts paid through his kingly judg- 
ment from the time he was eight yeajs of 
age [when he became king], Joshiah re- 
funded to the owners. Will you say that he 
took from this one [to whom he had previ- 
ously given] and gave it back to the other 
[whom he had before unjustly fined] ? It 
therefore says (lb. ib. ib.) With all his 
wealth, i. e., he refiinded from his private 
funds [Thus is meant by the Scripture H e 
returned]." And R. Jonathan's opinion 
differs from Rab, for Rab said : "None is 
greater among repenters than Joshiyahu in 
his generation, and only one in our genera- 
tion. Who is he? Abba, the father of I?. Jere- 
miah D. Abba. And another relation refers 
tiiis to Acha, the brother of Abba, the father 



na riN nnrj «s'js' nyca "rxic*^' noK 
"ID \i mcNi not ■•j-'d tj^k i^ nD-'jrn nyic 
ptyiV "pi •'ji^B cnnD rrnay^ j-'a'iy 

ns rvchv sa'j*^ nys-a '7K*dc na« r\Txn> 
na n'bjj'i en njp j'yji 'rK-'-iaa Ti'« -yns nn 
.■'Dn "Jty ^nj -[-a n:Dj i"'7>m jicntt' 
^jfi' cym^ D-iiDnty n".\n in",K K:n Nn-'innn 
cjns niD3 pa nnw^ 'tk n^aa nnK ant <'::'■; 
■ ]','< 7r «"'7t:"'K inr: inn 

jniT" T's ijcn: ia '7«",db' -"an n2« 
nyiQ K^s ij-is «t2n wd^n*" ncNn 7a 
'n -"rya nc'n cyi (== = a^^a) nnNr:^ 
••JK no K^s .Tias in -[■m "raa i^^i 
I'i'D v:57 nTi K'7 imoai (- or) c^pn 
Ty 'n pn pr jn '7ar .'::: yz' itr-K 
inji niD ?t2J iDKn Kctr .en? mnnn n"** 
NJ'''?s"i .i7t:'o Dn7 ]n:z' nsn 7aa 7"n nt^ 
naitrn ■'7yaa 711: "[^ p« an ncsi aiT 
Kas 'iJDi mna nn«i nna -.rf'^sic in-,"' 
sn« n7 new, .«as la it'ct' ""a-n n:a«' 
ncs- Nas na n'tti^ a~n maK Ka«T mnx 



155 



2PV' 



mp 



3, 16.) Length of days is in her right hand; 
ii* her left are riches and honor. Is it pos- 
sible that in her right hand is only length 
of days and not riches and honor? But it is 
intended thus: for those who study the 
Torah in the right way (for her soke) there 
is longevity and as a matter of course riches 
and honor, but for those who study the 
Torah in the wrong way (for their own sake) 
riches and honor may be given to them but 
not longevity.' " 

P. Jeremiah in the name of R. Simon b. 
Lakish said : "The Holy One, praised be 
He, hearken? to two scholars who quietly 
diccourse an Ilalacha (Law) between them- 
ee'!ves, as it is said (Mai. 3, 10.) Then con- 
versed (nidberu) they that feared the Lord, 
one with the other, etc., and Dibbur applies 
k> a modest conversation, for it is said (Ps. 
(47, 4.) TJe will lead (Yadber) people under 
us."* What means And for those who thought 
of His name (Mai. 3 10)? E. Ami said: 
"When one only intended to fulfill a com- 
mandment, but was accidentally prevented 
and could not accomplish it, the Scripture 
credits him as if he had actually observed 
it." 

R. Chanina b. Ide said: "Whoever ex- 
ecutes a divine command as it has been or- 
dained, -will not be the recipient of bad tid- 
ings, for it is said (Ecc. 8, 5.) Whoso 
keepeth the commandments will experience 
no eril things." E. Assi, or, as some say, 
R. Chanina, said: '"Even if the Holy One, 
praised be He ! has already decreed an evil 
dispensation [against such a man], He will 
annul it; as it is said (lb. ib. 4.) Because 
the words of a ling are powerful, and who 
may say unto Uim 'What doest thou do?' And 
after it follows: V/hoso leepeth the com- 
mandment ivill experience no eril thing." 

R. Abba in the name of R. Simon b. 
Lakish said: "The Holy One, praised be 
He ! hearkeneth to the voices of two scholars 
who patiently listen to each other in dis- 
cussions of the Halacha (Law), as it is 
said (Songs 8, 13.) Thou that dwelleth in 
the gardens, thy companions listen for thy 
voice; Oh, let me hear it. But if thev do 
not do so, they will cause the Shechina to 
depart from Israel, as it is said (lb. ib. 14.) 
Flee away my friend." etc. t i • i, 

R. Abba in name of R. Simon b. Lakish 
said : "Two scholars who discuss the Halacha 
(Law) with modesty will deserve the love of 
the Holj One, praised be He! as it is said 



T,aD", -iK-,j? Kjs-'s n^a-' imK nra-'a k^« 
«:■•« D"'0"' ims na Q''rrji"'n7 s^s .sa-''? 
ityiy na □■"^■'sntt'D^ lUDi ns'iv ty"Di 
"•an -lox .«3^'7 ca^ ^ni« «3"'W ninni 

Dn^ n-'C'pa n"3pn na^na nr^ nr n^nun 

C'nn) -iDwii' nnj s^s -im jis 'Ml inyT 

.'.oty ^3ttMn'7i ^N!3 .irnnn coy nmi (ra 
msD mtt'j?^ ncin i'7''s« •'dh ^an -id« 

)}T' Hb mso nmc (n nsnp) noKjB^ r\)y-\ 
wjn "i;:-! soti^ni ^dn ^m now .yn laT 
naxjtr n^ano sin mra in: n"2pn i^-^bh 
i'7 -iDK"' ''D1 iia'rty ■]'70 nm ntrw (« n^np) 
131 yT «^ mi'D naiB' ni^ T'ddi hb^d no 
n"n '2 tt"'p^ p ty"nK «3S 'an nas .yn 
yaitj' iT'spn naSna nr^ m an-'B'pan 
cian 0^:33 nac'iM (n I'tr) nawc o^ip? 
]3 pc",y ^-iN DK"! ijyiatyn ^^^p^ ca-'vpa 
-BN3tr 'btriB'^a pS-iDnis* nrau-^ ]''a-n: 
'm nas «2« ■'an nas .'iJi nn nna (osy) 
nt^ nt j-i^^jnan n"n '2 tj'"»p^ p j-iyatr 



154 

killed.-' In that hour it was decreed that a 
man should not go out [on the Sabbath] 
with an irou-riveted sandal. If so, tlien why 
not prohibit [die wearing of iron-riveted 
sandals] on week days also? Because the dis- 
aster occurred on the Sabbath. 

(^0^- Cla) Our Habbis have taught: 
"When one puts on his shoes, he should first 
put on the right shoo and then the left one; 
when he takes them ofl, he should first re- 
move the left shoe and then the right one. 
Uhon one wa.-hes himsolf he ^JKnild wash 
first the right hand and then the left one; 
when he anoints himself, he should first 
anoint the right side and then the left side. 
Whoever anoints the whole body, should first 
•noint his head, for the head is the king of 
all organs of the body." 

(Fol. 63a) R. Cahana said: "When I 
was about eighteen years old, I was well 
versed m the whole Talmud, and did not 
know until now that a (Biblical) passage 
cannot be taken out of its literal sense." 
What does he intend to inform us by this 
statement? That a man must first study 
the whole Torah and then reason upon it. 

R. Jeremiah in the name of R. Elazar 
eaid: "The Holy One, praised be He! will 
cause to prosper two scholars who [argue the 
jaw in order to] sharpen each other's mind 
m the law, as is said (Ps. 45, 45.) And thy 
maje.oir/. Do not read it Vehadarcha (ma- 
jesty) but read it VechadadcJia (thy sharp- 
ness). Moreover they will rise to distinction. 
for It IS said further (lb. ib.) Be prosperous 
Tide long. One might say that this would 
be the case even if one studies the Torah, 
not for Its own sake ;^ therefore the passage 
says further (lb. ib. 5) For the came of 
truth. One might say that this would in- 
clude, even those who become arrogant and 
proud. It says further (Ib. ib. ib.) And 
meekness and righteousness. And if they 
do so. they will be privileged to [the clear 
knowledge of] the Torah. which was given 
with the right hand [of Gfod], as it is stated 
(lb. lb. ih.) And fearful things shall thy 
right hand teach. R. Nachman b. Isaac 
eaid. "They will be privileged to the things 
which were said [to be in the possession of] 
the right hand of the Torah; for Raba b. 
Shila, and according to some, R. Joseph b. 
Chama in the name of R. Shesheth said: 
"What i s meant by that which is written (Pr. 
») Of gaining a dear taiowI«<}ge for the mere purpose of 



n' 3 ty 

: mn nntt-a mn 
po^ ^ii* ^yi: ^jjij Minti'D ^"n (ho '•,) 

n"3pn n2'?n2 nr^ nr pnnan n"n ^:^ 
n^s "l-nm (no o.sin) ^oK:ty nn^ n>^D 
«^« ny sbi .-[Trm n^m imm npn ^k 

^O^ .331 n^X (ny) -iCKJB^ n^nj^ p^iyty 

•ncN nm ^y im^ 7-a^n .nnty^ K^ti^ i^,q« 
DK1 .pix mjyi y'n p myi c^an cs ^131 
lOKJ'^ po^3 njn^jt:' .Tn^n^ p^n n c^triy 
pns> 13 pnj m .^ra1 nmrnj -jn^i (otr) 
HTn ^c nrD>3 nowr^ n^nm^ pon ick 
31 ncs n^ .nD«T m^,^, ^^^ ^^ „^^ ^^^^^ 

•'«•«) 3'n3T^scn'rtr3T-,asw:pn3;)Di. 

outwitting each other. 



157 



2py^ Vf 



xay 



his being at a loss] and obserTe the seventh." 
Chi/a b. Eab says: "He should first observe 
one daj as the Sabbath and then count six 
dajs." What is the basis of their difference? 
The former is of the opinion that it ought 
to be in accordance with the creation of the 
world [in which the week days commenced 
first] ; the latter, however, is of the opinion 
that it ought to be in accordance with the 
creation of Adam the first man [who was 
created on Friday and observed the Sabbath 
first]. 

(Fol. 75a) R. Zutra b. Tubia in the name 
of Eab said : "He who pulls the thread of 
a seam on the Sabbath [bringing both ends 
closer together and preventing it from going 
asunder] is bound to bring a sin-offering 
[for his act] ; he who learns one thing [even 
a matter of law] from an Amgusha daserves 
to be punished with death ; and he who under- 
stands the science of astronomy and does 
not make use of it, is not worth being spoken 
of." What is Amgusha? Eab and Samuel 
differ : one declares it to mean a sorcerer, 
the other contends that it means a blas- 
phemer. It may be ascertained that Eab 
is the one who said a blasphemer ; for E. 
Zutra b. Tubia said in the name of Eab : "He 
who learns one thing [even a matter of law] 
from an Amgusha deserves to be punished 
with death," and if we assume that Eab said 
a sorcerer, then why should a man who 
learns from him deserve death? Behold, it 
is written (Deu. 18, 19.) Thou shalt not 
learn to do, but thou mayest learn to 
understand and to judge. ^ [We 
must therefore say that Eab declared it to 
mean a blasphemer.] The assertion is 
Bustained. 

E. Simon b. Pazi in the name of R. 
Joshua b. Levi who spoke in the name of 
b. Kappara, said: "Concerning him who 
understands the science of astronomy and 
does not practice it, the passage says (Is. 
5, 12.) But the deeds of the Lord, they re- 
gard not, and the work of His hands they 
hehold not." E. Samuel b. Nachmeini in 
the name of E. Jonathan said : "Whence 
do we learn that a man is commanded to 
study the science of astronomy? It says 
(Deu. 4, 6.) Keep therefore and do them; 
for this is your wisdom and your understand- 
ing before the eyes of the nations. What 
kind of wisdom and understanding is rec- 
ognized in the eyes of the nations? It is 
the wisdom of astronomy." 



^J!^s''Dp ^Noa .nc'c njiDi inn di^ no^'O 
c-tio -i2D noi c^iy ^c in"'n3D nno in 

31 noK n^mn in «-icnT y^ idk (nv in) 
riKtan a^n naca rrr'sn ^ty Bin nmon 
nn^D 3"'"'n trijnsn p nn« nai •Tm'?m 
atyin irKi m^Toi msjipn aim'? VT,\Ti 
K"n ^Nintyi m sanjoN .uo-'n nco'? t.dk 
isnj IDS am cTion .•'sn: idn nm ^t?nn 
iDi'bn ai -iDN n-'aita p hiuit an -iokt 
«p'7D ""KT nn''!:) 2'<''n trijcsn p ihk isi 
lo^n «^ (c D'-i^n) 3^n3m lann ^nyT 
.nmn'71 j-'an'? "to'7 nriN ^:ik mtyj)'? 

p VB'in"' ^3n 1DN ^£3 p jiyDB' 'n now 
msiprin i-iirn'7 yT>n '72 tnsp na dib'd '1'? 
n'ptr<) iriiK mnan r^j; 2mn ij^ki m^roi 

.Itn iN'7 T'T' •"tyVDI 1Q''3^ N^ 'n '?J?1S HNI (" 

m^tDi msipn ncn^ ms ^j? mxcty ]'Jd 

S\n ^0 Dn^BT;i OmOtS'l (t O'lan) -idkjb' 

HT noiK iin .CDyn ■•rj?^ «'«nis' m'»ai noon 
:m^Tm niBipn sB'inn 



156 



n D c 



MP 



(lb. t, 4.) And ITis hanncr of love is waving 
over me,"* Raba saiil : This implies only 
when they possess some knowledge of the 
law and also when there is no teacher in 
the town from whom to learn."' 

Furthermore, said R. Abba in the name 
of R. Simon b. Laki?h: "To give on credit 
[to the needy] is more worthy than to give 
charity; and investing money [in partner- 
ship with the poor] is the greatest philan- 
thropy]."' R. Abba in the name of R. Simon 
b. Lakish said also : "If thou scoth a scholar 
who is even revengeful and angry like a 
serpent, bind him around thy loins (be not 
afraid of him). But if an ignorant man 
looks to be pious, do not live in his vicinity, 
ffor he knows not how to be pious and will 
thus make a bad impression upon you]." 
R. Cahana, in the name of R. Simon b. 
Lakish, or, as some say, R. Assi in the name 
of R. Simon b. Lakish and. in the opinion 
of others, R. Abba in the name of R. Simon 
b. Lakish said : "Whoever raises a vicious 
dog in his house, withholds kindness from 
his house, for it is said (Job 6. 14.) As 
though I were one who refused (Lamas) 
kindness to his friend. (lb. b). For in 
Greek, they call a dog Lamas. R. Nach- 
man b. Isaac said: "He even forsaketh the 
fear of the Lord, for it is said immediately 
after this. And forsaketh the fear of the 
Almighty." 

A woman once entered a house to bake; 
a dog barked at her, causing her fetu.^* to 
become loosened. "Fear him not," said the 
landlord to her, "for it has been deprived 
of its teeth and claws.'" But the woman 
answered: "Take thy good-hearted advice 
and throw it over the hedge (it comes too 
latel ; the embryo is already loosened [and 
abortion must follow]." 

R. Akiba once tendered a banquet m 
honor of hi? son and upon each cup of wine 
brought he said: "Wine and health to the 
mouths of our teachers ; health and wme to 
the mouths of our teachers and their 
disciples." 

CHAPTER SEVEN 

(Fol. 69b) R. Huna said: "If one is 
travelling through a desert and does not 
know what dav is the Sabbath, he should 
count six days [from the day he realized 



<t; i^m (OB") 'h:c pniK n"3pn no^ia 

«nvct:n wm-,s '<-;-•'- H'.n: n^i noN .n:ir]t< 

: n-irc nD:o^ «nt:; nsn in'? n^'7T Mim 

m^cn ^n: y'aan ids s2k 'an noKi 

-in'i c^:a '7''DDv npix nu',yn p -in'^ 
cpi: n"n ds ynciN N"n "it3« .n'bisD 
w; CN -|"':nn ^v irn:n s'.n cma iis'Ji 
: in^isco nnn 'i'S T'cn «in y"^^^ 
p ]ij?Dc* '"m 1DN «JnD an new 
7"rjn ncs ''DK 3n nas n? nD«i b'V^ P 
'naon 7: v;^pi p ty"n« «3N n"« n^ nowi 
',n"'2 -pnc non yy.!2 in'^a -["ins y^ 2'?^ 
]-,c'^3 ]zv nnn ".nynD dc^ (» ="«) nes:t:' 
pnx' n3 pnj nm .cd"? n^r^ imp n-'r," 
(08-) noKrw' c^Ow' riKT 'uca pms r,K n::s 
s^i-'yn «nnK «\nn .y^v'' '''^^ ^^i'" 
npyn-iK Kn^D na naj «s"'D7 ^rfa i<r,nn'7 
•''7"'pBn •'^mn k^ i^rv'^-i uno ^"k m'7i 
s'^'-'pc n-i^ nnoK .nnsiD p^-'ptri n^a*": 
: n^i n3 n33 nT'^nK smpi ^ma^o 

^3 ^yi U3^ nna'D ntyya' y"n3 na'yD 
p3n ms'7 "m sncn now spans' di31 013 
: pn-'T'D'rn c.s^i ]nn dis^ xnom ^^n 

^>*^ie? p^fi bii: 'j^s 

l^nD n-'n «2in 3n nt:« (:"r =d "n) 
-u^ n:iD n3c ^ncx yiT* ir«i n3in3 

41 "rldbcr is'' of tho same orWn •» D«66«<r; «id -laeo to laad mo<jMty la required, therefore tb. mb« iLfer tM 
Dibtiur applies for modeaty. 



159 



spv^ py 



DJp 



CHAPTER NINE 

(Fol. 82a) (Mishnah) R. Akiba said: 
"Whence do we learn that if one carries an 
idol, he is as ritually unclean as a Niddahf^ 
It is said (Is 30, 22.) Thou ivilt cast them 
away as a Niddah, get thee hence, wilt thou 
say xmto him, i. e., just as a Niddah 
defiles him who carries her, so does an idol 
defile him who carries it." 

(lb. b.) (Gemara) Rabba said : "The pas- 
sage, Thou wilt cast them away as a Niddah, 
means, Remove them from thee like a strange 
(disgusting) thing. Get thee hence, wilt thou 
say unto him but Come in shalt thou 
not say unto him." 

(Fol. 83b) We are taught: And they made 
Baal-b'rith for a god unto themselves (Jud. 8, 
33). This refers to Zeliub, the idol of Ekron. 
We learn from this that each and every one 
made an image of his idol [in miniature] 
and kept it in his pocket; whenever he was 
reminded of it, he took it out from his pocket 
and embraced and kissed it. 

R. Chanina b. Akabia said: '^hy did 
the Rabbis say that a ship of the Jordan is 
subject to the statute of levitical unclean- 
liness? Because it is generally loaded on 
the shore and carried into the water owing 
to its small size."- R. Juda in the name 
of Rab said: "Never shall a man absent 
himself from the house of learning, not even 
for a while; for the above Mishnah (regard- 
ing a ship of the Jordan) had been taught 
at the house of study for many years, and not 
one knew the reason for it, until R. Chanina 
b. Akabia came and explained it." 

R. Jonathan said: "Never shall a man 
absent himself from the house of learning 
and of learned words, even though he be at 
the point of death ; for it is said (Num. 
19, 14.) This is the Torah, when a man dieth 
in a tent, i. e., even at the point of death 
shall a man study the Torah." Resh Lakish 
said: "The words of the Torah will not en- 
dure except with him who is ready to die 
for it ; as it is written. This is the law, when 
a man dieth in a tent." 

(Fol. 85a) R. Chiyab. Abba said: "What 
is meant by the passage (Deut. 19, 14.) Thou 
shalt not remove thy neighbor's landmark. 



7^Bfn pis snpj; ^m 

rm nn i? nnsn ks nn ido mTn 

nXOtDD D''3313 muy Cl« KttTlS nKDDD 

«np noNT n-n iC3 ontn nm -ic« «nnj 

: 17 noxn 
7j;a Dn'7 id"'B'''i (n '=£n=*) p'»jn {^v ^ 'i) 

lina nn"':m inKT" mm ntriy 'nt ins 

•.-ir)S rm ••jfio K'^pj? p «:'':n n"K .npa'jDi 
nniN i'':j;it2t:* ""jsd nsDta I■n^^ nrsD 
rrnn^ 2-\ nox •d-'d'? nniw pT>T«3i nca-ia 
n-ino 1DSJ? n« Dn« yjo"' 7r o^iy^ n"K 
cjc rTO3 nnty dhk nvt? '^bk tmon 
nbin: «'7i B'-nnn n-ian ir hjb'd n^Jt^a 
.ntn-'sn K-'apv p Nj'':n 13-1 N3r ij? noyta 
insy riK ms yjD> ^« ai'yb inr,^ n"« 
nyca i'7'fiK", mm naim Bn-ron n"«aD 
ij m« minn nm (••=' i^nna) id«:b' nn-'o 
pDiy «nn nn^n nytya •,'7■'£3^? '7n«i mo^ 
l-'D^-'pno rmn ""nm ps ^'t noK .minn 
nm nt3K3B> n*"^ insy n-iaDr '•oa k^« 
: ^nN3 ma' ""d ms minn 
•i"K KnK in N'«'«n ''3-1 nas (ns tp) 
'713: j-'on K'7 (b' D'lm) 3'n3T •'sa pm-i 



1) The period of menstruation of a woman. See Lev. 15, 19-21, that she Is to be uiicleain during that period. 
(See also chapter 1. note 14. 

2) See Lev. 11. 32. All things mentioned in the passage that are subject to the statute of levitical unclean- 
liness must be like a sack that can be carried both empty or filled. Anything which cannot be carried when filled 
or loaded is not subject to the statute of levitical uncleanliness. 



158 



CHAPTER EIGHT 



(Fol. TTb) R. Juda in the name of Eab 
said : "The H0I3' One, praised be He ! created 
Bot one single thing in vain. He created the 
snail as a remedy for the scab (of the camel) ; 
He created the fl}- for the sting of a wasp, the 
gnat for the bite of a serpent, the serpent 
itself for curing sores of the head, and the 
ichneumon-fly for the sting of a scorpion." 
How should this remedy be applied? Let 
one bring a black one and a white one of 
the insects, boil them and place where re- 
quired. 

Our Rabbis taught: "There are five sorts 
of fear: the fear of the strong for the weak ; 
the fear of the lion for the mosquito; the 
fear of the elephant for the gnat; the fear 
of the scorpion for the ichneumon-fly; the 
fear of the eagle for the fly-catcher ; and the 
fear of the leviathan for the stickleback." 
R. Juda in the name of Rab said: "Where 
is the Biblical passage to prove it? (Amos 
5, 9.) That caitseth wasting to ■prevail 
against the strong (Amos 5, 9).'' 

R. Zeira once found R. Juda standing at 
the door of the latter's father-in-law's house 
in a very cheerful mood, and disposed to an- 
swer, if he wa.s asked, concerning all the 
secret processes of nature. R. Zeira asked 
him: "Why is it that the she-goats take the 
lead [of the flock] ?"' "Because," answered R. 
Juda, "it is in accordance with the creation ; 
at first darkness, then light." R. Zeira asked 
him again : "Why are she-goats not provided 
with tails as are the sheep ?" "Those who cover 
US are themselves covered and those that do 
not cover us are not covered." "Why has the 
camel a short tail ?" "Because it feeds among 
thorns." "Why has the ox a long tail?" 
"Because it grazes in plains and must protect 
itself against the gnats." "AVhy are the feel- 
ers of the locust flexible?" "Because the 
locust swarms in fields: were the feelers in- 
flexible, the locust would be blinded bv losing 
them in knocking against trees, for Samuel 
said: 'All that is necessary to blind a locust 
is to tear his feelers.'" "Why do the 
evelids of the chicken close upward?" 
"Because it ascends at night upon elevated 
things and if the evelids would close down- 
ward, the least smoke which comes from be- 
low would blind the chicken's eyes." 

Our Rabbis taught: "Three living things 
grow stronger as they grow older. They 
are the fish, the serpent and the pig." 



'^ nip 

-D '72 31 -IQN nT,n^ 31 ICM (:i":? >y «l^) 

-nx -im Kia «^ iD^-.ya r["2pn «i3a' 
ny-ist' 3",3T «-i3 n^no'? '7i73»' «na n^tis? 
.zipy? n-'DDD'i n'EEn^ vn:: t'nj? cin^ 
^^■l•."'r; sin' sc^'.s snn ■•n^n .n*'^ n^sy "tDM 

.^-K '■?]! V'JBD riDiK -nu; 7j? c^n nD\s 
^y n^cDD riD^K .^^sn '?y cm'* no^K 
n''3'7''D nD'»H .-[v:n ^v nijuD ntaiK .anpy 
MP "iKn 31 nsK m'.n'' 3t ids .p'^i'? ^j? 
nrc'K snn 'i .ry b'j T;r j-'^acn (^ d"=v) 
iT.nn ""aT «nn"'E« ^sp mm min^ ai^ 
^3 n'':''D •'5;3 "isi n\-iyT sn"'"3 mm nnm 
pcD ny t:"D 7"« .nv -io« iT,n HD7y "'7:n 
C7iy '?u in"-i33 ?"K .'>nD« mm «D"'n3 
'>in i^nyo "'sd .smna mm Nsitrn wtrnaT 
in'«''a''D p-'DSDT ">:>] .|"7:»"'C •':m j^ds^d 

i«D .p''^;''D in"J"'C p-iDSD «'71 ijm pD3D 
.■'D''3 -3ST C"U*D .r!\-|3i:J Snt2",T N'7DJ «DyD 

i^m c";tt*a .nTi3",:: xr-'-N ST.n d"d 
KXDpT KJip u"c .'■p^ "s'^rnDb •'y3"i ^d:k3 
n^ii x-i^'p ''«i ''B^^n3 «"i"m era Nr-'ri 
mcD'7 ^y3T ^sn ''sn 'bs-.nc idst «-n*iyno"i 
KiD^n ''«n D"D .KJip^ inre^a''? Kxop'? 
^^^y ""Ki ^Di« ^n"m .s^^y^ ^^id s'b'iJnm 

: KIHyriD KIDp 



161 



3pj?^ py 



«Dp 



said unto the people remember this day, etc. 
[We derive by dra'sring an analogy from the 
words zachor (remember) used in both 
places] ; just as in the latter case, zachor 
(remember) alludes to the very day of their 
coming out of Egypt, so also does it allude 
in the former case to the very day of Sabbath. 
The Rabbis and R. Joi^e differ though as to 
what day was the first of that month. R. 
Jose is of the opinion that the first of that 
month was set on the first day of the week, 
and that on this day no commandments 
were given because the Israelites were tired 
from their long journey. On the second day 
of the week the Lord said to them (lb. 19, 
6.) And ye shall be unio me a l-ingdom of 
priests. (Fol. 87a) On the third day [of the 
week] He warned them to keep away from the 
mount ; on the fourth, to keep apart from the 
wives [three days, until the Sabbath]. But 
the Rabbis are of the opinion that the first 
of that month was set on the second day 
of the week ; that on this day no command- 
ments were given them because the Israelites 
were tired from their journey. On the 
third day [of the week] the Lord said unto 
them (lb. ib. ib.) And ye shall be unto me 
a l-ingdom of priests. On the fourth. He 
warned them to keep away from the mount. 
On the fifth, to keep apart from their wives 
[two days, until the Sabbath]." The follow- 
ing objection was raised: And sanctify them 
to-day and to-morrow (lb. ib.). This con- 
tradicts the opinion of R. Jose [who says 
that three days were set aside for sanctiiica- 
tion]. R. Jose might explain it that Moses 
added one day upon his own recognizance, 
as it is taught: "Three things did 
Moses do upon his own authority, and 
the Holy One, praised be He! sanctioned 
them: Moses added one day [of separation] 
upon his own authority ; he separated himself 
from his wife, and he broke the Tablets." 
He added one day upon his own 
authority; what verse did he interpret 
[to induce him to add one day] ? To- 
day and to-morrow, were in the 
Jjord's commandment. To-day must be 
equal (in duration) to to-morrow; 
just as to-morrow includes day and 
night, 80 also must to-day include the 
day and night; the night, however, 
having already parsed," so another day (a 
third) must be add«d in order to make up 



pr\'? rm 'ui nrn nrn n« mar cyn ^ 
^2 DT« ^B' iDixj;:3 J«J tJK uv '?v idi:jv3 
ins 130 "'Di^ ""i-i KHTT nyiapn "'j^'i's 
•in'7 noK «^ «3ts>n nnai «m"' ysp'^s sna's 

na'^DD '''7 vnr\ Dn«i (a' ov) in^ ntsK 
n^3jn nwD in'? nD« nr\'?n2 Cb n) o-iinD 
K^B^a nriD nao ]J3-n .nr^iB iinj? 'i3 
«^i inb -iD« «'? «atf3 inna KnT" v^p"'« 
DDKi ^"« wn^nni xmiKT «B'^in dibti it»d 
na^ns iiij? 'nn n'^^yn msti ^'k 'in ■^ vnn 
K-ityp inoi Di^n DnB>ipi (»• ow) -la^rcD 
ncD fi-iDin in« dt" iJ-i-inx «n •'Dv ••ai^ 
invTo n\tro ntyy onan 'i K^jm "injTTD 
inyiD in» ni^ rj-'Din ray r["2pr] craom 
ti-imn JiimSn n« nan nvt^n p rrifii 
DIM nnm dint vn "'wd inyro irm dv 
icy 1^''^ Dvn tjM my i^-i^ nno^ no inoD 
nn'j ""Dr ^nn r!"ty n^^ psj «3T«rn n^'>^i 
«in 1113 trnpn caom ]'? kjoi .HJTHno 

M Accordlms to J**!* teir the night belong* to tb* f»nDWinj day and *t Qm Um* wli«i Cioil spok* unta 
Moses the preTjouii »iB)it had alreadr paseed. 



leo 



n 3 B' 



Dp 



which the people of old have set, i. c, Thou 
shalt not go beyond what is limited by those 
of old." What hare those of old limited? R. 
Samuel b. Nachmeini, in the name of IJ. Jo- 
ehanan, said: "It is WTitten (Gen. 36, 20.) 
These are the sons of Seir the Chorite, who in- 
habited the land. Did the rest of mankind in- 
habit heaven? But [it means that] they 
were experts in agriculture. 'This measure 
[of ground],' they would say, ' is adequate 
for [the planting of] olive trees; this measure 
of ground for wines, and this measure for 
dates.' " Wliat does V'chori mean ? This 
means they used to smell the earth. ^ And what 
means Ve'chivif R. Papa said; "They tast- 
ed the earth [to know for what it would 
be adequate] as a serpent does." R. Acha b. 
Jacob said: "Chori means they became freed 
of their wealth [because they lost it]."'' 

(Fol. 8(ia) R. Ada b. Ahaba said: "Moses 
ascended [Mt. Sinai] early in the morning 
and descended early the [next] morning. He 
ascended early in the morning, as it is writ- 
ten (Ex. 34, 4.) And Muses rose up early 
m the morning, and went up unto Mt. Sinai; 
he descended early in the morning, as it 
is written (lb. 19, 24.) Go, get thee down, 
and then shall thou come up, thou, and 
Aaron with thee. We compare the Yerida 
(descent) to the Aliya (ascent) ; just a.s the 
ascent was made early in the morning, so 
also was the descent made early in the morn- 
ing." 

(lb. b) Our Rabbis taught : "On the sixth 
day of the month [5tfrtn] the ten command- 
ments were given to Israel. R. Jose said: 
'On the seventh day of the month.' " "All 
agree,'' said Raba, "that on the first dav of 
the month the Israelites arrived at the wild- 
erness of Sinai, for it is written (Ex. 19, 
1.) On this day they came into the wilder- 
ness of Sinai; and it is written there (Tb. 
12, 2.) This month (Nisnn) shall he unto 
you the chief of the months. [We draw an 
analogy from the word Haze (this) used 
in both places] ; just as in the latter instance 
the word flazt (this) refers to the first of 
the month [as it plainly says], so does it 
also in the former instance refer to the first 
of the month ; and furthermore all agree 
that the Torah was given to Israel on the 
Sabbath, for it is written here (Ex. 20. 8.) 
Remember th9 Sabbath day to Jceep it holy. 
and it is written there (lb. 13, 3.) And Moses 



It -was kikaa •wwr tram ttai 






i^3Jr ^uj •cjiB'Hn \'?2i ^\ifn Tjn 
icH .cj^MT 1^33 i«D .ran «? D"'jiiy«i 
aTiDi pni"" ''31 -iD« -"JDnj la ^kidb' '^ 
■'att'i^ mnn T'jjb' ■'ja n^« (»'' n'r«i3; 
ill:"': y'^p-i "^2^^^ «d7jj ^>'?^D iuk .}*-;Kn 
vnu pK '7^ nn''ir''3 cK^pn vnw N7k 
nr n:p «'7D nn'7 nt r\:p «^d nnow 
^innoB' mm .njsn^ nt nip k^d wizi'? 

ncN npy in khn 3t ■H'^vn^ y"^^*^ ^^ 

i^naT nb)} ni22t;:;n2 .it" nD3tt*n3"i n^v 
in ^N ^j!">"i ipan nrc D3t:"'i (i^ moir) 
n -p (B- Dir) DTiDT -r\'< noDtt-na .■•rD 
n^^^ mn'' tt'-'po .py pnsi nn« n^^vi 
-i"n .nc^rna mn^ cjk nost^nn n«^j) no 
^KiB''^ nnsin mirv i^^''^ t^'^na iw2 
V"Dn Km ^^H .u nynca nniM "<di' ""an 
(Di niBtp) s^n 2''r\2 ■':''D naiD^ in« n"n3 
(31 DB- cnn 3^131 ""VD "liiD 1SD nrn dt»2 
vvn ]^n^ no .cttnn ckt D3'7 mn snnn 
mn'»3 nst^a y"D"Ti .irin b'mt jkd q» tnn 
Di» riM "iiaT (= Dv) K3n d^ds ^kiis''^ min 
nro nD«v (-' D») cnn a^nsi ittap^ natrn 

■»iii»n." 

0. b*aa> tta^ wer* (r«* Irani It* mrk. 



163 



3py ]^v 



3DP 



the words of the people unto the Lord (Ex. 
19, 8.). It is also written (lb. ib. ib.) And 
Moses communicated the words of the 
people unto the Lord. "What did the Holy 
One, praised be He ! say unto Moses ? What 
did Moses say unto Israel? What answer 
did Israel make unto Moses? And what reply 
did Moses bring unto God? 'It was all con- 
cerning the setting of the boundary for the 
people (how far to approach Mt. Sinai).' 
This is according to the opinion of R. Jose b. 
Juda; but Rabbi says: 'God at first explained 
the punishment [for those who transgress 
the Torah], as it is written (Ib. ib. ib.) And 
Moses returned, etc., i. e., words which 
chasten the mind of man [threats of punish- 
ment]. ° And finally he explained its rewards; 
as it is written (lb. ib. ib.) And Moses re- 
turned, etc., i. e., words which draw (attract) 
the heart of man like a lecture.' Some say: 
'At first He explained to them its rewards, 
for it is written. And Moses returned; 
Yashab (returned) alludes to words which 
may quiet the mind of man ; then He e.x- 
plained to them its punishment, for it is 
written (Vayaged) And Moses told, i. e., 
words (of warning against punishment) 
which are as hard (distasteful) to man as 
worm-wood.' "■ 

Come and learn! From the following 
Baraitha : "The sixth, in the sixth day of the 
month and on the sixth day of the week." 
This is in contradiction to the opinion of the 
Rabbis [who say that it was on the seventh 
day of the month]. This Baraitha is also in 
accordance with the opinion of E. Jose [the 
Rabbis however, disagree with it]. What is 
meant by The sixth? Raba said: ''The sixtli 
of their encampment," and R. Acha b. Jacob 
said: (Ib. b) "The sixth day of their jour- 
ney." And they differ regarding the Sabbath 
for which Israel was commanded in Marah; 
for it is written (Deu. 5, 12.) Keep the Sah- 
hafh day to sanctify it, as the Lord, thy God, 
hath commanded thee. And R. Juda in the 
name of Rab said: As He commanded thee in 
Marah." R. Acha is of the opinion that in 
Marah the Israelites were instructed on the 
principal laws of the Sabbath, but not con- 
cerning the Sabbatical-walking limits"*; but 
Raba is of the opinion that Israel was also 
instructed concerning the Sabbatical walk- 
ing limits." 

^i — v7»^.o^ means "return." also "to calm down." The Talmud adds a suffix to it forming Tashabab meaning 

„ •,,« r,;„w ilin? to obev) thus referring to punishment for disobedience. 

*"») rased («5mnunlcated) if divided, ya-ged. tie l«ter part means bitter herbs, thus referring to punishment 
l«^lch Is distasteful. 

»a) See Erubin chapter one, note 1. 



i.T? -iD« noi iiB'D^ n"3pn n"'? i.nK nt? 



nm nts'D'? ^mic^ iidh nm '^'Kib'^? nts'o 



n'p^in m^iD it ni\2:n ijb^ nwo a-'cn 



n'bnna nms ■'sn .mi.T' "in "'dt' 't nm 



Dnm nc*D ntyi (qs*) n-rinT ncjiy trT'a 






n-ia n^nna "'idki 'Nc-'NI .m:s3 m« 'bty 



onaT HB'D nc"'! nTiDi msc \no 



«"*B'p natrn ^^^ i^Tina ^tytr /B'tr v"n 

«m .i«D^ •'B'ty .N"'n •'DT' '1 •'03 KH .pm^ 

.]yDD'7 IDS 3pv 13 «n« DT .jn">i:n^ idk 
(n onm) 3^n2i mm nntrs ^j^b^d «pi 



nips''S nntrs nno id .mon ^ix it^xD m 



•'Dj ]''mnnK nno nni .T',pB"»N s^ poinnx 



;TipB^H 



162 



n 3 tr 



acp 



for the lost night. Whence do we learn that 
the Holy One, praised be lie! agreed with 
him? Because the tiheckina did not appear 
[on Mt. Sinai] until the Sabbath morning. 
And he separated himself from 
his wife, what verse did he interpret [to 
guide him in his action] ? He applied the 
order given to Israel [to separate themselves 
from their wives] to himself, through the 
measure of the rule drawn from minor to 
major, thus saying: "If Israel with whom 
the Shechina did not converse but once at a 
certain time, is commanded by the Torah to 
separate themselves from their wives, I, with 
whom the Shechina converses constantly with- 
out having an appointed hour, should most 
certainly then separate myself from my 
wife." And whence do we learn that the 
Holy One, praised he He! agreed with him? 
It is written (Deu. 5, 27.) Go, say to them, 
return ye unto your tents," and immediately 
following, it is written : But as for thee, re- 
main thou here with me. According to others, 
the sanction of God is derived from (Num. 
12, 8.) Mouth to mouth do I speak with him. 
He broke the Tablets. What verse 
did he interpret [to guide him in his action] ? 
He said to himself: "If concerning the 
Passover sacrifice, which is only one of the 
six hundred and thirteen commandments, it 
is said in the Torah (Ex. 12, 43.) No strang- 
er shall eat thereof, how much more then 
should this be applied to the entire Torah 
considering that all Israel were apostates?"' 
Whence do we learn that the Holy One, 
praised be He! sanctioned this act? It is 
said (lb. 34. 1.) Which thou didst hreah, 
whereupon Eesh Lakish said: "It means 
'Thanks for having broken it.' '" 

Come and learn! .And they shall he ready 
for the third day (lb. 19, 11). Is this not 
in contradiction to R. Jose's interpretation? 
[According to him, it should have heen on 
the second day.] We have already explained 
that Moses added one day upon his own 
recognizance. 

Come and learn ! We are taught : "The 
third (day) of the third month and on the 
third day of the week." Does this not con- 
tradict the opinion of the Rabbis? The 
Rabbis might say this Baraitha is in accord- 
ance with the opinion of R. Jose. 

We are taught: And Moses returned 



-.Dxys V'p «B'J ^r\ "'MD nc«n p u'vs 

rrnn mc« ]Dt c.T? ynpi nnN r\y\ff k^k 
nytyi rryB' ^sc ""JK nc« '?« wjn bn (d») 
nn« b]} pt •>'? ymp ij"'Ki '•oy maits nrriy 
IT ^y r\"2pr[ c^aom p kjdi .nosi nos 
DD^ uitr unb -nD« i^ (" d'^^-') i^^3i 
.noy Tiny nc nn«i n"«-in3 ^tidi -DSi^itV? 
.u -131K ns ^« ns (2' i2nD3) ••ncKi rr-si 
noD Tm^ iok -trm ""Sts mm^n n« ']2v 
mD») min mD« mxD a''^"inb nn Kinc' 
]KD n^iD minn .13 ^sk^ «^ i3J P bo (=• 
KaDi .nD3i nio:> nnn by onoio bir\v^\ 
-iB»s (-6 av) -iDKjty iT» ^y n''3pn ty»DD.Tt p 

.m^B'B' inD nB«^ tfi'V'^ '^''■' '^'^**^ ^"^^'*' 
^•nyp ttr^^B'n Di"''? D^J"i33 vm (»• D"') B'"n 

oyn nn nn ntro nty^i (»' "^o*) «''3n 
'n ^K oyn nin ns nro la-'i stisi 'n '?« 



77^ aMUlled the order of sanrtiflcatton pemHttln* tham to lire ■nth tlelr wires thereafter. 
?) A»h^ (which) U read by Resh Uaklsh Yasher to mean "thanks. 



165 



2PV'' vv 



nop 



jear fell on the fouxLh day of the week for 
thus have we been taught: "AchertTn saj 
that there can be no more than four days 
difference between the Feast of Weeks of one 
year and the Feast of Weeks of another year ; 
between one New Year's day and another; 
and if a leap year should intervene, then tliere 
may be a difference of five days." According 
to this, we must conclude that the first day 
of the month of lyar fell on the sixth day of 
the week, and the first day of the month of 
Sivan fell on the Sabbath. Hence this con- 
jtradicta both the Rabbis and R. Jose. Aye, 
according to R. Jose, there were seven short 
months [of twenty-nine days] (Fol. 88a) 
in that year [making a difference between 
that year and the previous one of but three 
days], and according to the Rabbis there were 
eight short months [consequently the differ- 
ence between that year and the preceding 
year was a matter of but two days, and the 
first day of the month of lyar of that year 
fell on a Friday]. 

Come and learn ! We are taught in Sedar 
Olam:^^ "On the fourteenth day of the 
month of Nisan, during which Israel went 
out of Egypt, they killed the Passover-sacri- 
fice; on the fifteenth day they went out. and 
that day was Friday." Now. since the first 
day of the month of Nisan of that year had 
fallen on Friday, we must conclude that the 
first day of the month of lyar (the follow- 
ing) fell on the first day of the week, and the 
first of the succeeding month, Sirar. fell on 
the second day of the week; and this is con- 
trary to the opinion of R. Jose. R. Jose might 
explain that the Sedar Olam is in accordance 
,with the opinion of the Rabbis [he, however, 
disagrees with them]. Come and learn, from 
the following R. Jose says: "On the second 
day (of the week) Moses ascended [Mount 
Rinai] and came back, and on the third day, 
he ascended it and came back, but on the 
fourth day he came down but did not go 
up." Since he did not go up, whence did 
he come down ? We must therefore conclude 
that it means thus: "On the fourth day, he 
went up and came down [and then did not 
go up any more] ; on the fifth day he built the 
altar upon which he offered sacrifices, on the 
sixth day he had no time." Shall we assume 
that he had no time because on that day the 
Torah was given to Israel? [If so, then it 
will contradict the opinion of Kaba, who said 

18) Order ♦f Pkr«»l»l«». 



p«i msy^ mi"j? pa ps d^tcim D"nn« 
OKI i2'73 Q^o^ 'T «^« n"i^ njrn vvn pa 

K'»*p .xnne' p.^m Km^ tym snar ^'i?yo 

pnon 't ''DT' ^si^ .jjm'j pa ^dt» •'ai'? pa 

: my pnon 'n ]33n^ (n» »n) may 

iKr» mis' |D"'3 D^iy -1103 H^jm w"n 

.n%T ^"'j) orn imxi i«x^ itpy ne<on2 
vxxv B'n .naar any p-'ji nm-' fnioi 
'1^ «''B'P .xatya nna ]vg\ -Katya fn t-int 
«r"n .K'n pan ""jd nn ''DT» 'i "i^ idh •■'Dy 
"«i?^^tya ,T>M nrr) rt^ ■'J^a idik '•dv 't 

n^ ^■•aia k^k •■n^ p\nD n^ w^r 
.]anp v^y anpm narc nja ^pcna .n^i 



164 



n D r 



nop 



Come and learn! From the following 
Baraitha: "On the fourteenth day of the 

iiKHitli (if A'tNdn, liiiriiiL' whiili (iiKMith) the 
Israelites went out of Egj^pt, they killed the 
Passover sacrifice, and on the fifteenth day 
they went out. On this eve the first-born 
(of the Egyptians) were slain."' How can 
you tliink that the plague of the first-horn 
took place the night following Israel's exodus? 
We must therefore say that it refers to the 
previous night [following the fourteenth]. 
"That day (the fifteenth) was the fifth of 
the wcf-'k.""'" Since the lilteeuth of Ni^an 
was on the fifth day of the week, we must 
certainly say that the first day of h/ar (the 
following month), fell on tlie Sabbath;" and 
the first of Sivan (the succeeding month) 
fell on the first day of the week: this then 
is in contradiction to the opinion of the 
Eabbis [who hold that the first day of Sivan 
of that year occurred on the second day of 
the week]. The Rabbis might explain this 
that the month of Tijar was an intercallary 
month [thus making the first of Sivan to be 
declared on tlie second day of the week]. 

Come and learn! And it came to pass in 
the first month in the same year, on the first 
of the month, that the Tabernacle was put 
«p (Ex. 40. 17). We are taught: "That day 
was crowned tenfold ; it was the first day of 
the creation; the first of the days on which 
the first prince presented his offerings on 
the altar [at the dedication of the Taber- 
nacle] ;^- the first of the days on which the 
Priests (Aaron and his sons) did their work 
in the Tabernacle ; the first day on which the 
offering [of the congregational sacrifices] 
took place in the Tabernacle ; the first day on 
which the Hearenly fire descended upon the 
altar [devouring the offerings] ; the first day 
on which the priests were permitted to eat 
the sacrifices in the Tabernacle ; the first day 
on which the Shechina appeared in the 
Sanctuary; the first day on which the High 
Priest blessed the children of Israel in the 
Tabernacle; the first day on which sacrifices 
upon elevated places were prohibited ; and the 
first day of the first of the month." Now, 
if the first day of A^j.««« of that year was on 
the first day of the week, we must conclude 
tiiat the lirst A'won of the preceeding 



'?vr\v^ '.Ky UB' ici ycr Kn (-">) 

',p'7 3T;ao kVs .T'd my^ nmaa ip"? aiy'i'i 

«n3tt' T-'Ki Knv en natra 'n ]c^:2 
.]j3-i^ H^vp natt'i nn ]T'm m-\^ cm 
nuy »nv K-'nm T'-'K ]J3-i ^'? now 
]iB'«nn rina ^^'>^ (o mow) r"n .ri'i^^); 
Kjn pcDH Dpin rin^ inns n^jcn njtrn 
jirvD^ r^'^i •'^"iiciy '^ ^o: Drn imK 
•njinD^ ]iB'Kn .D"'K'B'J^ |w«n .n»r«"ir. 

ps'K"! .n:^2V ]^D\ff'? iwh*» .n^vip n^sK^ 
jniD3n mD''K'7 ]iB»Kn .'}H^v'> riM y)2i 
^Km p-^JT Km"" c^iToi .cfnn^ ]inn 
K^im K3V2 'n npnti>m KPintri *tn nnv 



10^ TV«aittan mm Uult th* Exodus took t>l*<» oo Tbnrsday. On Vhc -previow Sthhtih. thf I»me!!t(» took «*• 
WschallTmb which wa^ kept four dayj until the eve of ^Wednesday, when it Wfu" eUuehtered »nd earten the Blsbt 
between Wedn . . .-_ .._„_ .,.. , n. 



^ .sd^y and Thursday, before the Israelite Hnally went out of £3g7Pt 

"jewl3)i year Is In aeoordanae with tlM lunar system. 
S«e LicT. 9. 



167 



apy ]'V 



TDP 



and We will hear," there came down sixty 
myriads of ministering angels and they crown- 
ed each and every Israelite with two crowns, 
one for We will do, and one for TFe will hear. 
But when later Israel sinned, there came down 
one hundred and twenty myriads of angels of 
destruction, and took the crowns oil their 
heads, as it is said (Ex. 33, 6.) And the chil- 
dren of Israel stripped themselves of their or- 
naments at Mt. Horeh." E. Chama b. Cha- 
nina said: "At Mt. Horeb they crowned (an- 
gels put crowns on their heads), and at Mt. 
Horeb they were uncrowned (angels took their 
crowns off). At Mt. Horeb they were crowned, 
as above ; at Mt. Horeb the crowns were tak- 
en off., — as it is written (lb. ib. ib.) And the 
children of Israel stripped themselves." R. 
Jochanan said: "All these crowns Moses 
merited and took them, as it is written im- 
mediately after this: And Moses pitched his 
tent." Eesh Lakish said: "The Holy One, 
praised be He! will, however, in the future, 
return them to us, for it is said (Is. 35, 10.) 
The ransomed of the Lord shall return and 
come to join with songs and everlasting joy 
upon their heads, i. e., the joy they had upon 
their heads in the days of yore.'" R. Elazar said 
"At the time when Israel in their eagerness 
preferred to say We will do and then We will 
hear, a heavenly voice went forth and said, 
'Who revealed unto my son.s this mystery 
•which only the ministering angels are prac- 
ticing,' as it is written (Ps. 103, 20.) Bless 
the Lord, ye, his angels, mighty in strength, 
that execute His word, hearkening unto the 
voice of His word, 1. e., first to execute, then 
to hearken." 

E. Chnma b. Chanina said: "What is 
meant by the passage (Songs 2, 3,) Like an 
apple tree among the trers of the forests? etc. 
Why has Israel been likened unto an apple 
tree? Because as an apple tree produces its 
buds first, and then its leaves, even so Israel 
said first We will do and then We will listen." 
A certain Sadducee once noticed that 
Eaba was studying with such eager attention 
that he hold his finger between his knees and 
rubbed it so hard that blood spurted from the 
fincer. He said to Eaba : "Eash people ! Whose 
mouths preceded your ears. You still persist 
in your impetuousness. Better had you 
listened first to learn whether you could 
OT coidd not accept it." Eaba thereupon an- 
swered: "We who are upright men trust 

18) EJi. 24. 7. 



^^«'7D «in"i D"p ni"' 'bKic"' iKt2ntr p:l^ 
ija "i^^iinii (>'> niott*) 'iwty Dipisi n'rnn 
KDH 31 iDH .amn inn onj? riK ^h-.b'^ 
n-nnn .ipns amnn uvta smna wjn ni 

ntM2 HDT ]'?'C', pni'' -|"K .'",". ^«T^' ''J3 

n-vB") 's:d' m'? pnn.Tb n"3pn Tinyi b"-\ 

.c'i'«n '?y n^'ivcty nnotr DtrK"i 'by D'biy 
ncT/'j ^Kity^ iDnpnrr nytra h"t iok 

n^riDT ID i^tt'oritt'o tr"nQc nr tn 'js'? 
•'B'Ty HD mnj i^rs'rts 'n 1:12 (jp m^nn) 
mm ^t?Tj? Ktrna nm ^ipn jjidb'^ nsT 

(3 TIP) T'D Kj^jn ^ana «on ^3-1 idk 
^Kntr"' i^tt'DJ nn'? 'iji -iy\T ■':;j;3 menD 
V'7j;'7 mip ins nr man no ■]7 nmb men? 
Kro «inn .yocj^ myp m^npn ^ntj-' ►•]« 
KanM «nyiDty3 p-'vo «pT «an^ n^vm 
in^mpT MinB «dv ^"k sm "Tivaxx 

in^^3p in^xD ^K votrD^ ir'b ^v3"«k xt^na 
Kmo^B'3 ]r:D"r ps ^'n .';n"'^2p s'b «^ '«i 



166 



n 2 u' 



icp 



nvy ns?''?: s-nr. tim .nic mvo men «7 
■"Hnvn j'^n'K snn warn 7-12 Hicn am 
.pan: ;sca ."'sn"'7n Nm-'a i«n''':n cy? 
'n IDS nnn ninnna u^fTi*'! (a- mo!?) 
cn'^'ry n"npn noaty id^d «on 13 "'cnaN 
c^apc cnK riK en'? noKi n':'>ja inn nK 
.namup Knn Dts' i«^ dni amts minn ns 
nan rnrno ]Nao apv*" i3 «nK an ion 
"inn p ^a 'by f[H Kan nnn JHn^niK^ 
iD>p (B nnoK) aTian .cimcnN ■'o-'a n:^ap 
: naa I'raptr no in-ip cmn'^n ibapi 

D^BttTD (ij? D'^nn) aTian ^«D n^pTH noK 
-D^ n«T Ds .nuptn nsn-" p« ]n nyoB'n 
nbnna k^k .n«n^ no^ nDpry dki .ntopa' 
vp'? tfma nwn^ rro^i .nQpiy Ejioa^i nnn^ 
any ^n^i (•« n'CKis) a^nan ^ko ^'n notn 
nD'7D ^^ no^ m^n^ K"n ^vv^n di^ npia \nM 
cn^ noKi n^tt'Kna ntyyc cy n"apn n:nnv 
l-'D^pno DDK rmnn ns ]i^apD itrw* dk 
: imai imn^ oariK nnno ^iH ikV cm 

'?H'\v iDnpntr nyca ^wd^d 'n tsm 
•>aK'7D ^c K'.an d-<uv iKa yetr:^ nryj 

141 The flret, second, third, fourth and fifth day* nnimericals have no Bat/ (the article) attached to them, but 

the sixth has. 



that according to all opinions, the Torah was 
given on the Sabbath.] Nay, he had no time, 
because ho waa busy \dth [preparations for 
the SabbathJ. 

A certain Galilean lectured in the presence 
of R. Chisda: ''Praised be the merciful God 
who gave a triple Torah (Pentateuch, Pro- 
phet and Hagiagrapha) unto a triple people 
(Cohauites. Liivites and Israi'litcv-;) through 
a man who was the third child of his parents 
(Aaron, Miriam and Moses) on the third day 
after being separated from their household 
and in the third month." We understand 
from this (after two days being separated) 
that the Galilean represents the opinion of 
the Rabbis. 

And they stood at the foot of the moun- 
tain (Ex. 19, 17.) "We learn from this pas- 
sage," said R. Dimi b. Chassa. "that the Holy 
One, praised be He ! arched the mountain over 
them like a tank and said to them : 'If you 
accept the Torah then it is well, but if not, 
there shall be your graves." '' R. Acha b. Jacob 
said : "This is a great protest against [the 
forcible influence] concerning the acceptance 
of the Torah." "However," said Raba, "at 
the time of Ahasuerus (King of Persia) Israel 
accepted it voluntarily, for it is written ( Est. 
9, 27.) The Jews confirmed it as a duty, and 
took upon themselves, i. e., thev confirmed 
(the Torah) what they had taken long ago." 

Hezekiah said : "What is meant by the 
passage (Ps. 76, 9.) From heaven hast Thou 
caused (Thy) sentence to be heard; the earth 
feared and became silent. [How is it possible 
for both these things to happen simultaneous- 
ly?] If it feared, it then trembled and was 
not silent? Or if it was silent, then it did not 
fear and tremble? We must conclude that 
it feared at the beginning but at the end it 
became silent." What caused the fear? As 
Kesh Lakish said: What is meant by the 
passage (Gen. 1, 31) And it was evening and 
it was morning the sixth day. The Hay (the 
article) of the word Hashishi (the sixth) 
is unnecessary."" We infer from this that 
the Holy One, praised be He ! made a condi- 
tion with Creation and said unto it, 'If Israel 
will accept the Torah, you shall endure, but 
if they do not I shall return you all into 
emptiness and void.' " 

R. Simai erpounded : "At the time when 
Israel in their eagerness first said We will do. 



1«9 



2PV' ]'V 



BDp 



who study the Torah in the right way, it will 
prove to be an elixir of life, but to those who 
study it in the left (wrong) way it will prove 
to be a deadly poison." The word Negidim 
(nobleman) may also be explained in another 
way, that every single utterance which came 
forth from the mouth of the Holy One, 
praised be He ! was provided with two crown- 
lets." 

E. Joshua b. Levi said : "What is meant 
by the passage (Songs 1, 13.) My uncle is as 
a bundle of myrrh that resteih on my bosom, 
unto me, i. e., the Congregation of Israel 
said before the Holy One, praised be He! 
'Sovereign of the universe, although my uncle 
(God) distresseth and embittereth" me, still 
He resteth on my bosom.'' .-1 kopher-chtsier 
is my uncle unto me in the (Eeremyards) of 
En-gedi, i. e., He, who possesseth every- 
thing in the world, will forgive me for the 
sin of the kid (golden calf) which I piled 
(stored up) forme (for future punishment)." 
What evidence is there that the word Kerem 
means piling? Mar Zutra, the son of R. 
Nachman, said: "For we are taught (in a 
Mishnah), 'The big board upon which the 
laundryman piles (Shekormin) all the clothes 
(to press them).'"^" 

R. Joshua b. Levi said further: "What 
is meant by the passage (lb. 5, 13.) His 
cheeks are as a bed of spices, i. e.. every 
utterance that came forth from the mouth of 
the Holy One, praised be He ! filled the entire 
globe with an aromatic odor of spices. Since 
the world was filled with aromatic odor of 
apices arising from the first utterance, where 
could the aromatic odor of spices arising 
from the second utterance go? The Holy 
One, praised be He! sent forth the wind of 
His store-houses which wafted away the aro- 
matic odors, one by one, as it is written (lb. 
ib. ib.) His lips like lilies, dropping with fluid 
myrrh. Do not read Shoshanim (lilies) but 
read it Sheshonim (who were teaching)."^* 

E. Joshua b. Levi further said: "Every 
Bingle utterance that came forth from the 
mouth of the Holy One, praised be He! 
caused the failing of the soul (death) of 
Israel, as it is said (Ib. ib. 6.) My soul fail- 
ed me when He was speaking. And sinca 
their souls failed them on the first utterance, 



n"3,pn •'BO «x^ty -nsTi nm ta u^va 

ntr pa '^ ^in men mis (•« "•'») n"n v!? 
13m n"npn ^^e'? ^kib'^ now mns p^* 

py 'D-133 •'b nn issn ^iDts'K {o») .p'?' 
'nmstt' na ]ij; ^y ''i ibdo i^ty ^ontr *« "•la 
.sin B'^ijatsT wty^^ »onD 'sm yotyo ""kd ."'! 
"Jiff KDo ]ir\io pn: ann nns siian no noK 

•,ssn'7 (n Dv) D-iriDT ''HO "'t? p ymn^ 
'BD KS''B' imi "iim ^3 Dtran njnys 
]V2i .coca I'biD D^iyn ^o k^dj n"2pn 
."pn \2^n^ "^w nm «'7Dni ]ivvr\ iiDitsty 
Tayo n\m vnnxiKD mi n"3pn mxirr 
QijiyiB' vmnsB' (B») itswc |irtn ]WH^ 
H^K D'JB'its' ''ipn ^« i3iy T© niBBia 
'SO x^fB' nnn nai ^s ^"n^im .cjib'B' 
(OB-) -io«jB' ^tnts" ^B> inotr: nnx» n"3pn 
pB'Ki lUToty in«0T .nam iIkx^ 'b'bj 



It meaUK ttat the words were vlElble. as It Is written (Es. 20, 18.) And aU the people eaw the thuadara. 
For ».<• Pics of the gold«n calf. See Ex. 32, 1. '"o™. 

Immertlntcly after that incident. Israel was instnieted to build the Sanctuary. See Rashl. Hr 32 18 
ac<U means "a kid." Knphcr means "forgiven," i. e., for the_sin of the kid (the golden calf) He will foreive me 



Shoshanim or Shexhoni: 



lormer means "lilii 



both are spelled alike. The vowels are not parts ol the lettera Ib Hebrew Tfca 
latter means "those who study." 



168 



n D r 



nop 



Him, u it ii written (Pr. 11, 3.) The in- 

tegrity of the upright guideth him; only to 
those who walk in perrerse wayi, the other 
half of the passage: But the cunning of the 
treacherous deitroyeth them, can be applied." 
(lb. b) B. Samuel b. Nachmeini said: 
"What is meant by the passage (Songs 4, 9.) 
Thou hast ravished my heart. my sister, 
thou hast ravished my heart with one of thine 
eyes, i. e., at first [when thou hast received 
the Torah] it was [considered but] with one 
of thy eyes; but when thou didst obey it, it 
became with both of thine eyes." 

TJlla said: "Impudent is the bride who 
commits an act of prostitution immediately 
after her wedding."" E. Mari, the son of 
Samuel's daughter, said : "Where is the 
Biblical passage to prove it? (lb. 1, 12.) 
While the king sat at his table, my Valerian 
tendeth forth their smell" Hab said: "How- 
ever, it speaks with courtesy about us (Israel), 
for it is written. Send forth [in a delicate 
language] and it does not say stench." 

Our Rabbis taught: "Those who are be- 
ing humiliated by others, but do not humiliate 
others; who listen to their reproaches with- 
out even answering them ; who perform their 
duties because of love for their duty, and re- 
joice in spite of all their pains [because of 
the reproaches], concerning them, Scripture 
says. But may those that love Him, he as the 
rising of the sun in hu might ( Judg. 5, 31 )." 
R. Jochanan said: "What is meant by 
the passage (Ps. C8, 12.) The Lord gave 
(happy) tidings; they were published by the 
messengers, a numerous hostf This is to 
mean that every single utterance which went 
forth from the mouth of the Almighty was 
heralded into seventy languages." 

It was taught, in the academy of R. 
Ishmael : "Like a hammer that breaketh the 
rock in pieces (Jer. 23, 29), i. e., just as the 
hammer strikes the stone into multitudes of 
pieces, so was every utterance which proceed- 
ed from the mouth of the Holy One, praised 
be He ! heralded into seventy languages." 

E. Chananel b. Papa said: "What is 
meant by the passage (Pr. 8, 6.) Hear! For 
of noble things irifl I speak. Why are the 
words of the Torah compared unto a noble- 
man? Just as a nobleman has it in his power 
to dispose of one's death or life, so also have 
the words of the Torah that power." That 
is also meant by Eaba, who said : "To those 



"pn .cn:n oner* nmn ("• '^»o) p a^rij 
tl'7Di (or) ina 3'no Km^^^ya pm ^vyn 

■Dltf DHJU 

TJ-iyo nn«n n^nna t>:'j;d nnK3 ••jnan^ 

nai mn nD m idk .nncin ^ins njro 

.'1J1 u'ODa i^nty Ty ..iKnp "m ^K-nr 

(B») 2^)21 p3 K\n Knn^an j^iyi m -iok 

:n"«-iDn a^riD vf?\ ]m 

D^yDic> D^n^iy orKi c^'ruin pm un 
D^nciri nanso c^tyiy oin-'B'D Dr«i onsnn 
(n o'uBia') -1Q1K 3in3n cn^'Ty Dmo^a 

|n^ 'n (no D'Snn) 3\n3T ikd pnr ''an -io« 
KX"'B' imi ni3i '70 an wax mnt?2Dn noiK 
•"31 Kjn .nuity^ D^y^v'? pbni rmaan ••bo 

no y7D pflS> iy'DD31 (13 ''D-ii) ^Kyctyi ij-j 

nm bD {\H mxix^j nna'? p^nj nr v^o* 
D'^atr^ p^n: n"3pn >tD Kx^r nnm 
D'^nrn ■'ko kbb na ^wjn an ncK .mji^? 
•i^btd: no^ nanK on^jj ""a v/ov (n -^m) 
ia B"- nr r:: no ^^ nDi7 Tjja rmn nai 
n^DHb ia v n"n P|N m^nn^i n-'Dn^ 



HDD na D^rD''"'D^ Kan ncKn ir\ni m^nn^i 

l«) Tbi» r»iert to Isriel mxklns the jolden calf right after recch-lag the Torah. Soe Ei. 32, 1. 



171 



Dpy^ py 



«yp 



Are you living among nations who are wor- 
shipping idols [that you need this] ? Fur- 
thermore, what else is written in it?- Eemem- 
her the Sabbath and keep it holy (lb. ib. 8). 
Are you doing any work that you need rest? 
Again what is written there? Honor thy 
father and thy mother (Ib. ib. 12). Have 
you a father and a mother ? And again, what 
is written in it? Thou shalt not murder, thou 
shall not commit adultery, thou, shalt not 
steal (Ib. ib. 13). Does jealousy exist among 
you ? Does an evil impulse exist among you ?' 
The angels at once confessed that the Holy 
One, praised be He ! was right, for it is writ- 
ten (Pr. 8, 10.) Lord, how excellent is Thy 
name in all the earth, and no longer is writ- 
ten Confer Thy glory upon the heavens. Soon 
after this, every one of them became so be- 
friended with Moses, that each of them dis- 
closed to him some useful secrets, for it is 
said (Ib. 68, 19.) Thou hast ascended unto 
Heaven; thou captured the spoils; thou hast 
received gifts because they have contempt- 
uously called thee, man, i. e., because they 
called you man hast thou taken presents as a 
reward. And even the Angel of Death re- 
vealed something to him, for it is written 
(Num. 17, 13) And he (Aaron) put on the 
incense and made atonement for the people, 
and it is said (Ib.) And he stood between the 
dead and the living. If the Angel of Death 
did not disclose this secret unto Moses, how 
did he know [so that he could tell Aaron that 
euch a thing would stop the plague] ?'' 

(Fol 89a) R. Joshua b. Levi said further: 
"When Moses ascended before the Holy One, 
praised be He! Satan appeared before Him 
and said, 'Sovereign of the universe, where 
is Thy Torah ?' 'I have given it to the earth,' 
answered He. So Satan went to the earth, 
saying to it, 'Where is the Torah?' 'God 
alone,' answered the earth, 'understandeth her 
way.' (Job 28, 8.) Satan then went to the 
6ea and was told, 'She is not with me.' He 
went to the deep, and was told, 'She is not 
in me,' for it is said (Ib. ib. 14.) The deep 
saith, not in me is she, and the sea saith, she 
is not with me (lb. ib. 24.) Destruction 
and death .mid 'We heard a rumor with our 
ears'. Satan then returned and said unto the 
Holy One, praised be He ! 'Sovereign of the 
universe, I have searched throughout the 
earth for the Torah but could not find it.' 
Then said the Lord unto hira, 'Go to the 
eon of Amram (Moses).' Satan went un- 
to Moses and said to him, 'Where is the 



n2«^o pu-ij? Dn« Di'73 ityip^ nnrn u\'< 
H'7 na a-Tis no aia' .msty pans onu^ 
a^nj no a-.s' .C3"»r3 b" jnoi kb^d kbti 

•DD^ ^> DK1 3« "IDM n«1 ^IlK ns 133 r\2 

.cr-ira »'•» n"nx"« na-'j-'n b''» nwp aujn 
'n (n D'^nn) 'sjc- n"2pn^ )'? mn ro 
■[iin njn i^ki '^:^ -pu inN no ij'':nK 

ni^j; (no av) 'KJB» -\21 1^ IDDI SHIK )i 

^3V2 mK3 mjno nnp^ ^ntr n^na' cno^ 
"IHTQ Ei«i .nuno nnp^ m« ^iwipi? 
n« ]nM (»' 131D3) '«:b» nan >^ noo man 
Tioyii (OB') laiKi Dyn ^y "ibsm mopn 
h:o y'Ki iK^ ••« 'i:i D^nn pai dtibh \'*2 

:yT nin 

^JB*7B nen Ti^iy nytrs ^'an nawi 
min v"K'3T i^JB^ lOKi iBB> K3 n"3pn 
p« ^SK i^T .pK^ nTinj ^"M .K\n ]3\T 
(Hi nvK) n>^ moK H>n pM min n^ nan 
iBKi D"* '7XK i^n .'131 nam pan D\n^M 
l-^K y'Ki Dinn ^s« i^n .^-ray ;^h n^^ 
na« D^T «vn "la «^ lois ainn (b«') 'kjb' 'a 
nyBB* irjTMi na« mai piaw iToy ]■'« 
yVm n"3pn ^isb noNi nrn .nyoB* 
•]^ V'K .n^riKxa k^i pKn ^33 n^nven 
mm n-i^ -iomi ntsTS ^xk i%t onay }3 ^h 



170 



n 3 c 



VP 



how then could they hear the second utter- 
ance? The Lord sent down the dew, with 
which He is destined to revive the dead in 
the future, and revived them, as it is written 
(I's. as, 10.) Rain of beneficence didsl Tlioa 
pour down, God, whereby Thou didst truly 
strengthen thine inheritance when it was 
weary." 

E. Joshua b. Levi said also: "At every 
single utterance which came forth from the 
mouth of tlie Holy One, praised be He ! Israel 
receded twelve miles, but they were gently 
conducted back by the ministering angels; 
for it is said, The angels of hosts kept gently 
moving. Do not read Yidodun (they moved) 
but Yedadun (were kept moving) ."^= 

E. Joshua b. L^vi said also : "When Moses 
ascended to heaven, the ministering angels 
said unto the Holy One, praised be He! 
'Sovereign of the universe, what has one born 
of a woman to do among us?' 'He has come 
to receive the Torah,' was the Divine answer. 
'Wliat !' said thev unto Him. 'Art Thon alinut 
to bestow upon frail man that cherished 
treasure which has been with Thee for nine 
hundred and seventy-four generations before 
the world was created? What is mortal man 
that Thou art mindful of him, and the son 
of the earth that Thou thus visiteth him? 
God, our Lord, is not Thy name already 
sufficiently exalted in the earth ? Confer Thi/ 
glory upon the heavens.' (Ps. 8, 2-5).' The 
Holy One, praised be He! then called upon 
Moses to refute their objection. Whereupon 
Moses thus pleaded, 'Sovereign of the uni- 
verse, I fear lest they consume me with the 
fiery breath of their mouths.' Thereupon God 
told Moses to take hold of the throne of His 
Divine ;Majosty: as it is said (Job 26, 9.) 
He lays hold of the face of His throne and 
tpreads His clon-d over him. Concerning this 
E. Nachum said : 'This is intended to inform 
V3 that the Almighty spread the brightness 
of the Skechina, and beclouded Jfosos with 
encourasrement.' Moses then said unto Him : 
'Sovereign of the universe, what is written 
in the Torah which you are about to give 
me.' 7 am the Lord, thy God, who brought 
you forth out of Egypt' (Ex. 20, 2), was 
*-he reply. Moses then said to the angels: 
"Did you go to Eg\-pt and serve Pharanh? 
Of what use can the Torah be to you? Fur- 
ther, what else is written in it? Tho^i xhaJf 
not have other Gods before me (lb. ib. 3). 



^n T>->in .i^ap -jtrn ^aty man jnaiyj n»«' 
niDHJty DniK n^nm D^nn in nrnn^ i^nyty 
^n^^a ovn^K :i^:n ninu cc: (no ot'inn) 
imi -iin ^D y'n^Ki ,nnj:ir nnn nn^ji 
3"^ Dn^-nns^ ^Kity^ nrn .T'apn 'on kx^i? 
iDWB' cm« jmo mtyn •<2h'?q rm ^^d 
^npn ^-K ]nn^ jmT m«2x '•3^0 (ov) 

HE'D n^B* nvB'i ""i^ ]3 ycnn' '•m itsxi 
liun n"3pn "»:s^ mtrn i3s^a nD« nnn^ 
cn^ icK .i^-ira n'^'s n^''^ no dt^v ^b' 
nnir^ men r:£3^ ncK .nd nmnn '?:ipb 
nriK D^'.yn k-i3:u' mip mm T'ypnn -p 
tS'UK no (n o'Snn) mi T^a^ njn^^ tt'pao 
'n (02') inpan 'd di« pi uiorn ^2 
n:n nrs pNn ^ra pa' nnw no irjnK 
nrnn ntr'o^ n"2pn i^ ids .Diatyn '?]} pin 
•'JK NTi^no v"&'2T I'is^ -iDK .naitiTi nn^ 
tins n-*^ law .Dn-'sati' ^ana ^jisnts'"' Knty 
2i'»<) ncKJty nmcn cn^ nrnm ^T33 «od3 
Dina n"«i lir; i'«7j? Tins «d3 'jb rnra (13 

no >'? ]m: nnsB' min y"*^'a-i vis'? iok 
nti'K 7n'7S 'n "^dih (= niotr) na a^no 
DnxD'7 cn^ -its« .cnxD pwo ^^nKx^n 
Knn na^ mm amaynK'n njnc^ cmi^ 
cn^K T^ nM' H'? ns a-ria na aia* .dd? 



ii) ;n3iv'^ c'lnc* cnK c^ny ps cnnw 

221 The former Is In tte active voice and the latter In the passive. 



173 



3py^ rv 



^v? 



meaning of the name of Mt. Sinai ?" "The 
mount upon which miracles occured to 
Israel," answered R. Cahana. "It should 
then have been called Mt. Nisai (of mira- 
cles)." Whereupon R. Cahana replied: "A 
mountain on which a good omen was 
wrought for Israel." "It should then have 
been called Mt. Simnai," the Rabbi object- 
ed. Finally that Rabbi said to R. Cahana: 
"Why don't you frequently come before R. 
Pappa and R. Huna, the son of R. Joshua, 
who study the Aggada attentively, for R. 
Chisda and Rabba, the son of R. Huna both 
state: "Wliy is it called Sinai? The 
mount where hatred came dt)wn to the 
heathens,-" and this is intended by R. 
Jose b. Chanina who said : 'Five names had 
Mt. Sinai: Wilderness of Tzin, because on 
it, the Israelites were commanded to ob- 
serve the Torah f Wilderness of Kodesh, 
because, on it, the Israelites were consecrat- 
ed to receive the Torah ;^^ Wilderness of 
Kedemoth, because preference was there 
given to Israel over all other nations;^* 
Wilderness of Paran, because Israel became 
fruitful and multiplied about this mount ;^" 
(lb. b.) Wilderness of Sinai, because en- 
mity to the heathens thence came down.'" 
This differs from the opinion of R. Abuhu, 
for R. Abuhu said: "The real name is Mt. 
Sinai and why is it called Mt. Horeb? Be- 
cause destruction to the heathens came from 
it." 

(Mishnah) Whence do we learn that a 
Btring of crimson-wool must be tied to the 
head of the goat that was to be sent away 
on the Day of Atonement?" It is said (Is. 
1, 18.) Though your sins should le as 
crimson, etc. 

(Gemara) Why Kashanim (like crim- 
son) ? It should be Kashani (like a 
crimson) R. Isaac said: "Thus said the 
Holy One, praised be He! unto Israel, 'If 
your sins were as many as the years that 
lave been arranged and have come down 
from the six days of Creation until now, 
they shall nevertheless become white a3 
snow. 

Raba erpounded : "What is meant by the 
passage (Itkih. ib.) Go now, and let us rea- 
son iogether, will say the Lord, etc. Why, Go 
now; it should be Come now? Why, will say 



am .T'Dp nn-ijiy h'? to"n y'« •n'''? ^ys^a 
"•j^iym vtri.T ^n-n nni «jin mi kbs 
Kjin am nna nsii «iDn mi Kmj«3 
nKJty mn^B' nn •'yo in "imd •',n'"''nn ncKT 

■ntaxjc ys nam a'? ty* niDty 'n wjn 

•i^^y nonp n:r\i^ moip imo .i^^j? 

noi .vby D'?\yn moiK'? nsjt? nrr'ty ^j'd 
noKT ^<^\2H '•n-n n:''^bi .iDtr amn loti' 
3Tin in «-ip3 nD'71 loty ^ro in mas ^m 
:r^y D^iyn mniK^ naiin mrty 
rT'mnt "rty ptr^ incnpa' ]'':d .n:ts'D 
DK (•« «"i'VB") lowtf n'Tntron i^ya' trKia 
.'"131 D^:tt'3 Dswan vn* 

D'JB'D Di"'«tan vn* d« ^tnts'^^ n"3pn idm 

(ov) i"t3 sm tm .i:''3'b'' :^tr3 i^B'ay nyi 
^ys^D K3 i«n «: is^ 'n idm^ nnsui kj id? 
^"y^ .n^^ 'ys'D 'n new 'n iok' .n'^ 



26) .sinnK means hatred. , _ .. , .. j, 

27) Tiin Is shortened from the word Tziha (eotnnianded). 
5fl) Kodfsh means sanctlflcatlon. 

2B1 Kiuiim which Is the orlrtn of Kedemoth, means preferenca 

80) Paran Is of the orlglQ iTu (multiply). 

81) See Yoma, Fol. 66-67. 



172 



n a c 



3yp 



Torah that the Holy One, praised be He! 
gave thee?' 'Who am I that the Uoly One, 
should give me tlie Torah?' replied Moses 
in a surprised tone. The Lord tliea said un- 
to Moses, "Sloses, art thou a liar? 'Sov- 
ereign of the universe!' Moses pleaded be- 
fore Him, 'such a reserved treasure which 
Thou hast and art delighted with every 
single day, shall I claim the credit [of ob- 
taining it] for myself?' Whereupon the 
Holy One, praised be He! said unto Moses, 
'Because thou hast belittled thyself, I will 
cause the Torah to be called in conjunction 
with your name,' as it is said (Malachi 3, 
22.) Eememher ye, the Torah of Moses my 
scrtanf." 

Further said R. Joshua b. Levi: "At 
the time when Moses ascended to Heaven, 
he found that the Holy One, praised be He ! 
was providing certain letters with crown- 
lets.=^ 'Moses, is there no peace in thy city?' 
said the Lord to him. 'Is it then proper 
that a servant shall greet his master?' 
Moses replied. 'You should have wished me 
well.'-* Immediately Moses said to Him And 
now I pray Thee, let the poirer of the 
Lords he great as Thou hast spoken (Num. 
14, 17)." 

R. Joshua h. Levi said also: "What is 
meant by the passage (Ex. 32, 1.) And the 
people saw that Moses was delayed? We 
should not read Boshesh (delayed) but 
Ba-shesh (it came six)," i. e., when Moses 
ascended to Heaven, he told Israel, 'At 
the end of forty days, at the beginning of 
the sixth hour "[of the day] I shall come.' 
At the end of the fortieth day, Satan came 
[to the Israelites] and brought a confusion 
into the world [so that it became dark and 
appeared to be late] and then said unto 
Israel 'Where is your teacher, Moses?' 'He 
went up to Heaven.' they replied. 'But,' 
said Satan, 'the sixth hour, at which Moses 
promised you to return, has alreadv come.' 
They did not pav any attention to him. 'He 
died.' Satan said, and still they did not pay 
any attention to him. Finally he showed 
them the image of hLs bier; thus is under- 
stood what Israel said to Aaron: For of this 
man Moses, etc., we know not what became 
of him (lb. ib. ib)." , , , T, 

One of the Rabbis once asked of K. 
Cahana: "Did vou hear anything as to the 



■«JK r,D ■'31 ^"« .s''n p\n n";pn -p \r\:'y 
nco^ n"3pn V's -m-.n n"2^.r\ -"^ ]ni"j 
mtsn y"u2'\ 1^:37 noN .nnK '•Nia ntyo 
DT" ^22 n3 yrynrc nn«i:' "i? »'"• nti33 
n'-pn ni? ids .•'Oxv? nsiD p">tn« •'j« 
■^Dtt' !?y K-ipn iDxy ntsy^m ^^Kin nco^ 
.'12', nny nrn mm nsi (^ ':«^o) lowty 
1KX0 cno^ nij'o n7j?ty nyuo y'sn "idki 
^"K nrniK'^ DnriD ncip n^nty n"3pn7 
C' C17D rjs'? "irs ."p''y^ c"''^^ T^ •"''^''^ 
.^:n?y^ np n^n ?"« .lan^ cir^i* ^nuty iz-; 
'n na «: ^i:^ nnyi (t i3io=) ?"« T'o 

:m31 ntt'«3 

niBty) nm3T ■'Ko ^1^ p ytyin-' ^sn idki 
VU2 npn ^K ntita ^^2 ^3 oyn ki^i (2^ 
noK Di-iD'7 ntt-D n^yty nytya K'ty ik3 k^« 
^>K \ff\ff n^nna di^ 'd cjid^ 'i?K-iB'^^ cn^ 
c'7iyn riK ssnyi \^v N3 di^ 'd cjid^ .k3 
n^y I'i' i-in« .«in ]3''n dd31 nco on^ now 
v^y in^Jtt'n «^i cty ik3 on'b los .onn^ 
moo mm cn'7 nwin v^y in^itrn k^i no 
c^Kn ntiTs nr "»3 pn«^ iT*^ "•lOKpi ij'«mi 

:'i:i 
Kins 31^ ^3*10 Kinn n^^ idk (t^e "n) 
itt^yity in b"H .^ro in "iKa i'? y^Diy '6 

See menachoth. Fol. 29b. 



23) epTOT letter In the Torah-'scrolb require three crownlefcs (nourishes) each 

\\] 5^V.^°SLr^lTa;^."'^ut^th'er.?vlI^Tn ^o' rS^-^Br^lsn. It .neans -.t arrived ..x 



175 



Spy* vv 



ny? 



fifty years. Take off the nights and only 
twenty-five will remain. Deduct twelve and 
one-half years spent in praying, eating and 
in performing other necessities and only 
twelve and one-half years will remain. Now 
if Thou wilt bear the whole burden, it is 
well, but if not, let me bear one-half [of the 
burden], and Thou the other half. And if 
Thou wilt say that I must bear the whole, 
behold ! I was ready to sacrifice myself for 
Thee !' Immediately the children of Israel 
will begin to say [unto Isaac], 'For thou 
alone art our father.' Isaac will then say 
unto them, 'Instead of praising me, praise 
ye the Holy One, praised be He!' Where- 
upon they will lift up their eyes unto the 
Holy One, praised be He! and will say, 
'Thou, Lord, art our Father, our i?e- 
deemer (Is. 63, 16)." 

E. Chiya b. Abba, in the name of R. 
Jochanan, said : ".Tacob (our father) was 
destined to go down to Egypt in iron chains, 
but his merits saved him [from such a fatef, 
as it is written (Hosh. 11, 4.) With human 
cords I ever draw them forward, with lead- 
ing strings of love: and I was to them as 
those that lift off the yoke from their jaws, 
and I held food unto them." 

CHAPTER ELEVEN 

(Fol. 96b) Our Eabbis taught: '"The 
wood-gatherer' was Zelaphehad, and so it is 
eaid (Num. 15, 32.) And while the chil- 
dren of Israel were in tlie wilderness, and 
they found a man gathering wood on the 
Sabhath, and it is further said (lb. 27, 3.) 
Our father died in the wilderness. [We de- 
duce this from the similar word Midbar 
(wilderness) which is found in both places.] 
Just as further [Our father died in the 
wilderness {Bamidbar) ] refers to Zelaphe- 
had, so the wood-gatherer [who died in 
consequence thereof] was also Zelaphehad." 
This is what E. Akiba said. R. Juda b. 
Bethyra then said to him: "Akiba! 
Whether your opinion be true or false, you 
will have to account for it [at the time of 
Divine Judgment] ; for if your words are 
true, you disclosed the name of a man whom 
the Torah shielded; and if your opinion is 
not correct you have slandered an upright per- 
Bon." (Fol.' 97a.) Behold! E. Akiba inferred 

1) See Num. IS, 82-36. 



n^ani ^d^di ^^i^xt mj^sji no Tnn ^i n"3 
nriK DK «;^Bi no ^mn in^ itfs KDsn 

pn^-" nn^ now .ir3N nnK •<; noNi inns 
\vh ^inoi iT'npn'? iD'bp ^^ po'i'pD nn«ts' ny 
DiT'^-'y D-'Nti'ij n^D .iiT'-rya T]''y\^ pnx"" 
irsM 'n nriK (jd n^w^) onoiKi diid^ 
i"« K3N nn K-i^n n"« .pe' o^iyo i3^«u 
DnsD^ m'''? ij-tDK spy n^ iint pni^ 
'h nona imatB' k^« 'bna '?«' m«^e''7ty3 

^y ^ly ^onoD cn^ ^^«^ nanw mmayi 

nt:^y in« pns pmn 

nns^x nr B'B'ipD jjai un (:"> la «n) 
'7«"\B'' ''js rnM (IB 13102) lom «in pi 
irsK (»3 els') -I01K Nin ;Sn^i 'iji naion 
ins'i'X ]«3 riK nnsbx |^n^ na *i3no3 no 

TTiy nriK ifl 1^31 ^s pa K3'«py wn^na 
nriKi iriDo nnnn ^nanD d« pin riK jn""^ 
ims ^y ty^ s^xid nns i«'7 dhi idik n'7JD 
15'": .mis' mvj -ina sn K'i'Ki ('^ 11) .pnii 
i^-'syio ((T CB-) .mn No-inD «^« .nin: «^ 



I?-,' 



n 2 V 



lyp 



the Lord; it should be, Saith the Lord? This 
means that in the future, the Holy One, 
praised be He! will say unto Israel, 'Go to 
jour ancestors, they shall rebuke you.* And 
Israel will say: 'Sovereign of the universe, 
to whom shall we go? Shall we go to 
Abraham to whom thou hast said (Gen. 15, 
13.) Know of a surety that thy seeds shall 
he stranger, etc., and he did not pray for 
OS ? Shall we go to Isaac who when blessing 
Esau said, (lb. 27, 40.) And it shall come 
to pa^s, that when thou shalt have the 
dominion, etc., and he also did not pray for 
us? Shall we go unto Jacob, to whom 
Thou didst say (lb. 46, 4.) I will go down 
with thee unto Egypt, and even he did not 
pray for us? Let then the Ijord say, to 
whom shall we now go?' Then will the 
Holy One, praised be He! say to them, 'Be- 
cause ye have attached yourselves to me, 
therefore if }our sins be even as crimson, 
ihey shall become as white as snow.'" 

R. Samuel b. Nachmeini said: "What 
ip meant by the passage (Is. 63, 16.) For 
Thou art our father; for Abraham, knoweth 
nothing of us, and Israel rccognizeth us 
not; Thou, Lord, art our Father, our Re- 
deemer, etc., i. e., In the future, the Holy 
One, praised be He! will say to Abraham, 
'Thy children have sinned before me,' and 
Abraham will answer, 'Sovereign of the 
universe, let them be wiped off for the sake 
of Thy holy name.' *I shall tell this to 
Jacob, who had trouble raising his own 
children,' said the Lord, 'perhaps he will 
pray for mercy upon them.' The Lord then 
6aid unto Jacob, 'Thy children have sin- 
ned'; wherupon Jacob also replied, 'Sov- 
ereien of the universe! Let them be wiped 
off for the sake of Thy holy name.' Then said 
the Lord, 'Neither sense can be found with 
the aged, nor wise counsel with the young.' 
The Lord then said unto Isaac, 'Thy chil- 
dren have sinned.' Whereupon Isaac said 
unto Him, 'Sovereign of the universe, 'Are 
they my children and not Thine? When 
they answered Thee, We will do and listen. 
Thou didst call them (Ex. 4, 22.) My first- 
lorn son, and now are they mine and not 
Thine? Furthermore, how long a time 
have they sinned before Thee? Let us see; 
the duration of a man's life is about seventy 
years. Take off twenty years that Thou 
dost not punish" and there will remain but 

tt) For *■ taatoVaiA trnfler tiM UW of twMty, Bm 



viti'j "noKM -DDriK in'ori Ds^nuH 
"1^ mc«ty cn"in« ^xn "pi ^d ^:fK v"vf:^^ 
M'<'7)j D^om tt'pa .«r. >nn ]!',v (lo n'trHia) 
ne'KD n^m (»= ob-) it^y n« "iiac pn^t^ iitn 
2pv' ^s« •^3"'^y cnm cpa k^i nnn 
nDn".»D "loy nn« ■'d:« (iq dv) i^ mowr 
VU2V i^i ■'13 ^XK tr^v D"'Dm trp3 m!?i 
D:osy Dni^m 'b-'S-.n n"2pn ^'s .'n tdk^ 
."ira^^ 37'^o D''Jtr2 QD^Kcn i\t dm *3 
a^riDi •'KD ]n:T> ■>"« •'janj ni ^«iar n"K 
"iiyn> «'? Dm3« ^d "irax nn« '«3 (jo "'V') 

^'} iMtan yi2 cm3«^ r\"2pn ^'f noiM yp 
•Tcr nc'np 'by ino^ y"r3n vjd^ now 
^n'3 nys n>^ mm apy'? n-"^ ko^m tch 
y:2 V'K ini'''7y •'cm ""ysT na'CH d'js 
ntt-np ^y inD"" y"tr3i rjB? now -iKDn 

.nvv ■'P'"''^ "^"^ '^'^^''^ "^^^ ^'^ ""^" 1°'' 
V"»*3n VJD^ ncM ."'^ '.sen T':3 pn:;-'^ y'« 
nt?V3 TJB^ lonpnjs' nytya tj3 «^i ^i3 
vc^y ^"\iD3 ^J3 (■• "'°*'^ cn^ n«-ip yow^ 
i^niJB' nD3 wan hdd myi i^j^ m^i ^J3 
irpi^ r\^:v h'I't c^niry ^t nitr 'y m« ^r 

T^ do«B mot punUli. Sm Vum. 14, 24. 



177 



apj?^ py 



ryp 



nx nn« niDD v^^"""! (' o^") •tib'ds naan 

"12^5? w^u pns n:i2n 

now "iDix siTin 13 '•"n s^jn 0? «n) 

TDi i«3a .D''o n"o i"v D"D nn DnstyoD 



nmnn p co iid'j? 



it had turned again as his other flesh." 
And Aaron's staff swalloived up their staves 
(lb. 7, 12). R. Elazar said: "This was a 
miracle within a miracle."* 

CHAPTER TVELVE 

(Fol. 103b) We are taught that R. Juda 
b. Bethyra said : "It is said at the second day 
of the Succah's offering (Num. 29, 19.) 
Venis-keihem (and their drink-offering) ;' 
on the sixth day's oiiering, it is said (lb. ib. 
31.) Un-sache-ha (and its drink • oiferings ) ; 
on the seventh day, it is said (Ib. ib. 3-1.) 
Kamish'patam (after their prescribed rite). 
In the first instance the last letter Mem is 
superfluous; in the second, the letter Yud 
is superfluous; and in the third instance, 
there is another superfluous Mem; these 
superfluous letters serve to hint that the 
tradition of using water at the sacrifices of 
Tabernacles was a Biblical law [for the 
three letters, viz, Mem, Yud, Mem, com- 
prise the word Mayim (water)]." 

CHAPTER THIRTEEN 

(Fol. 105b) We are taught: "Why do 
the sons and daughters of a man die when 
young ? Because he should be able to 
shed tears and mourn when an upright man 
dies." How is it possible to take a pledge 
for a sin which a man will commit later? 
It intends, however, to say thus: "Because 
he did not shed tears and did not mourn 
at the death of an upright man"; for who- 
ever sheds tears and mourns at the death of 
an upright man will have his sins forgiven 
in return for the honor he gave to the dead. 

We are taught that R. Simon b. Elazar 
said in the name of Chilpha b. Agra, who 
spoke in the name of R. Jochanan b. Nuri: 
"He who tears his garments while in wrath, 
or he who breaks his vessels while in wrath, 
or he who throws away his money while in 
anger, shall he regarded in your eyes as one 
who worships idols, because such is the 
treacherous habit of the evil-inclination: to- 
day he says to one 'Do so' and to-morrow 
*Do something else' until he tells one to go 
and worship idols and the man obeys and 

i) For the staff did not swalloTf up the staves of the Egyptian magicians until they had turned from th« 
eerpents into staffs once more. 

1) In the flrst. third, fourth, fifth, seventh and eighth days. It Is said Teniskah (Its drink offering). In every 
day's offering Is written Kamiihpat and on the eeventh day it is -KTitten Kamishpatam, hence the change of th« 
three places Is Intended for some reason. 



vn cnD no •'JDD «^jn i^"v "p i"') 

wuny nja^c ""is -"la's di« '^V ^3«riM 
'})) ^n«nm nD3 «^ty 'Jsd s^k n^yia '«^piy 
ncD mK ^y ^nsrim noun '?:>^ ib-o dim 

DiiiTO noiH nTy^« p j-iyaty 'n K-iin .ntyyu* 
p pm^ ''3-1 mtra -id«c «ijn' id «s'7'n 

Tiryn sn-' inana vmyo ntEom inonn 
T'nx' ^c nuDi« ^3ti• c^33i3 muy imp 
ncTJ 1^ nDi« nna'ji i3 ntt'j; ^'? laiK m\n 



176 



n 3 c 



lyp 



it by the rule of analog}'. Such an ana- 
logy was not received by tradition [to R. Juda 
b. Bethyra].^ A similar case occured in 
the following incident: It is said (lb. 12, 
9.) And the anger of (he Lord was kindled 
against them and He went away. "We 
learn from thi?," said R. Akiba, "tliat Aaron 
also became leprous." R. Juda b. Bcthyra 
then said to liim: "Akiba! Whether y^nr 
opinion be true or false, you will have to 
account for it at the time of Divine Judg- 
ment. For if your words be true you dis- 
closed the name of a man whom the Torah 
desired to shield; and if your words are 
false, then you have slandered an upright 
man." But it is written And the anger of 
the Lord was kindled against them [includ- 
ing Aaron]. This means that Aaron was 
merely rebuked. We are taught that Aaron 
also became leprous, for it is written (lb. 
ib. 10) And Aaron turned toward Miriam, 
and beheld she was leprous. It is explain- 
ed that this implies that Aaron cleansed him- 
eelf of his leprosy."' 

Resh Lakish said : "He who suspects an 
innocent man will receive bodily punishment, 
for it is written (Ex. 4, 1.) But, behold, 
ihey will not believe me. It was known to 
the Holv One, praised be He! that Israel 
would believe him and He said unto Moses, 
'They are believers, the children of be- 
lievers, but I know thou wilt finally not be- 
lieve.' They are believers, as it is written 
(lb. ib. 31.) And the people believed. The 
children of believers, as it is written (Gen. 
16, 6.) And they believed in the Lord. 
Thou wilt finally not believe, as it is said 
(Num. 20. 12.)" Because ye have not had 
confidence in Me. Whence do we learn that 
he was punished? It is written (Ex. 4. 6.) 
And the Lord said furthermore unto him, 
'Do put thy hand upon thy bosom.' etc." 

Ralia. and arTordinw to others. R. .Tosff, 
the son of R. Chanina, said: "The measure 
of Divine Goodness comes more quickly than 
that of evil dispensation; for in the case of 
evil dispensation, it is written (Tb.) And 
when he took it out, behold, his hand was 
leprous, white as snow. .\s to the Divine 
Goodness, it is written (Tb.) And when he 
puthd it away from hix ho^om. behold, if 
has turned again o-t his other flesh, i. e., as 
Foon as he pulled it away from his bosom. 

2) The rule of aBAlogy ean only be applied when 

subject. , 

31 yifi»'« mi»?.ii» "turn." also cl<ar. 



-in^i (3' cs') nciM nn« nana kxi^3 -n-.n 
nan jjnt::ij pr^n r,Kc no^D ^^m D3 'n qK 
KiTia p r^r.T]'' 13-1 nv idk .i^a^y "•ai 
n« jn"'? Tny nn« 13 pai -[2 j'^a n^pv 
nbia nriNi inDo n-\^nr^ inaio c« jnn 

.«o:v3 n£5^ii3 i^'nn .C3 stid «n «:«". 

3TIDT VIDXJ JinS r,S 1CNT JNOO VTiD 

njBty KW1 nyTiSD njm cno '?« ]-\nn )b<i 
Dncaa ncnnn c'lp^ en "ic« nnyixo 
■>^ u'DS-' N7 )m (T nitjts-) 3inrT isiaa 7]p^'? 

■]BiD ]"« nnsi cj-'DKD '':3 crnso p 17H 
^:3 Dyn ;c«''i 3T13T fj-'Dso Dn •i-'osn? 
yn nn« 'na jD«m (lo ri'tr«i3) d-'J^dko 
«^ IV (2 12103) -idk:^ |'>DKn'; ibid 
(T nici) n^nn np7i ■•Koa .hJi ""a nnjoxn 
nDK .'ui p-'na -it* nj «2n my 1^ 'n -idk-'i 
mo «r:n ■•a-in ■'or ^an kd^dw K3t 
i^^KT mij?-nB moo »3^ mnots naia 
IT nam hk-'st'i (ots-) "tid miy-nB niDi 
{Bv) n-'riD naita mas i'S'-'KI a^B's ny^^XD 
Kin ip-'no nc3D nniy njm ip^no n«^:iiM 

MMlved by tradition from Ut Slnal on that partlcuUr 



179 



^PV vv 



oyp 



not many years." According to this inter- 
pretation, the passage (Deu. 11, 21.) In 
order that your days may he multiplied, and 
the days of your children, would also mean 
days and not years. When it alludes to a 
blessing, it is different. 

■R. Chiva b. Abba in the name of B. 
Jochanan said also: "If one brother dies, 
all Uiu lemaining brothers should feel anx- 
ious [examine their deeds]. If a member 
of a society should die, let the whole society 
become anxious. According to some, this is 
so only when the most important one 
among them should die, and according to 
others, only when the least important one 
Bhould die." 

CHAPTER FIFTEEN 

(Fol. 113a) And honor {ihe Sab- 
bath) by not performing thy usual pursuits, 
by not following thine own business, and 
speaking (vain) words (Is. 58, 13). Honor 
it means that thy Sabbath clothes shall not 
be the same as that of the week days. R. 
Jochanan called his garments "my honors." 
Not doing thy usual pursuits, means that 
thy Sabbath walk shall not be as thy walk 
on weekdays; Not following thine own 
iusiness, means that thine own business 
may not be followed, but Heavenly business 
(charity, etc.) is permitted; And speaking 
(vain) words, i.e., the mode of thy speaking 
on the Sabbath shall not be like that on the 
weekdays — speaking is prohibited, but 
thinking is permitted. All these are plain, 
but "that thy Sabbath walk shall not be as 
"thy walk on the week day" what does this 
signify? It means the same as the question 
which Eabbi asked of R. Ishmael, the son 
of R. Jose: "May one make large strides 
on the Sabbath?" R. Lshmael replied: "May 
one do so even on weekdays? For I say 
that a large step deprives one of a five-hun- 
dredth part of the light of one's eyes. _ A 
Temedy for this is the drinking of the wine 
on which the Habdala benediction has been 
performed on the Sabbath evening." [Hence 
there is a different walk on the Sabbath.] 

(lb. h.) R. Ami said : "Whoever eats from 
the earth of Babylon is regarded as if he were 
eating the flesh of his ancestors ;^ according to 
some, it is as if he ate abominable and creep- 
ing things, for it is written (Gen. 7, 23) 
And it wiped off every living substance, etc." 



ncK H2H "in w^n -i"«i /jxty nana .w:^ 
'}2 i:i<v (ip m) noty D^nKH p in« •'"n 
^3 jsnn nets' mun ""jno nns ,]^id ninsn 
n^ nDKi ^n; hot n^ -"nDK n^o nmnnn 

ne^y n^nn pie nnirp t:5«i 

.'131 T«Dm miyyo imnni (j'p «n) 
■]ti'n'7D3 nnty ^ly itru^o nhi «'?»' ^m22\ 
n-'jKD^ np jjmi 13m nn •'di ^in ^ty 
M^c y^-n mtyyn (nj mi-tf) .innaoD 

.D'^nniD D1DB' •'SEin cnioK "jissn "jsan 
naty '7B' -[nm nn-" «'7ty (3"v av) -i3t la-n 
.-imo ■limn mD« im •'bin ^ir -[ims 
'7ts' iDi^n KH'' N^ty «^« iin^ in^iD Ko^tyi 
n^i-iD «ym3 K^n ""Nd ^in ^b* ^Di^nn naty 
yiDs'7 ino '»DT» '•ma ^Kyoty •'mt: lan 
mmn •'o 'r-inn ••m '?"« .nsti'i noj nyos 
p"no '« n^uij noj nrcs it2i« 'iKiy 
scnpn ni^ mnm .m« 'i'tr r:^v "ii^^fi 
^c mayo ^3isn ••ns '•m no« •'•o'Dtr ''3T 
cinois tt""! rmns ibod ^di« i^ks ^33 

(T n^CKis) nTl3T D^D'DII D^Xpty ^D1« l'7N3 

no'? C'p'? tm -iQK .'1J1 Dip''n ^3 n» naM 



Sl« Jer 52, that Uraol was eiUed there »nd many died and were burled there. 



178 



n 2^ 



nyp 



(Ka o'^nn) «-ip "»Ko ;^aK ^ST icM wnmyi 
133 ^K^ mnncn k^i nt ^k ^i n\n< k^ 

■»i7a''K« Kno-'H KDio^ nay '•ki ."i"nx^ nt 

ntt'B' 2"» ■'T»3n ^JD nan apy' "o khk an 

»S3« '•an «tm« •'i''jra .TnoK^ n^^ ""Dn 

: Ktjnaj nan 

na mtro ^"an noK vt la r*n noH 
n"apn nt^a Dn« ^y mynn nniDn ^a Knep 
sni: (u D^'rnn) 'Kits' T«t3j n-'aa in^joi peiD 
«^n inK:a ""nyon ncty nnK nnnoD 
^a an ncK nnn^ an noK .yinDDa 
i^^na naip^ ^im can ^b' nDona ^xynon 
\r\br\i ^uaa mm nap*"! (i= xs'ino now:' 
nn^ liDXD DnB« nna ntj'H nno naona 
«^3n .pnn^ nnn ]n^^y tt'anw no^a B'yj 
DHB^a cno nnK ^b' vnuai vja na ^iaa 
•>na .nis'a nns ^y 'baKn'i naa-'B' -"na D-iJcip 
w^ty ^:Ba «^« .n^a-in ^^ptr wiany naa^ty 
naun ^aiy n*ja onK 'ry '?a«nm naa 
^a ^y ^'? o^^mo nti^a onK ^ ^aKnoi 
na K"n n"« .ntryty maa 'r-'aa'a imirp 
Dan ^ty nsona ^xyncn ^a pm^ ^an k3« 
n')i»<) 'wty ma n3J3 ma d-'D"' ynwa um 
'n n^amm .njann nn^ira nscxoa («= 
ayn nay^i (= oicBity) v-i^ «3k na «"n 
ne'w D^jprn ^d^ 'Jai yts'in^ ""a^ ^a 'n ns 
c>a^ ^K'jaa y'x .V':;'\t\'> ••nns D-'a' i3n«n 

1) "i^-aiise li« <1I3 «ot mourn the dealt of Ui« Ctiacham whose life was shortened, his own llf« will ttMTtlOf* 
b* shortened. 



worships." R. Abin said : "Wliat is the Bibli- 
cal passage to prove this? I'here shall not 
be uithin thee a foreign god; nor shalt 
thou bow thyself down to any strange god 
(Ps. 81, 10). What is the foreign god 
within a man's body ? It is the evil-inclina- 
tion." But if one [does so not because he 
really is furious but] desires to inspire fear 
in his household [to compel obedience to 
his orders] then he is permitted to do these 
things; as, when R. Juda wanted to show 
his disapproval of the acts of his family, he 
once pulled out the tlirumbs [of his gar- 
ment] ; R. Acha b. Jacob used to take 
broken vessels and shatter them. R. Shes- 
heth used to throw fish-brine upon the head 
of his male-slave [to impress upon him the 
necessity of obejing his orders] and R. Abba 
broke the cover of a pitcher. 

R. Simon b. Pazi said in the name of R. 
Joshua b. Levi, who spoke in the name of 
bar Kappara: "Whoever sheds tears upon 
the death of an upright person, the Holy 
One, praised be He! will number and store 
it in His treasure, as it is said (Ps. 56, 9.) 
My wandering hast Thou well numbered; 
put Thou my tears into thy bottle; behold 
they are numbered by Thee." 

R. Juda in the name of Rab said: 
"Whoever is slow to mourn the death of a 
Chacham (scholar) is destined to be buried 
alive, as it is said (Jos. 24, 30.) And they 
buried him on the border of his inherit- 
ance at Timnath Serach, which is on the 
mountain of Ephraim, on the north side of 
Mt. Ga'ash. i. e., Ga'ash (storm).— We in- 
fer from tliis that the mountain stormed at 
them (Israel) and wished to destroy them 
[because they did not mourn the deatb of 
Joshua] . 

R. Chiya b. Abba in the name of R. 
Jochanan said : "^Vhoever is slow to mourn 
the death of a scholar will not live long.» 
This is a retaliation, as it is said (Is. 27, 
8.) In measure, by driving him forth, thou 
strivest with him." The following objec- 
tion was raised to R. Jochanan by R. Chiya 
b. Abba: "And the people served the Lord 
all the days of Joshua, and all the days of 
the elders that lived many days after Joshua 
(Judg; 2, 7.) [Hence thev were not pun- 
ished.]" "Thou Babylonian!" said R. 
Jochanan to him, "it says many days but 



181 



zpv' py 



KEP 



kingdom of David, who also used the expres- 
eion, Halom (hither), as it is said (II Sam. 
7, 18.) Then King David went in, and sat 
down before the Lord, and said. Who am I, 
Lord Eternal f And what is my house 
that Thou hast brought me thither (halom) f" 
And dip thy morsel in the vinegar (Euth 2, 
14). "We infer from this," said E. Elazar, 
'that vinegar is good for [relieving] heat." 
But E. Samuel b. Nachmeini said: "This 
was also an intimation to her, viz., it is 
destined that a son shall come forth from 
thee whose deeds will be as sour as vinegar 
(evil acts) and this refers , to King Men- 
ashe."* And she seated herself beside the. 
reapers. (lb.) K. Elazar said: "She took a 
seat beside the reapers, and not between 
them; this was also an intimation to her, 
viz., the kingdom of David is destined to be 
divided." And he readied her parched corn, 
and she ate, etc., (lb.) E. Elazar said: "She 
ate, refers to the days of David [when Israel 
had already enjoyed rest] ; Was satisfied, 
refers to the times of Solomon; And had 
some left; refers to the days of Hezekiah." 
Others say: "And she ate, refers to the days 
of David and Solomon; And was satisfied, 
refers to the days of King Hezekiah; And 
\ad some left, refers to the days of Eabbi; 
for the master said the officer of the stables 
of Eabbi was richer than the King Shabur 
(Persian Shah)." We are taught: "And she 
(lie; refer-s to this world; And was satisfied, 
refers to the world to come; And had some 
left, refers to the time of Messiah." 

And under His glory, shall be kindled a 
burning lihe the burning of fire (Is. 10, 16). 
H. Jochanan said: "Under His glory, but not 
His glory itself [referring to His garments] ." 
E. Jochanan is in acord with his own opinion, 
for he called his garment "my honors." But 
B. Elazar said: "Under His glory, means 
His glory itself." B. Samuel b. Nachmemi 
said: "Under ITm glory, has the same mean- 
ing as that of the burning of the sons of 
Aaron ;» as in the case concerning the burn- 
ing of Aaron's eons, their souls were burnt 
but their bodies remained unscathed, so the 
burning referred to in the above passage also 
means the burning of the eool, and not of 
the body." . , , . , , 

(Fol 114a) E. Acha b. Abba m the 
name of E. Jochanan said: "Whence do 
we learn that the chancring of clotheB [lor 

t) .See 11 King* 21, 1-lB. 
() See Ler. 10. 1-7. 



17Dn Ka""! (» 2"v) '«ji>* m^n n^3 itidt 

DM^« 'n ■'3JK ID IDN-'l 'n '•iS^ 3tt'"«1 TIT 

(3 nn) .m^n Tj? '':n«^an ^s in'«n ""oi 
]K3D nTV^« ■'31 now j'Dina ins n'^aci 

"I'lyyoty ^DD nss^ 13 i^nj; n'? tm tot 
1X0 3tym (otf) .r\\i':n uoi pmns c^trp 
K^i Dnxipn nsD -iTy^« ^ai idk cnsipn 
m3'7t3 niTij; nb ton tdi cnxipn iins 
"^bp n^ Das'"! (Dtt-) .p^nnnc in n^2 
in ""cs ^3«m 'irj?'7« >yi idn 'ui ^3«m 
.n-'prn '^3 imm ntt^ti- 'cs yscm 
na^r •'a''3i in id"'3 ^rsm nasi k3i«i 
nasi ^31 ''a'3 imm n^ptn •'a^3 V3!rm 
.K3^a intt'a -T^ny mn '3-n nn-'mnt* -ia 
ma^^ y3B'm T"my3 ^3«ni Njn «n^jna3 
: Mis'? "TTiv'i' -imm n>tyan 

tt^H Tip'3 np' ip' m33 nnm c ri'vv>) 
ttTSD nus K^i 11133 nnm pnr •'31 law 
.^nn33a n^JKa'? "^ipi n-'aya'? linT" ■'31 
11133 nnn 11133 nnm iai« nry^K m 
''J3 ns'«itt'3 11133 nnn iai« :"3trn .tt'aa 
:]« D^''p cjiai nacj nsnc j'rn'? na ]^nn 
«nK 31 laK .D"p cjui nac'j nsnty ^ns 

^U'tt''? I^JB (TP "n) JinTi ^31 IBN N3N 13 

n« QB>Bi (1 HV'i) iDKJB' minn p nnjs 



180 



n 2Vf 



B? 



Eesh Lakish said: "Why was it called 

Sinar? Booauso all tlio dead of the tlond 
were buried there." R. Jochanan said: "And 
why was it called Mctzula? Because all the 
dead of the world were drowned there." 

Give instructions to the wise and he will 
hcconic i/et iri.<cr ( I'r. 9, 9). '"This refers," 
said R. Elazar, "to Ruth, the Moabito, and 
to Samuel of Kamath. As to Ruth, although 
Na'omi said to her, (Ruth 3, 3.) Therefore 
bathe, and anoint thyself and put thy gar- 
ments upon thee, still Ruth did otherwise, 
as it is written (lb. ib. 6.) And she tvent 
down at the threshing floor, and then it says, 
And she did in accordance with all that her 
mother-in-law commanded her.' Concerning 
Samuel, although Eli said to him (I Sam. 3, 
9.) Go, lie down, and it shall be, if He call 
thee, that ihnu- shall say, Sprnh Lord, for 
thy servant heareth, Samuel did otherwise, 
88 it is written (Ib. ib. 10.) And the Lord 
came, and placed Ilimself and called as at 
the previous times, Samuel, Samuel. And 
Samuel said. Speak, for thy servant heareth, 
and he did not say Speak Lord [lest it might 
not be the Shrrliina on account of which 
God's name cannot be mentioned]." 

And she vent, and came and gleaned in 
the field after the reapers (Ib. 2, 3). R. 
Elazar said: '"She went and came, to and 
fro. until she found such men as were fit com- 
pany for her." And Bo'az said, etc., Whose 
maiden is this? (Ib.) Was it proper for 
Bo'az to inquire whose maiden she was? 
R. Elazar said : "He noticed an act of wis- 
dom committed by her, viz., two ears of corn 
she picked up, but three she did not.'" In 
a Baraitha we are taught : "He noticed that 
she was very modest, the standing sheaves 
ehe gleaned while she was standing and the 
sheaves that were l}ang on the ground, she 
gleaned while sitting." And keep close rom- 
pany with my own maidens. (Ib.) Was it 
proper for Bo'az to be attached to women? 
R, Elazar said: "As soon as Bo'az saw 
Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Ruth 
clung unto her (Ib. 1, 14), he thought it 
proper to be attached to her.'" And Bo'az 
snid unto her, nf mrnl limp. Tome near 
hither.' (Ib.) R. Elazar said: "By the 
word Halom (hither) he intimated to her 
that from her is destined to come forth the 

— :rr"i^ dressed herself at the threshing floor in order 
"'if'l'eA^ror'^'e'g^cSn'ri of harvest referred to In 
two oa.^ ot oo"^ fMl d<»wn : but when three. It belong, to 



nyjC (K"!nrTO »"y^ n"'c D»n3T) not:' K"lp3 

no"?"! ]:nv 21 in« •Dtr'? nv'jj ^ud tid '?:i^ 

]i^^s3 D'7'ijj TiD ^ity n^ixD m^ «"ip: 

7m^Diy noB'i n2Di n^'mi (^ n'^) •uvf'? 

: nsB^ ^c Clin •i'7« -iTy^« ••m -idn 'ui 

nn .Timn ^K",Qtri n'3«',on nn ii ity^« 
'lai riDDi nsn-n (j nn) n'? lOKp >ny: "i^«t 

^KiDty .nmcn nmx nD"« '722 cym mm 
DK n-'m Dstr (^ « ^«iott-) '7"«p t^y i^m 
•^my ymty ""d 'n nn mnNi T7K «ip^ 
«np''i asTiM 'n waM stid nnnn i^ki 

(3 nn) .'n nn ids n^i T^y ymtt' "^d nn 
-iry'TK im IDS mtt'i tap'i'n'i warn i'7ni 
•>ja n«sDc ny nn«m nD'bn nnsm nD^nty 
tyu ncsM (=«•) -cnoy i^"'^ cijjinnn Dn« 
tyn ^B' 13m '•si riwrn myin ••a'? 'ui 
ntsDn 121 nty^K ••an ntss .myn ^iNtr^ 
n:''« n''^nc' nty^ir ntap'? D'«'?3ts' 'a ns n«T 
nn HKi myjs im «3n wn-'inna .n\:i?'? 
HDi (D») OB'T'D m^Bu loiyo miDiy 
pai^ Tyi3 ^ty lam ^3^ '^nya cy iv^"'" 
nn) «tm ]i^D niy^w '31 IDS c^B'an ny 
-IDS nn np^i n",m nmon^ nsny pcni (« 
tyu n^ io«'i (= °«') -"^ 'P^^"^"^ '""^ 
tD-i ity^x "'sn noK m':n ■'t?: "Jmsn ny^ 

not to be accused. If dressed while on her way to th. 
ILer. 19, 9. that U shall be for the poor, applies only wl.» 
the ownpr of the field. 



183 



npv^ ]^y 



JSp 



called a scholar deserving to have his 
work performed by the people of his town? 
The one who neglects his own affairs in order 
to attend to religious affairs." This refers, 
however, only to the trouble of maintaining 
him and his family [which he neglects on 
account of his congregational duties]. 

E. Jochanan also said: "Who may be 
called a scholar? One who can give an in- 
terpretation of any law in whatever chapter 
it may be shown him." In regard to what 
practical difference is this stated ? In regard 
to this: If a man is familiar only with the 
laws of one treatise, he may be competent 
to he the chief of only one community; but 
if he understands them all, he may be made 
the chief of the academy. 

CHAPTER SIXTEEN 

(Pol. 115a) (Mishnah) All sacred scripts' 
may be saved from a fire [on the Sabbath] ; 
whether it be such a scripture which one is 
allowed to read or not to read [on the Sab- 
bath].^ And even though it is written in 
any other language [than Hebrew], and must 
be stored away [in a safe place]. Why are 
we not allowed to read some parts of the 
Scripture [on the Sabbath] ? Because [were 
it permissible to read everything] it would 
lead to neglecting the duty of attending the 
house of learing [to listen to the sermon]. 

(Gemara) E. Jose said: "It once hap- 
pened that my father, Chalafta, went to visit 
Rabban Gamaliel, the Great, in Tiberius, and 
found him sitting at the table of E. Jochanan, 
the Nazuf, holding the book of Job written 
in Aramaic and reading it. My father, Cha- 
lafta, said to him : 'I remember at the time 
having met thy grandfather, Rabban Gama- 
liel, standing on the steps of the Temple- 
monnd when the book of Job in Aramaic was 
brought to him and he told the builder to 
take the book and place it underneath the 
mound.' Thereupon Rabban Gamaliel ordered 
that hia book be hidden also." 

(lb. b) Our Rabbis taught: "The bene- 
dictions and amulets, although they contain 
letters of the Holy name and many passages 
of the Torah, should not he saved from a fire 
[on the Sabbath] hut should he humt up in 
their places, together with such letters and 
passages. From this we infer that one who 



nm ims p'^Nicty nr ''\:2':in 'tv ens im« 

n2DD3 ".^•'JJKI .mOlKI DipO '73D H^^T 

mtsD^ o"m •CDB' ''ssna pDijji vazn 
mDi«i mpo ^33 hdSt ini« p^siB'ty 
trnn n-'Mjn n-'^ian ••« nnriKs KnsDo 

i^V ^^^ PiB '•ana "JS 

]D |m« prists tnpn •'nriD '?:> .mtPts 
Dna imp psB* pa nnn \^•\^pv pn np'^'nn 
nvii pjiyQ ])^'? 'P22 pmriDty *>£) '?)} ci«i 
nu ^int3 "tjiiD nnn Y'\^p pK na ^jbdi 

■•vn-mn 
sns^n «SK3 ntyyo •»dv ^y^ nas .'cj 

iT^ai cjinn ]jnv ^ty un'^c '?y stri^ riTW 
iT^ ncs .u «iip n\m mann arw ibd 
2a '7V TDiy ^^^B' ^aw ""ax a"-i3 ""jk iot 
3"i>K nsD I'JD^ is^am rrian nna n^D 
ci« ."in:.! nnn inypB' ^»037 idmi nunn 
: 1TJJ1 v'tv mx «in 
^fi ^ £]« pv'npni nman pan un (3"7) 
nann mj^jym Dty '7B' nrmw jns rT 
«^« np'«^nn ^:£3d piK p'b^xo pw minar 



1) Sa«rs4 Seripture denotee tli« P»Bft»t«uol>. the Proph«*«, arad Hasi^agraphja. 

2) On th^ Sabbath, it is not allowed to carry Haglagrapha. 



1&2 



n :: t? 



3Bp 



specinl occwions] is Biblical? It is said 
(Lev. 6, 4.) And he shall take off hia gar- 
ments, nrid ptd on otitcr i/armciiL^. and it 
was explaint'd in the school of K. Ishmael, 
that 'The Torah teaches [incidentally] a les- 
son in good manners, viz., that the garmenta 
worn wliile cooking for a master should not 
be worn when serving the master with a cup 
of wine at his table.' " 

R. Chiya b. Abba in the name of R, 
Jochanan said : "It is a disgrace for a 
echolar to walk around with patched shoes.'' 

R. Chiya b. Abba in the name of R. 
Jochanan said also : "A scholar upon whose 
garments a greasy stain is to be found, de- 
serves to be punished with death; as it is 
said (Pr. 8, 36.) All those that hate me love 
death." Do not read Mesanai (those who 
hate me) but read it Masniai (things that 
cause others to hate me).'' Rabina said that 
Rrltad' iras read [in the above, instead of 
Rabab (grease-stain)] and they do not differ 
save that the former refers to the over-gar- 
ment [on which even a grease-stain is dis- 
graceful] but the latter refers to the gar- 
ment. 

Further said R. Chiya b. Abba in the 
name of R. Jochanan: "What is meant by 
the passage (It;. 20, 3.) Just as my servant 
Isaiah hath walked naked and barefooted, 
i. e., naked, with womout garments; and 
"barefooted, with patched shoes." 

R. Jochanan said also: "Scholars are 
called 'Builders' because they are engaged in 
[the study of "| the preservation of the [mental 
and moral] world." 

R. Jochanan also said: "Who can be 
called a scholar sufficiently trustworthy that 
a lost article shall be restored to him on hia 
identification from a general description 
[without describing particular marks of the 
article] ?* A scholar who is so particular 
that, if he happens to put on his night-robe 
wrong-sided, he will take the trouble to take 
it off and adjust it properly." 

Further said R. Jochanan : "Who is the 
scholar worthy of being made the chief of a 
congregation? The one who, when asked 
concerning a law bearing on any subject, 
knows exactly what to answer, even such a 
law as contained in the treatise of Kaldh." 

R. Jochanan said also: "Who is to be 



"•n '•3T Kjm .onnK onaa ra^i inj3 
onja Y^^ tit nmn mo-'^ '^^yttv^ 
013 Dns Jito'' ^K ^^^^ r\•v^^ jna ^r'-ac 
Ijm'' n"« «3« na s-i^n ^an new .lan? 

-|D« .p^EJJ Wjn 13 «3N '•2-1 «m .pitt't' 

/«^t5 ^3J ^j; '•K'btts ]t:nj nm nni nhn 'n 
n^D^n ^3 pm^ '3t -iok «3« 13 to'^n -i"«i 
nn""D 3"n mj3 "bj; 33-1 Kxcjiy crn 

^K mo 13nK ■'KJB'D '73 (n '"J^o) IDXJB' 
131 nOK W3-I .•'«''JCT3 K>« iNJB'D "•"ipn 

(2 n«v!y') i"o jinT« "|"K K3N n3 «'''n -l"K 

ony qnM ony in-'ytr'' n3y -pn nB'Ko 
•c^K'JiDon d^'7j?:d3 c]iri ciki^3 Dn:33 
^:bd y^:^ D'Nnpj cosn '•TD^n jjnr i"« 
-io«i .cn''D^ ^3 D^iy '7ts' irj33 D'poiyiy 
m3K i'7 invncty n"n mfK pm^ 'i 
.i3Bn^ ipi^n ^y Tspon nr .]'«yn my^ntas 
pjoQB' D3n To^n infM \ir\r> 'i nnwi 

«. Wearing greased and flithy etothes not only degrades the scholar but the Torah atso <s l>)am«d and 
mocked a.t. 

7) A stain of semen. 

8) See Baba-Metzla. 27a, that a loet article should be returned to the owner only upon descrlMng a epociil 
aiuk on Jt. A sChoUr, however, sbould bATB It returned on mere identification. See lb. 24a. 



185 



DP J?' py 



nsp 



be burnt.' E. Tarphon said : 'May I burn my 
children, if I would not burn such books 
together with the Holy names they contain, 
ehould I obtain possession of them; for even 
when a man is pursued by a murderer intent 
upon killing him, or followed by a snake 
aiming to bite him, he should rather seek for 
refuge in a temple of idols than to enter the 
home of a Sadducee; for these [the 
heathens] serve their idols, unaware of God, 
while the Sadducees, however, know God, 
but deny Him ; and concerning them, Scrip- 
ture says (Is. 47, 8.) And behind the door 
and the door-post hast thou placed thy {mark 
of) rememhrance' R. Ishmael said to R. 
Tarphon: 'We may learn this from the in- 
ference drawn from the minor to the major; 
if, for the sake of bringing about peace be- 
tween a man and his wife, the Torah says 
that the Holy name which was inscribed with 
eanctification may be erased with the (bitter) 
water, how much more then shall it be per- 
mitted that these books of the Sadducees 
which cause discord and enmity between 
Israel and their Heavenly Father, be eradi- 
cated or destroyed? Concerning them David 
said (Ps. 139, 21.) Behold, those that hate 
Thee, I ever hate, etc., with the utmost hat- 
red, etc. And just as they should not be 
saved from a fire, so also should they not be 
saved from either a ruinous heap, or water, 
or from any other thing that may destroy 
them.' " 

The follctwing problem was submitted to 
R. Abuhu by Joseph b. Chanin: "May the 
books, written by heretics, be saved from a 
fire, or not?" "Yea, and nay" (R. Abuhu 
replied sometimes affirmatively and some- 
times negatively), because he really could not 
tell. 

Eab never went to a he-Ahedan (the house 
where the heretics were accustomed to read 
their books and argue over them) and he 
particularly avoided the places of a certain 
idolatry called Nitzraphi. Samuel, however, 
did not go to the house of Nitzraphi, but did 
go to the be-Abedan. 

Raba was asked why he did not go to the 
be-Ahedan. He replied: "Because there is 
a bi'' palm-tree on the road and it causes one 
hardship to pass it." "Well » said they, "we 
will uproot it." "No." answered Raba, the 
place will then become rough and torn up 
and that will cause the same hardship."* 

4) RasM explain, here that the real cause ivas that 
cuied too much with them. 



''v'? M^2'< Dsa* ^n ns nspK jisnn ^ai nos* 

p B'n:i iJin^ rnns P,in ens i^is«b' 

Dnsoi ]n^2n 'i'?'?r\v I'bs 'be* cnTia'? 0:2: 

•linDt noty nnToni n'i'in inKi (" -ti-o") 

nt?npa nnD:^ ^otr min mcK inmN^ 
ns^si n«3p c^i^cty i^^n n-'cn ^y nnn^ 
•V'aKV D^DJi'ac' Dn^a«^ ^tnir'' ]''2 nnnm 
'n ^Wtt'ts H^n (a"'.' o<snn) in now D.T^yi 

I^^^SD ]^« "ID np'''?-^ ^JDO DniK □^^''SO 

^jn inns 'no r:n -11 f[D^'> n^'i'^n sya 
np"»^in '•JBO jms ]"'^"':n: ji^ss ':n ••isd 

s^ 2-\ .n-'T'S s-'sm is^i fs .r^-iso r« "« 

n^^ IIDS .^MS ]V2i< ^3^ ^M» K^ '•BIXJ 

■in'i? IDS ijn'as ^3^ n-ris s^ t:"D «3n^ 
.nnpy:i .^^ ^u'P'i smisa sd-is s^j^b s^pn 

ther were afraid lest they get killed should the Rabbis dll- 



184 

writes benedictions is consiJercrl [in tlic 
same light] as one who is burning up the 
Torah." E. Ishmael was informed of a man 
in Zidon who uswl to write l)eneilicti(ins 
and he went to investigate the case. When R. 
Ishmael was ascending the stair-case, the man 
discovered who it was and immediately took 
up a heap of written lienodictions and throw 
them into a bowl of water. E. Ishmael said 
these words to him : "Your punishment for 
your latter act will be greater than that for 
the former one." 

Our Eabbis taught: "And it came to pass, 
when the ark set forward, that Moses said. 
Rise up Lord, etc. (Num. 10, 35). At the 
beginning of this chapter and at its close, 
the Holy One, praised be He! made signs' 
to signify (Fol. llGa) that this is not the 
proper place for the two passages. Rabbi 
says: 'This is not the reason for it, but it 
signifies that these two passages form separate 
books within themselves.' " In accordance 
with whose teaching is that which E. Samuel 
b. Nachmeini spoke in the name of R. Joch- 
anan "She hath hewn out her seven piUars 
(Pr. 9, 1), i. e., these are the seven books 
of which the Torah is composed [and not 
live as we count]"? This is in accordance 
with the opinion of Rabbi [who says that the 
above two passages from two books in them- 
selves]. Who is the Tana (sage) that 
differs with Rabbi? It is Rabban Simon b. 
Gamaliel, for we are taught that Rabban 
Simon b. Gamaliel says: "The chapter of 
these two passages will in the future, be re- 
moved and put in the proper place." Why 
then, was it inserted here ? In order to make 
a separation between the first retribution and 
the second retribution. What was the second 
retribution? And it came to pass that as the 
people complained, etc. (Num. 11, 1). And 
what was the first retribution? And they set 
forward front the mount of the Lord, etc. (lb. 
10, 33). And R. Chama b. Chanina [in ex- 
plaining it] said : "This is intended to 
mean 'that they departed from the ways of 
the Tjord.'" Where :s the proper plaice for 
the two passages? R. Ashi said: "In the 
chapter of the Standards (Num. 10. 11-50)." 
We are taught: "Blank parchment and 
also the Sadducean hooks should not bo saved 
from a fire [on the Sabbath]. R. Jose said: 
*0n the week days the Holy names should be 
taken out and preserved and the rest left to 



n a u' 



nsp 



in«3 ncyo .rmn ^sr\vz'2 mrna ••^mo 

^«yOtyi 13-17 lyn^n- -.K^ p"'X3 2no n\nB' 

D^iDn n^iy n\ntt'o ipna^ 7«j;db''' ■•3-1 i7m 

^«j?DB'^ un "7"^ htpT jr^'^ai .d-^d ^d* ^eids 
: \wvr\7\ p ]nnKn trjiyn ^nj 

nDK"«1 jn«n j;idJ3 \T'1 r ^:^03) pm IJD 

n'i'VD^o nrjCD n"3pnn'7nBT;'iT ntyns ncD 
(t"-.:p :n) .nrjipD it p«B' -yaii ncB^m 
nsDB' 'jso K^s nr Kin Dt?n jo «'? idik ^3t 
•yam «n k?tk ^xtso -loxy '•Jsa Kin nwn 
(B j^tro) |nji' i"K ""jcn: nn ^Kioty 'sn 
]KDO n"D nvaty i^k nyne' n^nioy naxn 
j"2tn '•aiT n"«^ j^'bsT Kjn iko .''T\-z 
npync it ntna m^ny K"J3tyn K-'jm km 
113 tK3 nnnrj nn^i noipna ansni |K3d 
.n^jts' ni:V">"is'? n^itrKn nuvnia pn p^Dsn^ 
Dj?n inM (•«' 12T32) K\T 'KD n^iB' mjjmc 
'n nnc lyci njicNn m:viiS •D'^JJisriDD 
.'n "»nnKr) i-iDty Kyjn -12 Kon ^an idki 

: C'bna ''C'K •'31 1DK HDipD pMI 

]i^'xr! i^K c'pnx nsDi I'ji^^jn K^jn 
^ins ic'K 1D1"' '1 .np-'^in i:£30 oniK 
.]siit:' iKti'm JTJ131 jn3B» nnsTKn riK -nip 



3) Th!" rfen; to the reversed yun, which must be Inserted Id the s(rro!I. 



187 



rv 



TSp 



benediction, used to cut off a piece sufficient 
for the entire meal." Rabina said to R. 
Ashi : "Does it not appear gluttonous to cut 
so large a piece, at one time?"' "Since it 
was not his custom to do so on week days, 
it does not appear gluttonous on the Sab- 
bath," was R. Ashi's answer. 

Our Rabbis taught: How many meals 
must a man eat on the Sabbath? "Three." 
But R. Chidka says "Four." R. Jochanan 
said: "Both the Rabbis and R. Chidka in- 
terpret the same passage. (Ex. 16, 25.) And 
Moses said. Eat it to-day; for a Sabbath ts 
this day unto the Lord; to-day ye will not 
find it in the field. R. Chidka is of the 
opinion that the use of the word Hayom 
(day) [mentioned in the above passage] 
three times indicates three meals during the 
day excluding the evening meal; together 
with the Friday evening meal it makes four ; 
but the Rabbis are of the opinion that the 
three meals include that of Friday night, 
hence there are but three altogether." 

(Fol. 118a) R. Simon b. Pazi in the 
name of R. Joshua b. Levi, who spoke in the 
name of bar Kappara, said: "He who ful- 
fills the observation of three meals on the 
Sabbath, will be delivered from three evil 
dispensations, viz., from the pains of Mes- 
siah', from the judgment of Gehenna, and 
from the war of Gog and Magog. From the 
pains of Messiah, for it is written here (Ex. 
16, 25.) Yom (day) ; and it is also written 
(Malachi 3, 23.) Behold. I will send you 
Elijah, the prophet, before the coming of 
the day {Yom) of the Lord, etc.; from the 
judgment of hell, here is written Yom (day) 
and (Zephanin 1, 15.) A day of wrath is that 
day (Yom) ; of the war of Gog ana Magog, 
here is written (Yom) (day) and it is writ- 
ten (Ex. 38, 19.) On the day {Yom) of 
Gog's comincf."' 

Rabbi Jochanan in the name of R. Jose 
said: "To him who observes the Sabbath, 
with enjoyments, will be given boundless in- 
heritance, as it is written (Is. 58, 11.) Then 
Shalt thou fiv.d delight in the Lord,_ etc., 
And I will cause thee to enjoy the inheritance 
of Jacoh. thy father. Not such inheritance as 
was promised to Abraham, (Oen. _13. 1-1) 
Arise and walk through the land to Us length 
and Ireadth, and not as it was promised to 
Isaac (lb. 26, 3.) I will give thee all that 
this land contains, but as it was promised to 

.,) See Kethuboth llZa. th.-t it will be a t^f'^e Hme 
8) The Inferenc* bere Is drawn through the eomixirl 



n^^i^H VX3 nin «-im ^m .n^nD itap^ 
vn^o Km ••»•« sn'7 «rn-i '?"« .n-rmty 
k'? Kor ^DT ]VD n^^ "IDS .xminayna 

: Kmjnajna 

noK .V3"i« iciK Hpvn ^2i .D'^ty natrn 
(TO ninr) ityn in« Knpn an'Jtyi j:m^ ^ni 
'n'7 Dvn nstr 'a Dvn im'bss hd'o nos^i 
"jn 12D i<pTn '1 .men ims'^Dn k^ nrn 
••ina nsD ]i3-n «mi«D na^ dim sn^n 

T'K MS p JTyOC* n"K (H'P m) .smiKT 

c^^n iD snap -i3 mra ":'? p jjtt'in* 

nnn'i'Dm ojn^j ^b* njnm n^cD 'be i^ano 
m* K3n 3in3 n-'iro bu i^shd .jijidi :u 
DK D3'7 n^itr ""ajK n^n (j 'ih^o) nnn Dinsi 
'7B> n:''iD .'^:^ 'n m' ki3 ^ist'? «'<33n n'b« 
(H dob'?) Dnn 3TI31 Di^ K3n a^ns djh^j 
ai:Di ju non'TDo .«inn dim mny m* 

DVa (n'J ^Hptn-) Dnn aTlJI D1^ NDH DTID 

Jjjmn ^3 '•or 13-1 Ditro pni' '31 noN 
nowtf DnxD N^3 n^n: ib i-iinu n3tyn n« 
7n^3Hm '1J1 'n ^j; jjynn tK (nj rrytr') 
omsKD K^ '^i^ y^H 3pi;'' n^na (=")?) 

pK3 l^nnn Dip (J' n'tr«-i3) 13 3in3B' 

(1: or) 13 3in3ty pnifi ik^i nsm^i n3n«^ 

for the entire world. 
son of the word Yom (day). 



186 



n 1 ly 



isp 



Mar b". Joeeph said: "I am of their so- 
ciety and do not fear tliem." Nevertheless, 
it once happened when he went there, that he 
was in danger. 

Ema Shalom, the wife of E. Eliezer, and 
sister of Eabban Gamaliel, encountered in her 
neighborhood a philosopher, who was also a 
judge (lb. b.) and had the reputation of not 
taking bribes. Eabban Gamaliel and his sis- 
ter once wanted to put him to the test [and 
prove that he did take bribes]. So she 
brought the Judge a golden lamp as a present 
and appeared before him. "I wish to inherit 
half of my father's wealth," she said to him. 
Whereupon he said, "I will order that thou be 
given half of it." "But," said she, "in our 
Torah it is written that when a son is left, a 
daughter may not inlierit ?'' The Judge re- 
plied: "Since you, Israel, were exiled from 
your land, the Law which Moses gave you has 
been revoked and new laws given you instead ; 
in these new laws, it is stated that daughters 
may inherit equally with sons." The next 
day R. Gamaliel came bringing him a Libyan 
ass as a present [and told him that he did 
not wish to have his sister inherit]. The 
Judge answered thus : "After thy sister left, 
I consulted our law a little further and 
found that it says 'I did not come to abolish 
or to add to the Mosaic law.'" So Ema 
Shalom [reappeared and] pleaded before the 
Judge saying : "May God make thy light as 
bright as a lamp [hinting at her bribe]." 
Whereupon E. Gamaliel remarked to her [in 
the presence of the Judge] : "An ass came 
along and kicked the candle, thus exting- 
uishing it." 

(Fol. 117b) R. Chisda said: "A man 
shall always rise early [on Friday] to prepare 
the necessities for the Sabbath; as it is said 
(Ex. 16, 5.) And it shall come to pass on the 
sixth day, when they prepare what they shall 
Atti'« brought in, i. e., as soon as they bring 
it [early in the morning] it ought to be 
prepared [early]." 

R. Abba said : "A man must pronounce 
the fore-meal blessing on the Sabbath over 
two loaves of bread, for it is said. Double 
bread (Ib.)."_ 

R. Ashi said : "1 noticed the manner in 
which R. Cahana used to do this. He would 
hold both loaves, but cut only one, giving 
as his reason that only at the gathering [of 
the Manna] is it written Double, but not at 
the eating. R. Zeira, when pronouncing th» 



KJK 1DK r,DT "U no .'•t! •'B'p riTO^ 
WDM •in^J-'D KJ^snOD K^l KJK "IjT"«J"'D 

inn^m di^b' ko'k .h^jisd^ ^ya ^t« win 

mm (a"y av) n''^\^T2V2 kb-.di^^b «inn 
^Dinn^ 1V3 mmiy ^npo «rr vxiv ^ipty 
n^cp^ '?^1H^ kshtt arwff n^^ Kb^^y n>3 

n^^ ^^-ly mn irro^ .pm-'"' tnnD Kmm 
n^CD^ n-'^'^aty in^ ick .«3i^ Knon i.th 

IDK .KJiB'3 "^mna mnj n^^ moK Jin^n 
: Hyw'i z'^2\ man ndk '7K^'7Da pi n^^ 

D^:3ir D'biy'? «iDn an idW' (^"s "? it) 
n^m ('a nioir) noKJty naty riKxin^ dim 
.in^«^ iK^3> it^K r>K ir^m ^t^cn ova 
'3 ^y yixs^ DiH a-'m nat^a K3« -"aT tdi« 
^t^K m los .njtt'D cn^ DTiai m-c2 
•mM mn ysai nn tspn Kjna ai^s «rTn 



189 



3pv' rv 



laap- 



say it only as reciting the Psalms. Again 
R. Jose said : "0, that my lot fall among those 
who pray at dawn and sunset." R. Chiya 
b. Abba said in the name of R. Jochanan: 
"It is a meritorious act to pray at dawn and 
[evening] at sunset." R. Zeira said : "IVTiat 
is the passage for this? It is said (Ps. 72, 
5.) They shall fear Thee as long as the sun 
shineth and in the presence of the moon 
throughout all generations." Again R. 
Jose said : "0, that my lot fall among those 
who die of stomach trouble." Again R. Jose 
said : "0, that my lot fall among those who 
die while performing a meritorious act." 
Again R. Jose said: "0, that my lot fall 
among those who usher in the Sabbath at 
Tlberia and dismiss it at Sephori." Again 
R. Jose said: "0, that my lot fall among 
those who cause the resumption of study in 
the liouse of learning but not among those 
who cause a cessation of study in the house 
of learning." Again R. Jose said: "O, 
that my lot fall among those who solicit 
charity but not among those who distribute 
it." Again R. Jose said: "0, that my lot 
fall among those who are suspected without 
cause." R. Papa said : "I was once suspected 
without cause." Again R. Jose said: "I 
never said a word [about a fellowman] which 
I repudiated [when confronted by him"]." 
Again R. Jose said : "I never acted contrary 
to the words of my colleagues. Although I. 
know I am not a priest, still when my col- 
leagues had asked me to go upon the plat- 
form, I did so." Again R. Jose said : "I never 
said a thing that I afterwards repented hav- 
ing said it." 

R. Nachman said : "May it be credited to 
me, that I fulfilled the obligation of three 
meals on the Sabbath." And R. Juda said: 
"May it be credit to me that I fulfilled [the 
duty of] devotion in my prayers." R. Huna, 
the son of R. Joslnia, said : "May it be credit- 
ed to me that I never walked four cubits with 
an uncovered head." R. Shesheth said: "May 
it be credited to mc that I fulfilled the eom- 
mandment of Tephilin." And R. Nachman 
said : "May it be credited to me that I ful- 
filled the commandment of Tzitzith." R. 
Joseph asked R. Joseph, the son of Rabba, 
"Which commandment did thy father ob- 
serve most strictly?" "The commandment 
«f Tzitzith," was his replv ; "for, one day 
when mv father was ascending the staircase, 
a thread of his Tzitzith was torn off, and he 



.«nDn •'piDss jriQKp '•d iii:n:i rpnn nr 
oy p^'banonn ""p^n «n' •'Di^ ""d-i -id«i 

noK -non >oim ny '?'?sr\n'} nixo pm"" ""m 

DV I'lSI""' (3y D'^nn) Nip ''ND «nn 121 

KHi •'DT' •i"Ni .Dnn in m"" '•jb^i lyDc 
'?^ ]2'i'i no noKT D-'^yo i^inD dtido ip^n 
"'D1"' 1ST noKi .D"yD i^ina Dino c^p^n 
IDT" 131 now .mxD -p-i2 QinoD ip^n nhi 
1K1X1DD1 nnatos nntr idijddo ip^n wni 
ip^n «ni 1D11 'n io«i .maixa natr 
nil 1TDV0Q K^i tt'Tran nia latyiio 
ik3:d ip^n Kni idp iy\ nriKi .tymon 
«ni 1D11 'n iDMi .npi'i ip^nat: k7i r^pTu 
31 -iDiK .13 ;i«i im« intt'inis' icn ip'i'n 
1D11 13-\ -lOKi .13 mn «^i pwn nn^ «sd 
iDKi .ipi^n iiQiK ini3 nmp iKn k^ iqid 
1JK jjni ii3n '7j; imsj? k^ iqio ioii i3n 
n^y iii3n 1^ DnoiN □« jn3 iji«c iosj?3 
»^ iQiQ 1D11 i3n noK"! .n^ijj ijk pn^ 
: i-nnK'7 imrm 131 imos 
tj^^ty nioiipi 1^ inin pn: 3t ntsN 
niDiipT 1'? inin mini n"Ni .nstys nmyo 
ycini 3m nns Niin sn noN .n^ejn piy 
.cwin ii^iJ3 mD« 'T KJ1JDC K^T i^ inin 
.]i^iBn mxD niQiipn 1!? inin ntyty 3n noK 
.ni^ix m:ft: nioupT 1^ inin ;on: 3n naxi 
■jnK n3m nn3 cpv 3i^ rjDii 3n ni^ ion 
in KD11 nixix3 ni^ idk .isd tht ikds 
K"?! Ktain ni^ piorK K2m3 pi^o «p mn 
«3K -io«i .niits-i K^-r nD3 nnsi ninj 



ISS 



n 1 tr 



HBP 



Jacob (lb. 28, 14.) And thou shall spread 
abroad, to the Tfest, and to the East, to the 
North, and to the South." 

K. Nachman b. Isaac said: "He vnll be 
saved from the subjugation of exile; for it 
is writteu (Is. 58, 14.) .4/!^ / will rause thee 
to tread upon the high places of the earth; 
it is also written there (Deu. 33, 30.) And 
thou shalt tread upon their high places." 

R. Juda said in the name of Eab: 'To 
him who observes the Sabbath, with enjoy- 
ment, will be granted his heart's desires, for 
it is said (Ps. 37, 4.) And delight thyself 
in the Lord, and lie will give thee the iri<hcs 
of thy heart. The word delight is not under- 
stood in its real meaning. Since it sa3's (Is. 
58, 13.) And if thou call the Sabbath de- 
light; then we knew that it means delight of 
the Sabbath. 

R. Chiya b. Abba in the name of R. 
Jochanan said: "He who observes the Sab- 
bath properly, according to its command- 
ment, even if he worship idols, as did the 
generation of Enosh,' will be pardoned, for 
it is said (Is. 56, 2) Happij is the man that 
ever doth thus, etc., by not violating it. Do 
not read it, M'chalelo (%'iolating it), but 
read it Machul-lo (pardoned) him)."^ 

R. Juda, in the name of Rab, said : "If 
Israel had strictly observed the first Sabbath, 
no nation or race would have been able to 
dominate over them, for it is said (Ex. 16, 
27.) And it came to pass on the seventh day, 
that there went out some of the people to 
gather (the Manna) but did not find them. 
Immediately following is written: Then came 
Amalek." 

R. Jochanan in the name of R. Simon b. 
Jochai. said: "If Israel would observe two 
Sabbaths, only, according to the strict re- 
quirements of the law, they would at once 
be redeemed, for it is written (Is. 5G, 4.) 
Thus saiih the Lord unto the eunuchs that 
Iceep my Sabbaths, and immediately follow- 
ing is wriHen, Even them will I bring to my 
holy mountain." 

R. Jose said : "0, that my lot fall among 
those who eat three meals on the Sabbath."' 
Again R. Jose saiil: "0. that my lot fal 
among those who finish nnlh'F cverv (hiv." 
Ib it 60? Has not the master said that he 
who finished Hallel every day is a scorner 
and a blasphemer? We mean that one should 

S) The Graca— Chaptoru 118-11* r-t faa.iaK. 



ncnpv ns'' nnsi (n= ct?) id mnDtt' apv^s 

nnm (;>'' o'l^i) onn sTiai pN tids ^y 
31 "iD« mm'' 2-1 nD«i .-jmn idti-iDs ^y 

1? jnM 'n by Jiynm ('"? oy^nD) 'mzf 
«in no yiv ij^k nr jjij; ■\z'7 m^sa'D 
j:iV r\2wi nn-ipi i^^ "'j?-') no's xincs 
-13 N^n ^31 nD« .n3B' Jjiy ni id •« •«",n 
inD^ns n3B' noBnsn ^3 pnv ""31 nos k3s 
1'? i^'brno tyi:«3 d^331D misj; nsij? i^-isn 
'^:^ nst nB*j;> t:'i:« nc'K (o °«) noNja' 
-i"s .1^ '7ino HbH i^^no npn ^« i^^nn 
n3c ^K-iu" not' '^e^« 31 idn m-.n-* 
'nw ]^\ff'}^ nois Dn3 n^bw k^ mitrKi 
Djjn ;d iks^ ^j;^3K'n 01^3 mm ('« fi'oy 
.p^DV «3^"i nnn3 3'n3i iKxn k^i taip^? 
'^d'7K "kht' ]3 pyotr "•31 mtra pni' -i"s 
n^D ]n3%n3 n"in3ty ^nc' ^k-ic^ Dnott'o 

iTin3 3T131 ''mn3ty ns nott*^ nrs 
: 'iJi ^tynp in '7N D^n"«'3r;i 

nmvD 'J ^'72iKO v^n ^'^^ ''°">' ^^i "i^^ 
^33 ^'Jn nouo "'p''" ^i^* ^°'' """^ .n3t:'3 
nn Di^ ^33 '7'?r\ K-iipn no -io«m '>:^h .ci^ 

«D<] Lo, "to him." 



191 



apy^ py 



«xp 



wood]. R. Zeira, himself, lit the kindling 
wood. R. Nachman b. Isaac was acciistomed 
to place the Sabbath clothes and other things 
on his shoulder and carry them in. The 
things not necessary for the Sabbath he 
placed on his shoulder and carried out, say- 
ing: "If R. Ami or R. Assi would happen 
to come to visit me, would I not carry such 
things for them on my shoulder?" Some 
sav that R. Ami and Assi, themselves, placed 
things on their shoulders and carried them 
in and out saying: "If R. Jochanan woaild 
happen to visit us, would we not carry things 
for him in this manner?" 

Joseph, who honored the Sabbath, had a 
very rich neighbor. This neighbor was told 
by the Chaldeans (soothsayers) that all his 
wealth would eventually be eaten up by 
Joseph. The neighbor, therefore, sold his 
estate and with the proceeds bought a large 
diamond, which he fixed in his turban. One 
day, while crossing a bridge, a gust of wind 
blew his turban into the water and a fish 
swallowed it. This fish [being caught] was 
brought [to the market] on a Friday. "Who 
wants to buy fish to-day?'' they inquired. 
They were told to go to Joseph, who honors 
the Sabbath and usually buys fish that day. 
So they brought the fish to him and he 
bought it. When the fish was cut up, the 
jewel was found and Joseph sold it for thir- 
teen purses of gold denarim. When that old 
man met him, he said to Joseph: "He, who 
lends to the Sabbath (incurring additional 
expenses in its honor) the Sabbath will re- 

pay." 

Rabbi asked R. Ishmael, the son of R. 
Jose, "What merited the rich people of 
Palestine who become so wealthy?" He 
answered thus: "Because they gave their 
tithes in due season, as it is said (Deu. 14, 
22.) Thou shali tithe the tithe, i. e., give 
tithes, in order that thou mayest become 
rich."" What merited the rich of Babylon 
[where people are exempt from tithes] ?' 
"Because," said R. Ishmael, "they honor the 
Torah." "And what merited the rich of 
other countries that made them so wealthy ?" 
"Because," said he, "they honored the Sab- 
bath ; for R. Chiya b. Abba said : 'I sojourned 
once with a wealthy man in Ludki. and I saw 
that they brought before him a golden table 
carried by sixteen men, and having sixteen 
eilver links depending from it ; in these links 
11) Asher means "tithes" also "rich." 



N^ •'D« -"a-n -»CN '-\ -<'? ^ly^po i^''« ick 

"•ail 'DK ^ai nosi kd-'si .•:n"''cp jranrD 

i^^K ncs ."'psji ""sinsD i'7''"'yi ■'Bnan •'D« 

: n^op ]:"iBn3D k^ ""d ]:nv '^ j^ v^po 

n^^ noK KniD .T'ddj iti-'sj nm n-innatya 
•in^ ^'D« •«3B' T'piD cjoi^ ■•DDJ iH^o ""xn^:: 
Hn^jjiD inn pt lor: inbiD? inj^onr "rnx 
Nn2D nny spi nnn .r\''y^D2 nnms 
•K-ma n-iy^a K-^Dn n-'nt* itp^^ n'-msN 
noK Knnc "i^yDT n^jbs mn"N mpoN 

n^33T 'iT-j^no n's nDi^s n-'y-ip .n^:3t 
n"«a y:D .Knmn i-ijm wn^'r-'j? nD-i^nn 
iTyia wnaiy fiVi |ko -ick K3d Kinn 

.□""oiT en noa ^ntj^ jnKaty on'^cy ""di* 
(T onan) -iD«jc' pntyyoty "b^aca ni7 -i»« 
^3S3tr .nB^nnty ^"«3B'3 ntyj? iti^jn -ib'j; 

ns inSDOB' ^"»3tt'3 y'S .pDIT p n03 

IDS .]^3iT ]n nna msis nstysci .nmnn 
^3-1 ins-T n3tyn riK Dn33tt':' t^stra n""^ 
n"3 '7XK ^nniKDJ nnw oys «3k na K"n 

T"i2 "'iti'tt 3nT ]n'7C' i^js^ is'3m K^pn'73 

13 niyi3p r,D3 ^tr niK'i'tt'^C' T"tD1 Dl« 'M 

rnynp nvni^xi ni^jin^i niDi3i nnypi 



190 



n 3 c 



XP 



did not leave the place until the thread was 
replaced." Abaje said : "May it be credited 
to me that whenever I noticed that a j'oung 
Bcholar had finished a treatise of the Talmud 
(Fol. nihil (in that day I gave a banquet 
for the Rabbis." Raba said: "May it be 
credited to me that I always respected a 
learned man; whenever he came before me 
with a case, I never rested before I examined 
every jxvsihle defence." Mar b. R. Ashi said : 
"I feel that I am unfitted to judge a learned 
man because I love him as much as I do 
myself; and no man. of course, can see him- 
eeif unjust." R. Chanina was accustomed 
to wrap himself on the Sabbath eve and aris- 
ing would ?ay : "Come with me and let us 
go out to meet Queen Sabbath." 

R. Janai was accustomed to put on good 
clothes on the Sabbath eve and say: "Come 
bride, come bride." 

Rahba b. R. Huna once came as a guest 
to the house of Raliba b. Xachman. Tliuy 
placed before him three Sh'a of flour made 
into fat cakes. "Didst thou know that I was 
coming [that thou didst prepare this] ?" 
asked R. Huna of his host. Whereupon the 
host answered: "Art thou then better than 
the Sabbath conrerning which it is written, 
(Is. 58, 13.) And if thou calleth the Sabbath 
a drli./hf?" 

R. Abba was accustomed to buy meat [for 
the Sabbath] for thirteen Istirith'" from 
thirteen butchers and [l)efore they came] he 
placed their money at the door saying to 
them: "Deliver your orders quickly, delii'er 
your orders quickly [in order to receive the 
Sabbath in time]." 

R. Abuhu was in the habit of sitting on an 
ivory chair to make a fire for the Sabbath. 
R. Anan [on Friday, while preparing for 
the Sabbath] would cover himself with a 
duster [to protect his garments] ; for it was 
taught in the school of R. Ishmael : "The 
garments which a sorvfint wears wliile conk- 
ing for his master, should not be worn when 
serving the master with a cup of wine at his 
table." 

R. Safra. himself, sinsed a cow's head 
[for the Sabbath]. Raba. himself, salted 
fish. R. Huna, himself, lit the lamps. R. 
Papa, himself, prepared the wi^ks [for the 
oil lamp]. R. Chisda. himself, chopped wood. 
Rabba and R. Joseph themselves, used to 
split small pieces of wood [into kindling 

10) A coin of six and one-half denarlm. 



D^^cT pane Kamx «rm ■'jt v ti^-i 

nOD KnO '3N wen WpMD K7 Kjn? ''Hop'? 
^B'K 3T -\2 -ID 1DK .n-TIIDta K33''flnD K^T 

s^am B"D wn? ps-io K3-ns? n^? kj'7^db 
.iDsy^ nam rM^^-\ ci« psi •'«£3iJ3 ^^y 
KnaB' ^^j?Di «^:b3 ■•Npi sjcy^D «rjn 't 
: Kns'jo 'r\2^ nwip^ kxji iku idk 
ncKi Knsiy '<7j;o '^j«d u'^^i ^»:> ^an 
y^p^K win m "13 nan .n?^ ••ku htj ^«u 
•"iKD n^n ni^ nnp jonj m ^s naT ^n^ 
in ^'K .Krnwn jin"«yT' mn "«d ^'k ."hd 
.il^y naty^ riN-ipi stisi nro ]i nsny 
Hntra ^ta-'B'B ^tidh no-'^na pr n2s ""an 
KiyiT siirss in'7 c^coi ••naQ nD^7no 
inDK ^ST .K'^n -ivjK K"n nitys cn^ "idihi 
.«-n3 rj^B'iDi WITT NpnrriN n^ri'' mn 
^Kvotr^ 'an ^m «jm nijij c^a'? jjy m 
cna 3"TD' ^K i3-i'7 imp cna ^tratr nnja 
n^ Kan .Kcn nnno snED an .lan'? oia 
^na KBB an .'•anB' p^^nrs wrn an .Kian'^B' 
am nan •Kp'i'D c^b snon an .Nn'TTiB 
^n^trt nnsc Knv -"an .''3':^ *n^xo cidi' 
.pisr cinao ^"yi Tjnrc pn^f"" na ]cni an 



193 



spv^ ry 



Jsp 



■warm and leave early] and in the winter 
would seat the Eabbis in the shadow, so that 
they slioulfl become cold and very soon rise 
[to have their meals earlier] .^' 

(lb. b) R. Hanmuna said: "He who prays 
on the Sabbath eve and recites the prayer 
Vayechulu'-* (Gen. 2, 1-3) Scripture adds to 
his credit as if he had been a collaborator 
with the Holy One, praised be He! in the 
creation of the world; for it is said (Gen. 
2, 1.) Thxis were finished, etc. Do not read 
Vayechulu (were finished) but read it Va- 
yechalu (they finished it).''" 

R. Elazar said: "Whence do we learn 
that speaking is equivalent to doing? It is 
said (Ps. 33, 6.) By the words of God, were 
the heavens made." 

R. Chisda said in the name of Mar Ukba: 
"He who prays on the Sabbath eve and says 
VayecJiulu, will be escorted by two minister- 
ing angels who will put their hands upon his 
head and will say to him And thy iniquity 
is departed, and thy sin is forgiven (Is. 6, 
7)." 

We are taught that R. Jose, the son of 
R. Juda, says: "Two ministering angels 
escort every man on the Sabbath eve to his 
house. One of them is an angel of good and 
the other an angel of evil. When the man 
comes home and finds the lamps kindled, the 
table set and the bed in order, the angel of 
good says : 'May the coming Sabbath be even 
BS the present,' to which the angel of evil 
reluctantly is obliged to say Amen! But 
if all be in disorder, then the angel of evil 
gays: 'May the coming Sabbath be even as 
the present,' to which the angel of good re- 
luctantly is obliged to say Amen!" 

R. Elazar said: "A man should always 
arrange his table for the Sabbath eve, even 
though he may not be hungry and eat no 
more than fa morsel] the size of an olive." 

R. Chanina said : "A man should always 
arrange his table for the Sabbath eve, even 
though he need no more than [a morsel] the 
size of an olive." To drink warm water and 
to wash on the night following the Sabbath 
are wholesome. Warm bread on the night 
following the Sabbath is wholesome. 

R. Abuhu was accustomed to have pre- 
pared for him a fat calf, of which he ate the 
Iddneys (on the night following the Sab- 
bath). When his son Abimi grew up, he 
said to his father: "Why should you waste 



i^Ks ninsn r^y n^j?D I'bj^i noiwi nsB' 
'k:c n"'ty«-i3 ncvi^a r\"2pr\'? cimt? n^'y: 

nTJ?^« Y'S .I^DM «^S 1^13'»1 npn 'TIS I^D*"! 

nais (J^ B'^nn) -iD«Jir ntryoD mmnty ]^:q 
7D «ap-.j? in IDS Nion m idn 

1D1 (1 fi'i'tt") 1^ Dnm«i itrsn ^v onn^ 

yn inwi mc nnw inis'? j"3n2o naty anys 
inj; jn^itt'i pibi 11 «xdi in'^a^ xatyai 
]isn -"n^ nDi« mts is^a nysia incai 
JDS njiy yi -jk^di -p mn« natr^ wnno' 
jm %Ti -ims yi -js^a "i«b d«i .D"p 
]D« njiy ma i«^ai p mns nnc^ wnnc 

: 3"y3 

-iBK .nnD^ "i^x irKi? '•3 ^y p,n n355> anyn 
•'KS1B3 un^iB' DiK mD-* D^iy^ Krjn im 
l^an .fins'? k'tk ^nx u^str £"y q« n3ty 
nnc' ''SS1B3 nan na .^<aJ^'7B nat? '«xia3 
■"pisKs n'^ ^-inay nn innM ^3t .koji^b 
^n^'7iD nij''B ^■'3N mn nh^ti N^jty mnsis' 
niDBN'7 -p na^ ^"K n^-i3 ^b^2S ^n:i ■'3 



R. ghecliatk yr— bllod amd <h>r«{or* kkd to UM Ibat vlpi. 



192 



n i c 



3XP 



Were fixed bowls, cups, pitchers and dishes, 
all filled with various kinds of victuals, and 
all sorts of rare fruits and spices. When 
settintj the table, they said: Unto the Lord 
belongs the earth with what filleth it (Ps. 24, 
1). And when they removed the table, they 
jaid The heavens are the heavens of the 
Lord; but the earth hath he given to the 
children of men (lb. 115, 16). I said to him 
'My son, how have you merited this pros- 
perity?' lie said to me: 'I was formerly s 
butcher, and I always selected the finest 
cattle to be slaughtered for the Sabbath.' I 
then said to him : 'Happy art thou for being 
60 merited and blessed bo tlic Lord who hath 
rewarded thee vdth all this.' " 

The [Eoman] Emperor once asked R. 
Joshua b. Chanina : "Why have the Sabbath 
meals a special taste?" "There is," he 
answered, "a certain flavor in our possession, 
called Sabbath, which we throw into it and 
this gives it its taste." "Give it to us," he 
begged of R. Joshua, whereupon R. Joshua 
said: "Only him who keepeth the Sabbath, 
doth it help, but it doth not help him who 
doth not keep the Sabbath." 

The Rcsh Galutha" said to B. Hamnuna: 
"What is meant by the passage (Is. 58, 13.) 
The holy day of the Lord honorable. What 
does the word honorable signify?" R. Ham- 
nuna said to him: "This refers to the Day 
of Atonement, on which there is neither 
eating nor drinking, hence the Torah says 
that tliou shalt honor it with clean clothes." 
And thou shalt honor it (lb.). Rah said: 
"This is intended to signify that on the 
Sabbath eve. the meal time shall be earlier 
than on the week days." Samuel said, how- 
ever: "On the contrary it is intended to 
signify that the meal time should be later 
than usual." 

The sons of R. Papa b. Abba questioned 
him : "How shall people such as we are, who 
have meat and wine every day of the week, 
distinguish the Sabbath day ?" R. Papa re- 
plied: "If you are accustomed [to dine] 
early [on the week davs] eat later [on the 
Sabbath "1 and if you have your usual 
meals late, have them earlier [on t^e Sab- 
bath]." 

R. Shesheth, in the eummer, would cause 
the Rabbis [who came to listen to his Sab- 
bath lectures] to sit where the sun shone 
earliest [in order that they might become 

13) Chief ot tk« 



."P^ n'2t nD3 ^:a "i: ^mc« .cik ^:3'7 
'moK nK3 nn^niy nr:n2 '?y. ^n^n Dxp '?"K 

:-i:^ i:nr D-,pcn ina.: 

.cfiM inn nac i^ •b-'a'nn no ^:sd 
listr iQiy nat:-: ^3^ ^' ins ]->'?2r\ V'k 
U7 ]n y's .fiT.: :n"'Ti '>2'nb p7"'DC 
i'? '7^yio nsB'n nw iDtt'on ^3 V's .':3e^^ 
: i!? 'r-'yiD i3"'K nntyn n« id'^*d i3"'«a'i 
"KD wjuon m"? Kn','7j en n^'7 ick 
nr V'K .131:0 'n tynp^ (nj n-i-e-) n^nsT 
nTity «'7i n^-'rs s^ n ^•'xt:' ciisjDn cv 
3-» "iniMi .n''p3 niD33 imns m-.n mo« 
•'33 y'K .nns^ noK ^kioci .□•'ipn^ noH 

n^3ci ]3« T'^^ ^^s ^''^ '^^^ ""^ **^^ •^'' 
.n"'"':tr3 ■'S03 SOT" "73 Knon*. sntr'«3 |^ 
•in'7'3-1 -N n-,-inK "o-npK^ "in^''3-i "s V'k 
s'mo «o'''p3 ntt'ti* 3-1 ."iniDips mnw^ 

KTD^DS Ktyor K'DDT K3NT psn^ VI^ 



195 



spv^ py 



nsp 



11.) Woe unto those thai rise up early in 
the morning that they may run after strong 
drink, etc., And there are harp and psaltery 
timbrel and flute and vine and their drink- 
ing feasts, but the deeds of the Lord, they 
regard not. Therefore, are my people led 
into exile, for want of knowledge." 

R. Hamnuna said : "Jerusalem would 
not have been destroyed but for the sin that 
they ceased to teach small children, for it 
is said (Jer. 6, 11.) Pour it out over the child 
in the street. Why pour it out? Because the 
child is in the street [and not in school]." 

E. TJlla said : "Jerusalem would not 
have been destroyed but for the sin of being 
devoid of shame, as it is said (Jer. 6, 15.) 
They should have been ashamed, because 
they had committed an abomination; but 
they neither felt the least shame," etc. E. 
Isaac said : "Jerusalem would not have been 
destroyed but for the sin of making no_ dis- 
tinction between great and small, as it is 
said (Is. 24, 2.) And it shall he with the 
people as with the priest, etc; immediately 
following which, is written, Empty, emptied 
out shall be the land." 

R. Amram, the son of R. Simon b. Abba, 
in the name of R. Simon b. Abba, who spoke 
in the name of R. Chanina, said: "Jerusa- 
lem would not have been destroyed but for 
their sin in failing to admonish one another, 
as it is written (Lam. 1, 6.) Her princes are 
become like harts that have found no pasture, 
1. e., as the harts in a herd walk, one's head 
between the other's rump, so Israel of that 
generation pressed their faces into the ground 
and did not dare to admonish each other." 

R. Juda said : "Jerusalem would not 
have been destroyed but for the sin of spurn- 
ing scholars, as it is written (II Chr. 36, 
16.) But they had mocked at the messengers 
of God, and despised His words, and scorned 
His prophets, until the fury of the Lord arose 
against His people, till there was no remedy." 
What is meant by Till there was no remedy? 
R. Juda, in the name of Eab, said: "It 
means this: 'Whoever spurns a scholar 
will find no remedy for his affliction.' " R. 
Juda, in the name of Rab, said: "What is 
meant by the passage (Ps. 105, 15.) Touch 
not mv anointed, and do my prophets no 
harm, i. e.. Touch not my anov^ted, refers 
to the school children," and Do ray prophets 
no harm, refers to the scholars." 



^ys nsi DHTityD p^i ^^^m cim ^dji -lua 
.nyi '^2D •'DV n^: \± dtisi lu-'a"' «^ 'n 

iD«aB' pi ni3 ^c mpij\-i na i^caa^ 

littt* Dye no .j*ina 'b^ij; ^j? -iiBry (» n-ov) 

: j'ins ^^ip Dityo 

iDNJiy nro nr qijs ntru D37 ^^^ «^b' 
K^ tru D3 iti'j? nayin ""j w^ain (i iroT) 
o^'i'tt'n' nann «'? pn^f" ^m ids .'\y\ ■itri3'» 
(13 mytf") 'k:c' ^n:i jtap nrnt:* ^■•atrn «'?« 
plan (Dtr) nnnn a'^nsi |n2D Dp ^^^^ 
13 B'"n nnn moy ai iok .x-\'^n pian 
vh Kr:n i"n «n;« in I'.jJDty i"« «dn 
HT in^3in .K^tj" '7''nt5'3 «'7K c^iyiv nnin 

1XS nt ^B* itt'«i nr ^'k no nyio i«xd 
11^33 inn imxaty ^sity ?]« nr ^c mjt 
i"« .nt ii« nr in-'Din «^i ypipi Dn-ias 
it^niy ^'•Dcn K^« D^^tyn"" nnin s^ nnn^ 

IVn^T (iVa"m) idnjd' D'ODH ''T'D^n ni 

mai Dvui □■•n^s ■•dk^od ca-'y^a 
loys 'n nan m'jy iy vwDja cynynoi 

1DK .NBin PN^ iy ^NO .KE10 ]''S^ iy 

i'7 i^N n"n nrion ^s n idn mm"' 3i 

"iNO 31 10S mm'' 31 1DN .lilDD^ nsiBi 
''K"'33'71 in"'D'n3 lyjn 'bS (np D'^nn) nTlil 

'7ty mpirn i^s ^n''tt'Q3 iy;n ^« .lyin ^n 
'TD^n i'7« lyin '7>? ''Niari .pi n"'3 
mm' •>3i Dira trip^ tm iok .D'oon 



jjj ^^ Kethuboth, that there was a custom to oil children's heads. 



194 



n 3 ty 



ixp 



a whole calf for the sake of the kidneys? Let 
us leave the kidneys from the calf we are 
preparing, for the Sabbath eve." They did 
60, but a lion came and devoured the calf 
[that was spared]. 

E. Joshua b. Levi said : "He who answers 
Amen Yclici Slicmi'l Rahlm Mcbaracli^^ 
with all his fervor will cause any evil dis- 
pensation passed on him, to be torn (nulli- 
ified) ; for it is said (Judg. 5, 2.) When de- 
creed punishments had been set aside in 
Israel, then did the people offer themselves 
mlUngly, Praise ye the Lord. Why were 
decreed purtishments set aside? Becausij 
Praise ye the Lord." 

R. Chiya b. Abba, in the name of E. Jo- 
chanan, said : "Even if there be some idol- 
atry in him, he will also be forgiven; for it 
is written (lb.) When decreed punishments 
were set aside (Pra'oth), and it is also writ- 
ten (Ex. 32, 25.) That it had become unruly 
(Parua)." 

Eosh Lakish said: "He who answers 
Amen with all his fervor will have the gates 
of Eden opened for him, as it is said (Is. 
26, 2.) Open ye the gates, that there may 
enter the righteous nation, which guardeth 
the truth. Do not read Shomer Emunim 
(which guardeth the truth) but read it Se'- 
omrim Amen (which say Amen)." What 
is the meaning of Amen? R. Chanina said: 
"The abbreviation of 'God, faithful king.' " 

R. Juda, the son of E. Samuel, in the 
name of Eab, said: "Conflagration is not 
frequent excepting only where violation of 
the Sabbath is found; for it is said (Jer. 
17, 27.) But if ye will not hearken unto me 
to hallow the Sabbath day, and not to bear 
a burden, and to enter into the gates of Jeru- 
salem on the Sahbath day, then will I kindle 
a fire in its gates, and it shall devour the 
palaces of Jerusalem and it shall not be 
quenched." What is meant by And it shall 
not he quenched? R. Nachman b. Isaac said: 
"It means 'At a time when men to quench it 
will not be accessible.' " 

Abaye said: "Jerusalem would not have 
been destroved, but for the sin of violating 
the Sabbath, for it is said (Ez. 22, 26.) And 
from my Sabbaths do they turn away their 
eyes so that I am profaned among them." 

R. Abuhu said: "Jerusalem would not 
have been destroyed had it not been for the 
sin that they ceased to read the Sh'm'a every 
morning and evening, for it is said (Is. 5, 



•Knair ^^yoD kh^^id p-.^rj "sn ^^13 
: iT'brs ns «n«i nipsB' 

Kn> p« njiyn '?2 '>^'7 p ytt'in-' 131 idk 
"ijn -\u 1^ D^yT.p mo ^33 iisD Kan n'oa^ 
^«nB'^3 rnyiB ynsa (n ocbib-) 'mjb^ 
D'.pB ynsa c>'t2 no .'n ina cy sunna 
pni^ n"K «3K na N^n ^m .'n 1313t dib>d 
n'>'7mD cnsiD muy 'jb' y^^ is ^^ i^'fiw 
niDty) unn >n3i my-ia ynea «Dn nTir i'? 
'733 ]DK ny,);r] ^d y'ns .Kin ynfl •'3 (2^ 
(ID n-jfB") nDKaty py ]i nyc ib pnms in3 
.cjiDx nnvj pns ''M «3'«i Dnyty inne 

: jck: 1^0 ^N Kran -\"h jdx ^nd 
\ff''^ Dipon K^K n'^ixD np-'i-ir] pK am 

lyOBTl N^ D«l (" niOT) iDKJtt' DnS' ^1^>n 

m3m« n^3Ki nnysya b^k ^mm .'ui 
31 nDK .n33n k^i i«t3 .n23n k^i u^'?mv 
I"",SD ciK •':3 pKc nytt'a pnx^ nn jtsn: 

K^K c^tyn^ nmn «^ "'■'2N new .nnu37 

n"K .D3in3 ^HiSi cn-'ry iD'«'7yn TiinstyDi 
"i^03tt* ^■'3B'3 K7« D-'^irn"' n3-in «^ :n3K 
^in (n n'j)tr') loMic n''3nyi nnnc tr"? 
n^m 3^n3i 'ui ibti^ nr-r np33 ^o^styo 



197 



3PV^ ]>)} 



'2fP 



truthful]. Perhaps in that case, it is differ- 
ent, because if he would say 'I did learn,' 
people might ask him, 'Tell us what you 
know?' [Therefore he is bound to tell the 
truth]. But he might say that he learned and 
forgot it. [Thus no one will be able to con- 
tradict him]. Why does he say that he never 
knew a thing? [We must therefore, say that 
they really were trustworthy]. This is not 
difficult to explain. Eab deals with trust- 
worthy men in business affairs and R. Ketina 
deals with men faithful in affairs of learn- 
ing. 

(Fol. 121a) Our Rabbis taught that a 
fire once broke out in the court of Joseph b. 
Simai, at Beth-he'an, and the military camp 
of Sephoris sent men to eitingnish it because 
he was the treasurer of the royal administra- 
tor. But Joseph did not allow them to do so 
on account of the Sabbath." By a miracle it 
began to rain, and the fire was extinguished. 
That evening Joseph sent to each man [who 
came to help him] two Selaim." When the 
sages heard of this thing, they said : "It waa 
not at all necessary to stop them from doing 
it, because we are taught (in a Mishnah), 
'When a non-Jew comes to extinguish fire, 
the owner need not tell him either to ex- 
tinguish or not to eitinguish, because there 
is no commandment compelling a non-Jew 
to keep the Sal^bath.' " 

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN 

(Fol. 137a) R. Jochanan said: "Great 
is hospitality even more than early attend- 
ance at the place of learning, for the Mish- 
nah teaches us : 'For hospitality and for the 
attendance at the house of study,' putting 
the two on a par." The Nehardaen and R. 
Dimi said that hospitality is a greater virtue 
even than to visit a place of study, for the 
Mishnah mentions '^lospitality'" first and 
then "attendance at the place of study." 

R. Juda, in the name of Rab, said: 
"Hospitality is a greater virtue than receiT- 
ing the Shechina, for it is written (Gen. 
18, 3.) And he said. My Lord, if now I have 
fovnd favor in thine eyes, pass not away, I 
pray Thee." R. Elazar said: "Come and see, 
that the nature of the Holy One, praised be 
He ! is unlike that of frail man ! The nature 
of a frail man is that an insignificant person 
would not dare say to a great man 'Stay here 
until I return,' whereas to the Holy One, 
praised be He! Abraham said, My Lord, if 



: jnosi ND'C3 ]«D n"i3 jto p"^ .^^0 rmn 
nsnn np-'^i n7B:i na-yD n"n («=p «n) 

«112D: ■'B':S "iK^l JS'J3 ""KD^D ]3 tpV^ ^tJ' 

1^ ntt'pi naB'n iud tjEJo jnijn n'7'i n\n 
inK bo^ -1:5? nj?^ .1331 u^^m m">i d: 
ijnstrtyai .': onniy Donss^i py^^o '2 cno 

ciDiw pn mas'? NDtr* D-'nnD nsiy irjf 
inn^att- j-'Na' •'jbd nnrn ^«i nna 17 

13 {<3S Kim Smo 13 S3N (n"j? Dir) 

vn «m^: lyn 13T n^3 "•poo nn ""oiijo 
nns spn nty mn n''^ nyxa s*p imn"'"'« 
•n'^i^j; is-^no «jd ini-is Kni^j s-n in^ 
icnn pn nr-^ 3n ncK "-rn inrn:^ ^b ^'k 
Kin ^310 K3n:s in^ ids .loin "tii 

■ inip3ty 

cmiK DDisn n^n: i:ni^ 'i nos (»=p ii) 
cnmsn ^jbo ^jnpn ts^mon r,^3 nD3to'n3 
KyTinjD •'nn 3ni .trmon n"'3 ^itt"'3 "jsdi 
'JBD ^:npT trmon n''3 nQ3ii'nD imi ncN 
•c-non n''3 ^id"'3 ""jbci mm cmiNn 
DimiK nDJ3n n'?™ 3t noK mm"" 3n "id« 
noK'i (H' n-irKii) 3^131 nrscn ^jb n^3pQ 
■ii3j;n «: ^n i"'rv3 p tinxd «j d« ""jim 
mD3 M^c nsii K13 iry^s ■'3-1 nas .'i:i 
itrs mo .mi ■ii5'3 mo Kin ^ns rnpn 
ny ]nDn ^n:'? idi^ ^i3^ |Qp j-'k mi 
-lOK'i 3<n3 n"3pn3 i^«i ■^'rxw K3«tr 



196 



n 3 r 



12tp 



Resh Lakish in the name of R. Juda the 
Nasi said: "The world would not be sus- 
tained if it were not for the breath of fpraise 
coming forth from] the school children.'' 
"What about mine and thine ?" said R. Papa 
unto Abaye. Whereupon Abaye replied : 
"The breath [of praise] which comea forth 
from one who mijjht have sinned is not like 
the breath [of praise] that is uttered by one 
who is iiic;iiiablc of committing siu." 

Resh Lakish in the name of R. Juda the 
Nasi said further: "School children should 
not be withheld from school even by reason 
of the building of the Temple." Resh Lakish 
said to R. Juda, the Nasi: "Thus have I 
a tradition from my ancestors, and accord- 
ing to others, from your ancestors: 'Every 
town which has no school for children will 
eventually be destroyed.' " Rabina said [the 
tradition' was] : "It shall be placed under 
the ban [until a school is provided]." 

And Raba said further: "Jerusalem 
would not have been destroyed were it not 
because men of faith ceased to exist, as 
it is said (Jer. 5, 1.) Roam about through 
the streets of Jerusalem and see now, and 
notice, and search in its broad places: and 
if ye can find one man, if there be one that 
executeth justice, that searcheth for truth, 
then I shall pardon it." Is it so? Has not 
R. Kctina said: "Even at the period of 
Jerusalem's downfall (of her moral decay) 
men of faith did not fail her. as it is 
said (Is. 3, 6.) Whtn a man will seize his 
brother in the house of his father [laying] 
thou hast a nice garment, thou shalt b$ our 
ruler, (Fol. 120a) i. e., things which cause 
people to hide themselves under cover, like 
a garment, seem to be well under thy hand 
(thou art a scholar). And let this stumbling 
he under thy hand, (lb.) i. e., things of which 
a man nerer gets at the true sense unless he 
first stumbles over it (the Torah) let this be 
under tbv hand; (Yi.^a) Tie iriU lift up his 
hand on this day, saying I will not he a chief. 
etc., (lb.) i. e., the words, TTe will lift up 
his hand, appW to nothing else hut to swear- 
ing and so it says (Ex. 20, 7.) Thou shalt not 
lift up thy hand to swear in the namt of 
Ood. 

I u-m he a chief, (Ih.) i. e., I will not be 
confined in the house of study. And in my 
hovse is rifiiher bread nor clothing, i. e.. I 
master neither Scripture nor Mishnah nor 
Gemara." [Hence it shows that they wera 



^^3K^ KBD 31 ^"K ■]2'\ n''3 ^D* mpirn 
^3n non i3''« ni^ nc« .•»Ka iim n-'i 
'?"-\ -iD«i .Kcn 12 pxty '73n^ sen la v^^ 
mpirn p'JcDD ]^h ns^cj nXin^ ^m mtyD 
ni^ -iD« .tyipcn n-ia ]"'J3^ ''bs pi n-i^ ^y 
•«m3K» ij^mpo p n«''B'j ni'^n'' 'i^ '?"^ 
mpirn na ]''Kt? i^y '73 T'm3SD n'? noHi 
-iD« k:'»31 .nms ]''3''inD ]3-i n''3 ^c 
D^'7m'' n3-in «7 «3-i icxi .nn",s j^n'^nno 
-loxr^ n:nK ■'B'IK niOD iposc ^•'3B'3 «^h 
w "iKii c^tyn'' mxina iisoib' (n m'aT) 
nr.D« tj'p3D cstyD nriy ^'> c« 'ui lyn 
n5;a'3 "i^"'bs wrtsp 31 noKm •'^n .'"iji 
^ti-js njDD "ipDB k: c^'jin"' ^ty rut^rs 
rniS3 ty'X C'sn-' ""o (^ •"";•»") no«r:y n:o« 
CIST ."'.j'7 n^n i-'sp n3'7 n'rac' •■'3« n-'- 
nnn pi:''' n7Dr3 one pcrno c^^? ""jSw 
(:? '1) •IT' nnn nKtn n^'^rcm (ov) .-j-i 
Ds «^s CiT'^y pnciv di« ^i3 ]''Ntr Dnri 
n^nn pxp -it nnn ]:v< Dn3 c^^coj jr 
'1J1 csin n-'ns «7 nns^ K".nn c'^2 wa''' u? 
■iDi« sin pi nj!i3iy |".a'^ «^« kb"' j-'N 
tP3"in nin« «7 'n cc nw KB*n k^ (= 'low) 
^n"«33i u'lncn n-^ss jD^tj; "•csinD n^nH »rt 
Kipa K^ ''T3 ]"'«ty n'7Dty psi cn^ ]■<« 
'iStt* Ko'bn ''SCD .Nnn: k^i kj^d K^^ 
KD^K n""^ 'nc» «r-iD: nn^ iok ^>n onn 



TMH 



SPV VV 



tavp 



wages and asked him: 'When T told thee 
that I had not the money to pay thy wages, 
what didst thou suspect me of?' The man 
said: 'I thought perhaps thou hadst come 
across a bargain and hadst paid out all thy 
ready money.' 'And when thou asked me to 
give thee thy money's worth in cattle and 
I answered thee that I had no cattle, of what 
didst thou suspect me then ?' 'I thought per- 
haps thou hadst leased it to others and couldst 
no't touch it.' 'And when I said to thee I have 
no fruit, of what didst thou suspect me 
then?' 'I thought perhaps thou hadst not 
yet paid tlie tithes.^ 'And when I said to 
thee that I have no furniture, of what didst 
thou suspect me then?' 'I thought perhaps 
thnu hadst dedicated all thy possessions unto 
Heaven,' Then said the master : 'I swear to 
thee, that such was really the case; I had 
made a vow to give away all my possessions 
because my son Hurkanius did not want to 
study the Torah. Afterwards, when I came 
to my associates in the South, they released 
me from my vow. And as thou didst judge 
me with favor, so may God judge thee favor- 
ably." 

(Fol. 129b) R. Nachman b. Isaac in the 
name of Eabba b. Abuhu, who speaks in the 
name of Rab, said: "All that is mentioned' 
in the chapter of reproof^ may be done for a 
woman in confinement on the Sabbath, as 
it is said (Ez. 16, 4.) And as for thy birth, 
on the day thou wast born, thy navel was not 
cut nor wast thou washed in water to be 
cleansed, and thou wast not rubbed with salt, 
nor wrapt in swaddling clothing, i. e.. And 
as for thy birth, on the day thou wast born, 
from this we may infer that one may assist 
in the birth of a child on the Sabbath; Thy 
navel was not cut, we infer that the navel 
may be cut on the Sabbath. Nor wast thou 
washed in water, we infer from this that a 
child just horn may be washed on the Sab- 
bath. And thou wert not ruhhed with salt, 
we infer from this that a child just born may 
be rubbed with salt on the Sabbath. Nor 
wrapt in swaddling clothes, we infer that 
a child just bom may be wrapt in clothea on 
the Sabbath. 



•''7 ]n 1^ moKir' nyti's n-'b -iok .nsjy 

nnp'71 ^^ pnTJ ^ira s^taopna hqv TnoK 
TnoNi nana •'^ jn ■''7 m»«a> nytyai .|nD 
«Dc Ti-iDN .^jmtt'n nD3 ni:in2 ^"p p« 
]n •''7 mcKB' nyira .cnnN V2 msB'iD 
nD3 yp-ip •''7 ps -['7 Ti-iDKi )}p-\p '>'? 
Dnnw T'D mrmo wtou' Tncs .-"jmcn 
nD3 mT'B ^'7 ps "p TnDNc^ nytrai .N\n 

i"'DD3 '73 trnpn wdb* "rncN .^jmtyn 
'73 ^rmn n''r\ ^a mu:;n .t*? "idk .qiob'^ 
rmnn pDj? «^i? "'jn Diipnin 'b'a^a ""oaj 
n« •'^ iTTin omn ''T'nn '7^s ''n«3D'3i 
mpon "13 m3T^ ''jnnc Dty3 nnsi mj 
: m3T^ im« pT 
3-1 -IDS in3« 13 n3-i now pnj 3n idn 
n3D*3 n-'n^ ]^''^^v nn3in n^nes niD«n '73 

•«j;tt*D^ nsm «: d"'D31 ^ity m3 k^ ^m« 
.n^nn k^ ^nnm nn^nn «^ n^nm 
n« in^-'DC ]«3D m^in qv2 ^nn^im 
]''3mn'w' ]s:d lie' m3 s'b .n3tt'3 n'bin 
]«30 ''ytt'c'7 n:fn-i «^ cid31 .n3*w'3 ni3t2n 

«^ ^nnm .n3t:'3 i^in rn^ioti' I«30 



J) Fruit of whlcli tithes have not yet been. Bet aside, must not te used to pav der>t». 
.-) Il/OT. 26, 3-46: Deu. 28. 



n a a* 



nxp 



198 

now I have found favor in thine eyes, pass 
not away." 

R. Juda b. Sliila, in the name of R. Assi, 
who spoke in the name of R. Jochanan, said : 
"The interest on six thino:s man enjoys in 
this world, while the principal remaineth 
for him in tlu' world to tonu'. viz.. hospital- 
ity, visiting the sick, calculation of the efforts 
of prayer [expecting the granting of his de- 
mands], early attendance at the place of 
learning, rearing children to the study of 
the Torah, and judging his associate [in 
doubtful acts] with an inclination in his 
favor." Is this really so? Are we not taught 
[in a Mishnah] : "These are the things of 
which a man enjoys the interest for his 
reward in this world, while the principal 
remaineth for him for the world to conic? 
viz., honoring one's father and mother, the 
practice of loving kindness, making peace 
between a man and his as.sociate, and above 
all, the study of the Torah." Are these not the 
only things? Nay, the six things mentioned 
before are included with those subsequently 
enumerated.' 

(lb. b) Our Rabbis taught: "He who jud- 
ges his associates [in questionable acts"] with 
an inclination in his favor, will be judged 
with favor [from above]. It happened once 
that a man who came from upper Galili hired 
himself to a master in the southern part, for 
a term of three years. On the eve of the 
Day of Atonement when his term expired 
the workman said to his master: 'Give me 
my wages so that I may return home and 
support my wife and children.' The master 
replied : 'I have no money just now.' 'Then 
give me my money's worth in grain,' said 
the man. The master responded: 'I have 
none.' Again the hired man begged him: 
'Give me then my money's worth in land.' 
'I have none,' the master answered. 'Give me 
then the amount in cattle.' he said, but the 
master again refused saying, 'I have none.' 
'Give me my mone\''s worth in furniture,' 
the man pleaded. 'I have none,' was the re- 
ply. The man then put his bundle on his 
back and went away sorrowfully. After the 
holiday the master took the wages of the 
hired man and in addition, three asses, one 
laden with foodstuffs, the second with liquors 
and the third with spices and went to the 
hired man's house in Galili. After thev ate 
and drank together, the master paid him his 

T) Tho firrt. eoroiKl and Ihiril are included In practice of loving kindness. The third, fourth and fifth are 
Included In studylne the Tor&b, BSd tlM alatb ia makioe peace between loan anxl his associate. 



\:n'>'< -"aT ids ■'d« m ncK K7^tr is min-' 

nD::n jn •i7xi K3n D^',y7 i^ nn^-'p \-\pn', 
nortyni n^sn jryi c^in mpm D^n-n« 
pm nnn T.o^n: rjn ^i;cm B'^^c^ n^2 
i^K ]jn p« Km ir« .n-,3t r:5? n^sn n« 
Dn''nn"'£3 :ri« ]mK ntyiy cikb' cnai 
K3n D'i'ijj'? 1^ nDi-ip ]-\p^ nrn D7-,ya 
n«3m Dnon m^''D:i qki 2« iud ]n i7«i 
njjD mm mo'i'm n^an'? Dn« pa m^a' 
■»:n3 ^d: "i:n .n7 sjnniN ■'to ps •'jn C7^3 
ri3^ ni^n ns pn ]jm un {-"v) .•'2'«^c 
inK mK3 ncyoi .msT^ ims pn mrr 
irrN n"3 'JXK •\2Z':'\ ]V7j?n '7''7:d ^\^''u 
\r\ n"*? -iD« cmsan d"i my .eye 'i aima 
1^ noK .""jai ma-s ns "-^tni •^'7«i nrr ^^ 
jn .''7 ]■>« y'N .nn"'S "i? p ^'k .mvo "i? ]'k 
^^ ]n .^^ pK .nona ""^ ]n .""^ p« .ypip '•^ 
Ti-nnK^ v^3 '?'»ts'Bn .'•^ pK .mnoDi onD 
n"3 7t2J '73nn -in«7 .csj •'nsn in''27 i7m 
■rty in« c^'.on '3 """iCd idj;-! n^3 113^ 
cnjD ^:^D ^B' nnKi nna'D 7*^ nnsi 73so 
17 jn: '.nc-i 1^3x5^ nns .irT'3^ 17 -pn-\ 



201 



3pyn ]^y 



K"t 



her bcalc] so does Israel defend itself b}- its 
Torah. 

(Fol. 133b) We are taught: Ee is my 
God and I will beautify Him (Ex. 15, 2), 
i. e., beautify yourself before Him with com- 
mandments; make a beautiful Succah, a 
beautiful Lulab (palm tree on Tabernacles), 
a beautiful Sophar (kornet), beautiful Tzi- 
tzith and a beautiful Torah, and write the 
Torah with good ink, with a good pen, with 
an artistic ecribe, and wrap it around with 
handsome ribbons. Abba Saul said: "/ will 
beautify Ilim, means just as He is merciful 
and gracious, so shalt thou be merciful and 
gracious." 

(Fol. 134a) Abaye said : "My mother told 
me that if an infant appears red all over 
his body, it is a sign that the blood is not 
absorbed within the organs of the body, and 
hence circumcision should be postponed until 
the blood be absorbed within him. If an in- 
fant has a yellow or greenish appearance, it 
is a sign that he is impoverished of blood and 
circumcision should be postponed until he 
becomes richer of blood, for it was taught 
that R. Nathan said: *I once went to the 
eea towns and there appeared before me a 
woman whose first and second sons both had 
died in consequence of circumcision. She 
brought to me her third son and when I 
looked at him, I noticed that he was quite red. 
I told her to postpone [the circumcision] 
until the blood should be absorbed within 
him. She did so and then circumcised him, 
and the child lived. The child was then 
named after me 'Nathan, the Babylonian.' 
At another occasion, I came to the country 
of Cappadocia and there appeared before 
me a woman whose first and second sons both 
had died in consequence of circumcision. 
And the third she brought to me. Noticing 
that he had a greenish appearance, I looked 
at him and said that he did not have [suf- 
ficient] blood for circumcision, so I told her 
to wait until the child should have sufficient 
blood. She did so, and the child was circum- 
cised and lived. She named him after me 
and called the child 'Nathan, the Babylon- 



CHAPTER TWENTY 

(Fol. 138b) Rab said: "There will be a 
time in the future when the Torah will be 
forgotten by Israel, as it is said (Deu. 28, 



nsty b"H K^i y'«T ny^ ■'Cij w"v>', .c^siD 
njT*^ ^Kity' ncjD «iDTi mrt) msjiy 

Cp22 nsni njT' ^BJD (no c^nn) noKJty 

n-ifij: It nj:^ no }*nn p'lp'i''^ nTmawi 

nKJ naiD ris^ ntyy msna ^•'js'? nNjnn 
riKi r>"D n«: n"'S''x nxj nsitt'i nw n^i^i 

ri« Dimi jun sin no i^ nti'n ■'in imjsi 
: Dimi p:n riT; nnw 

po'iDi spij^ ""Kn Q« ""^ moN '»'>n« ntssi 

TiDKT pnn .n"''i'nn''^i kdt .ti y^niKT 
KDi n-ii ^sn iv imn"''? kdt n-in 'Js: s'? 
nn« C';s ;n3 ••an now «'':m n-'^no-'^i 
n'70c '':s7 's nff« nn«ai n-in ^2nD^ ^naST 
•«j£3^ inN''3n ity^t:' nm ijtr nci pa^xi ma 
-rjj 1^ •'jTinn n^ Tnns nn« sirrty rn^sn 
iDT 13 y^ajty -[]! 1^ nrnon idt ii y^aity 
^^nnn inj iniK pnip rni rpm inis n^m 
n:"'iD'7 ins'bn nnw cyB dib' .^Diy ^y 
n33 n7D5y ''js'i' nns ntt'« nnsn «''piiBp 
■<:s^ in«ian •'B'-'^ty noi '':b' nm jicsn 
13 Ti-'Kn i«^i 13 Tisxn piT" Kintf rn-'XT 
13 ^iB''t5' nj? 1^ ••j^non n^ Tnos nns m 
pmp i\ni n'^ni im« n'iTai i^ nrnnni im 
: ''D15' ^y i^33n jnj im» 

^«nti'"'D nari'^'nt:' mm nvr\y m idk 
ns'psn "im3D nw 'n «^Eni (3 D'-m) noKJiy 



200 



n 2 c 



CHAPTER NINETEEN 

(Pol. 130ft) We are taught that Eabban 
Simon b. Gamaliel says: "Every command- 
meut which Israel took upon themselves with 
joy as for instance, circumcision, concerning 
which it is written (Ps. 119, 1G2.) / am re- 
joiced over Thy promise, is still observed 
with joy; but all such commandments which 
were received with discord, as for instance, 
the law of incest, concerning which it is 
written (Num. 11, 10.) And Moses heard 
the people weep according to their families, 
i. e., on account of the family establishments 
(intermarriages), is still observed reluctant- 
ly ; for there is no marriage contract at which 
the parties do not quarrel." 

We are taught that R. Simon b. Elazar 
said : "Every commandment for which Israel 
was ready to die [when a prohibitory decree 
was promulgated for its observance] as for 
instance the decree of idolatry and Milah 
(circumcision) are still punctuallv observed; 
but all those commandments for which Israel 
was not ready to die, as for instance Tephilin, 
are but feebly observed nowadays; for R. 
Janai said, 'Tephilin requires a clean body 
such as Elisha, the man of wings, pos- 
sessed.'" What is meant by a clean body? 
Abaye said, "It means literally a clean body." 
But Raba said, "Not to become drowsy while 
wearing the Tephilin." And why was he 
called the man of wings? The government 
of Edom had once decreed against Israel, 
that whoever would wear Tephilin on his 
head, would be punished by piercing out his 
marrow. Elisha put on his Tephilin and 
went out on the street. A Quaestor^ saw 
him [wearing the Tephilin] and Elisha fled 
before him. The officer pursued him. When 
he was caught, R. Elisha removed them from 
his head and kept the Tephilin in his hand. 
"What have you in your hand?" was the 
Quaestors question? "Wings of a dove," 
replied Elislia. The Quaestor stuck out his 
hand to investigate and he found them to be 
wings of a dove; therefore he was called 
'Elisha, the man of the dove wings.' Why 
did he choose to say wings of a dove? Be- 
cause Israel is likened to a dove, as it is 
said (Ps. 68, It.) The wings of the dove 
covered with silver and her pinions shining 
with flaming gold, i. e., just as the dove 
defends herself with her wings [not with 

1) A inlUtu7 adlotuiit, or ui Uqulsltor. 



nvc |"i:o nrrotya Dn'»7j; i^-w' V2pv 

iTipty msD i2\ nnoiya nniK pti'ij? pny 
(K' line:) n>noT nv-\y p:3 nts-opa on^^y 
^y .rmnstyo^ n2^:l cyn riN na'D j;qb"i 
nctspa nm« fc'-j; piiy vmnats'D ••pov 

n-.i-o ^3 iDiK nry7K ]d pyoiy ••an K-ijn 

KM ]>i"Ty n^-'D D'ana rmay jua mvjn 
^Knc' "noD K^c msD ^ri .CT«a nptmo 
KM \^>-!V ]i^^an ii:3 nn-'o^ n^Tj? pxy 
l^on:* ji^^rjn •>Kji -tan noKi dt-i nano 
1DK jKin ■'Kn .Q>s:2 ^j?a y'^-i^Ks tpj eiu 
|c'" K^B* iDK K3n .nnn n'-a*' k^b' t^sK 
d'b:3 ^ya ya-'^K n--? np "•KtsKi .nni 
'7hntyi '7y mn: mr^n mrj nns Dysty 
imo ns np^ wki ^y p'r^an n^jon 'jatr 
inK-n pvr^ KX"«i ji^-'sn. n^Jt: ya'-'^K n\Ti 
yjn-.:* ]',''2 innK ]m "i'':3''t: jm thk inop 
no n''^ -i2K .iT'a ^hkt itrNiD d^c: i^xk 
:Kxr:i n"* ns nti-s .nai^ ^B33 V'k -iTa 
^ya imK ]nip vn -p-ie^ nji^ •'sja ,12' 



203 



apy^ py 



:n 



Therefore for yovr saJce, shall Zion he 
ploughed up as a field, and Jerusalem shall 
become ruinous heaps, and the mount of the 
house, forest-covered high places. And the 
Holy One, praised be He! will not cause 
the Shechina to rest in Israel until such 
wicked judges and oflBcers shall be destroyed 
from Israel, as it is said (Is. 1, 25.) And 
I will turn my hand agai7ist thee, and purge 
away as with lye thy dross, etc. And I will 
restore thy judges as at the first, and thy 
counsellors as at the beginning." 

Ulla said: "Jerusalem will not be re- 
deemed except through righteousness, as it 
is said (lb. ib. 27.) Zion shall be rdeemed 
through justice, and her converts through 
righteousness." 

E. Papa said: ''When the haughty will 
cease to exist, then the magicians (Saddu- 
cees) will cease; when the corrupt judges 
will cease, then also will the bribed officers 
cease to exist. When the haughty will cease, 
then will the magicians cease to exist, as it 
is said (Ib. ib. 25.) And I will purge away, 
as with lye thy dross etc. When the corrupt 
judges will cease to exist, then also will the 
bribed officers cease, for it is written (Zeph. 
3, 15.) The Lord hath removed thy punish- 
ment, he hath cleared away thy enemy." 

E. Malai, in the name of E. Eliezer, the 
Bon of E. Simon, said: "What is meant by 
the passage (Is. 14, 5.) BroJcen hath the 
Lord the staff of the wicked, the sceptre of 
rulers? The staff of the wicked, refers to the 
judges who make themselves a staff (of sup- 
port) to their sextons ; The sceptre of riders, 
refers to the learned men that are in the 
families of the wicked judges."^ 

Mar Zutra said: "This refers to teachers 
who give instruction in communal laws to 
ignorant disciples, who afterwards become 
judges [incapable of judging rightfully]." 

E. Elazar b. Malai, in the name of Eesh 
Lakish, said : "Wliat is meant by the passage 
(Is. 59, 3.) For your hands are defiled with 
blood and your fingers ivith iniquity; your 
lips have spoken falsehood, and your tongue 
uttereth deception? For your hands are de- 
filed with blood, refers to the judges. And 
your fingers with iniquities, refers to the 
scribes of the judges [who write false docu- 
ments] Your lips have spoken falsehood. 
refers to the attorneys [who teach people to 
plead falsely"]. And your tongue uttereth de- 
ception, refers to the litigants themselves." 

1) They compel the seholar to erplaln reluctantly their 



unnn mty jTi^t a:s'?'?n p^ (j n:>n) -iowb^ 

•ry ^Nity"' ^y inroc mtyo n"3pn jiki 
^sniyD Diy-i onmiri ccsits' i^D^ty 

Cjl-lSXI 7^V IT" nn''t5'Hl (« n'vts") nnsjc 

noK .n^nnsD -[■•syT'i n:icxi3o T'QBits' 
noNJc npis3 S7N nnsj D"''7ti*n'' ps n^ij? 
noN .npisa n'^atri man tasmn jrs (av) 

"'^? C'lJDN 1^123 •>-l\T« •'^123 -iS «SS 3T 

1^^^1 ""^an •>« ; •'Qsnin i^tss im ""^tas 

n-inm ^aa-nr: ■•'i'Qa ir'^i ■''7132 •>« /iJi 
now i^^a^iK njs YBStt'D 'n T'Dh (> "'^bs) 
^«a pyoty 'in nry^s ""si m^'o "•N'i't: ■'an 
Diyun ntsD 'n latt' (t ^'s»') n^nai 
i'7K D'^ym nuD 'n nac .n-'^s'ia Qsty 
n-'^tyia Dais' cn-'jtn'? 'rpo lu'yjty D-imn 
no .D-imn mnBiytsnty D-'osn ''T'D'i'n i'7« 

p nry^iK 'n nosi .nu "ij^n^ nus no^n 
c-123 13 (23 DB-) T'o ts'ip'i' ti"ii mtr'O •'N'70 
D^TiinBU' pyn D^imy^xKi ma i^sui 
cD''33 ""a .nann n'riy ddji::*'? ipc nm 
liya DDimya^fKi .cmn I'i'K ona i^sui 
i^« "ipty nm DaTiinac .pmn naio i^s 
i^K nann n^iy DOJity^i .ji^^nn ""STiy 
: ]'jn ■'^ya 

execution to be accorxUue to laiw. 



202 



na ty 



i-i 



69.) Then will the Lord render wonderful 
thy plagues. I do not know what the word 
Hafla'ali (wonderful) means. But when it 
is said (Is. 29, 14.) Therefore, behold, I 
will do yet further a marvelous work with 
the people doing wonder on wonder {Ilaflei 
Vafele) ; so that the wisdom of their wise 
men shall be lost and the understanding of 
their prudent men shall be hidden. I un- 
derstand that Hafla'ah refers to the Torah." 

Our Rahhis tauglit : \Mien our Eabbis en- 
tered the Kerem (college) of Jamnia, they 
said: 'There will be a time when the Torah 
■will be forgotten by Israel, as it is said (Amos 
8. 11.) Behold, days are coming, saith the 
Lord God, when I will send a famine in the 
land; not a famine for bread, nor a thirst for 
water, but to hear the words of the Lord. 
And they will wander about from sea to sea, 
and from the North even to the East, they 
will roam about to seek the word of the Lord; 
hut they shall not find it. The words of the 
Lord, alludes to Halacha (laws) ; The words 
of the Lord, refers to the end of the exile 
(Messiah) ; by The word of the Lord, is 
meant Prophecy." 

We are taught that R. Simon b. Jochai 
Eaid: '"God forbid that the Torah be for- 
gotten by Israel, for it is said (Deu. 31, 21.) 
For it shall not be forgotten out of the 
mouth of their seed. How then can the pre- 
vious passage, They jvill roam about to seek 
the word of the Lard, but they shall not find 
it; be upheld? It means they shall not find 
B perfect uncontested Halacha; nor a Mish- 
Dah beyond refutation any longer in one 
place." 

(Fol. 139a) We are taught that R. Jose 
b. Elisha said : "If thou seest a generation in 
which many troubles come, go and investi- 
gate the Judges of Israel, for it is said (Micah 
3, 9.) Hear this, I pray you, ye heads of 
Jacob, and ye princes of the hou.^e of Israel, 
that abhor justice, and make crooked all that 
is straight. And it is further written; They 
huilt up Zion with bloody guilt, and Jerusa- 
lem with wrong. Her chiefs judge for bribes, 
and her priests teach for reward, and her 
prophets divine for money, and yet will they 
lean upon the Lord, etc. They are all wickeiJ, 
yet they all lean upon Him who created the 
■world with his command. Therefore ■will the 
TToly One, ]iraised be He! bring upon them 
three misfortunes for the three sins of which 
they are guilty; as it ia eaid (lb. ib. 12.) 



(e: .TV5-) nt2"iN S'.niys «\n no jjt','' ^rK n 

vanj nrai roDn nosn mssi s^si 
{nbp ein) .nT,n IT n«^sn lois •>^n innon 
•nD« nja-in ona^ irmai idj3Jis'3 ]i^-\ un 
iDSJty ^Knc^D nanrnc min nTny 
c^n^K 'n CKj D''«n c^o^ mn (n didv) 

iQQW mtD nyi jisxoi d^ tj? cd ijjji 
IT 'n nan •ikso'' n^i 'n nan dn trpa^ 
:nKin: n 'n nan .ypn it 'n "^^i .nsSn 
Di^B'i on naiK ikh'.'' p ^-''n i^^m 
12 (K^ Dn2i) 'KjB» ^Knt^D nniD nansTity 
D^po *•:« no K^N .ivnT >sa nstt-n k^ 
«7B' .iK:fo^ K^i 'n nan n« B'pa!? iodib'^ 
C'.pon nmnn mzni nnna na'i'n inxd^ 

:nnK 
c« noix yty^^K ]3 '>D'\i iT\ K^:n (--^p 'n) 
p'n^'i Kx v'Ti! mN3 n',nn mnsa' rn n-'Nn 
i^'} D^'ij?^ nsDc mjvmD '?2Z' ^snir'' •'^''''na 

(J n:'D) '«iiy '7Kn55'^ ""J^n '7"'2tt*3 N^« nKl 

nn ^rxpi apj^t n-'a "•B'Kn dst k: "lyoty 
mirNn ^3 riNi odk-d c^nynon ^«t:'^ 
'13 cons p^s nji3 (c-) n-riDi la-pj;^ 
im^ Tno3 n^jnDi loiBa''' nnitto n'^tt'sn 
.'ui uytr' 'n ^yi loicp"" p,d33 n^«''33i 
noKc ^03 DJinta3 i^ntr k^« en cyB'i 
Dn''^y n"3pn K-'ao "i3''3'7 .D^iyn n^m 
Dn''3B' n-n'sj; ': nj:3 riT'jyn'iB ntt''7B> 



205 



spy* py 



m 



at ease from his youth, and he was resting 
on his lees, and was not emptied from vessel 
to vessel, and had not gone into exile. And 
whence do we know that the fowls of Pales- 
tine were driven from their homes? We are 
taught that R. Juda said: 'For fifty-two 
years was the land of Judea isolated so that 
no man passed through it; as it is said (lb. 
9, 9.) For the mountains will I take up a 
weeping and wailing, etc., but the fowls of 
the heavens and the earth are fled; they are 
gone away, i. e., the numerical value of the 
word Behema (beast) is fifty-two.' E. Jacob, 
in the name of Jochanan said: 'All of these 
came back [to their homes] except only the 
Calias (tunny fislj/ for Eab said that the 
places of Babylon furnished the water for 
En-Eitam [by underground pipes and all 
the fish returned through these pipes] but 
the tunny-fish, because of its soft backbone, 
was not able to swim uphill." 

"The reason that the Babylonians 
are so joyous during the festivals is 
because they were not included in 
the curse which Hoshea pronounced, 
(Hosh. 2, 13.) And I will cause to cease all 
her mirth, her festivals, her new moons and 
her Sahbath and all her appointed feasts. 
And it is written (Is. 1, 14.) Your nco 
moons and your appointed feasts my soul^ 
hateth. They are become a burden unto me! 
What is meant by They are become a burden 
unto me? R. Elazar said: "Thus said the 
Holy One, praised be He! 'It sufficeth not 
that Israel sins so much against me, that 
they trouble me to tell them which hard 
punishment I should inflict upon them. 
E Isaac said: "There is not a single festival 
in Palestine in which reconnoitermg troops 
did not come to Scphoras [and therefore 
enjoyment was difficult]." R. Chanma said: 
"There is not one single festival in Pakstine 
in which a general with his suite and strap- 
bearer [of the Romans] did not come to 
Tiberia." And the reason that the Baby- 
Ionian scholars are well-dressed is because 
they are all strangers. This is what people 
eay, 'At home my name [wUl give me my 
position] ; abroad, my dress.* " 

(Fol. 146a) In the future, shall Jacob yet 
take root; Israel shall bud and bloosom (Is. 
27, 6). R. Joseph recited a Baraitha that this 
refers to the Babylonian scholars, who fashion 



i"j iD^s mini ■>2-\ Kijm i^ji i^:d «3m 
(0 Dv) -lasjtr miiT3 u^s nsy «^ ratr 
Ejiyo (or) '1J1 ^njT 133 NB'« cnnn 7y 
NntaD'jn -i2n:i o^n ittj nona lyi corn 
pn TiTn D^iD pnT> i"« spy -i"k .n"j 

Tnty «^T jro "«Km Dta-iy pyb x^n mno 
'?222u DnjjiD no ijan .p^^D •'«: 'N*? nma^ 

nwin njn ncityo ^3 in2a'm (2 vvin) 
Dn''B'in (N "'I'fi) 3"in3i myio ^3i nnnty't 

«■? n"2pn -in« -ity'i'S -i"s •miEi'? ^'Ty vn 

.]n''i>y «"'2« nc'p mr: ifs yr'? ""mx 
nn«3 K^c ^Jii '7JT 73 1^ rs pnx^ ■!"« 
■73 "^'7 ]■>« «rin 13-1 "icsi .••T;s'«i"^ nty^i3 
"Tysi ]',t:Dpi t'D:« KnsQ'? «3 K'7ti' '73m ^n 
'7333C' D''n3n ''T'D7n TO ^320 .imor 
■»B'r« nnsi ]G^pn '33 p-'Kt:' ^s"? j-ij^isd 
: ^«3nin «nD «'73 ■•Knt!' snni 

ps"" 3py^ ttfity D^Ksn ('2 ri'rB") (lop ^ii) 



204 



n 2 u 



•n 



ci-'D n«^:io pns^ 'i dibt3 ■•k'jd laT now 

DTirT p-" Di?Q iDyo K^ en c]s imK sr^n 

mn «7i «",n nnsc' ■p''^"' .nn^c mn k^ 
-ciya >k'7d 'I -iD«T .mn sn-io n^ntr 
oBtyDn itrn^ nst u'ja not?i ism ii ni"*) 

spi pm-' ■«3T 2Ti^T i:n",'' ''3-n n-iop •>d« 
^:Ba ""DX '17 «as la «"n ""a"! ^"s DiD:o 
ns-m^ 173 y'« .□"'JDC '73330' msij; no 
n-'iyiD no ■•jed .nno d'':oc' ixiki nty 
no "'^sn .n^ay cnty ^:so .o'lnatr '7333a' 
.n-nn ""js irsc '•a^ .cj^ixd ^333{y n"n 
^:Bn n^'omto d''3313 nmj? D"»''t»33 nn "»35d 
"•31 in3 nyn-'S .d^b'Dii cxpt? d-'^oikc 
03^ ^moK "13 s"? ••pTn in'? ids iinT" 
■11-13 c« n« Tiinx nD3n'7 mnx (' '^-=) 
',n-iDN "i'7 m-DS s-intr imns3 i3nn -]'? 
p «t:"'^i n"^ "lies .in-iDsn 7s in'? c«i 
CJDty '7333ir msiv no ^jbd .cno nr^« "id 
3K*iO ]3Kir (no "'^v) '«jty I'j'a K'7ir '«:bo 

jTS^n'rt^e'fnti:;' '^'r.W '.^e'^nnil'to-'eat or driuk but have to worU hard. whUe duHn. ti.e r«t.v«i« 
^'^n,r"t^in2,'^wh=',:^ ITe^Tuluy Tn'crel„'''if eTn affSt'^nfr.'Ahc. character a« weU e, the app«r.n«. 
as 'il writtS. VbJ 111 Jn^ Tc oRo" n^-' "«>*« yo«r.eJ«eJ unclean u>ttt them, that you shall be defiled therein,. 



R. Malai. in the name of R. Isaac, said 
further: "Since tlic daj when Joseph 
departed from his brothers, ho tasted no 
wine, as it is written (Gen. 47, 2G.) And 
on the crown of the head of him who was 
separated from his brother." R. Jose b. 
Chanina said: "The brothers of Joseph also 
did not taste wine, for it is said (lb. 43, 34.) 
And they drank and were merry with him. 
We infer that without him they did not 
drink." But the former (R. MaJai) holds this 
refers to being drunk but not to tasting. 

R Malai further said : "As a reward [due 
to Aaron] for, And when he sees thee, he 
shall be glad in his heart (Ex. 4, 14) , he was 
given the Choshen Eamishpat- on his heart." 

CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO 

(Fol. 145b) R. Chiya b. Abba and R. 
Assi were once sitting before R. Jochanan, 
while R. Jochanan took a nap. R. Chiya b. 
Ahba asked R. Assi: "Why were the fowls 
of Babylon so fat?"' R. Assi answered him: 
'"IVhy? Go to tlie desert of Aza (in Pales- 
tine) where I will show thee still fatter 
ones." Again asked R. Chiya b. Abba : "Why 
are the Babylonians so joyons during the 
festivals?" "Because," answered he, "they 
are poor."* "Why are the disciples of Baby- 
lon so well dres.-;ed ?" inquired R. Chiya b. 
Abba again; "Because," said R. Assi, "they 
are not so well versed in the Torah as are the 
Palestinian scholars [and are therefore well 
dressed to command respect]." "Why do the 
Babylonians appear to be filthy ?" "Because," 
answered R. Assi, "they eat abominable and 
creeping things."^ At that moment R. Jo- 
chanan awoke and said to them: "Young- 
sters! Have I not warned you [to keep in 
yonr mind the passage] (Pr. 7, 4.) Say unto 
unsdom, thou art my sister, which means, if 
& thing is as certain to thee as the fact that 
thou canst not marry thine own sister, then 
Bay it; otherwise, thou shalt not say it." 
"Let then the master explain to us some of 
the above matters," said they. Whereupon 
R. Jochanan said: "The reason why the 
fowls of Babylon are so fat is, because they 
were never driven away from their homes, 
88 it is said (Jer. 48, 11.) Mo'ab was never 



207 



Dpj?> py 



n 



my abode [because of the punishment caused 
to Achab]. Is it not possible that the reason 
for expelling the spirit was because it was a 
false spirit, as it is written (Ps. 191, 7.) 
He that speaketh falsehood shall not suc- 
ceed before my eyes. We must therefore eay 
that the opinion is derived from this pas- 
sage (Pr. 17, 26), To punish [through him] 
even the just [who is only the cause] is not 
good.^ What is not good is certainly evil, 
hence it is written (Ps. 5, 5.) For thou art 
not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness; 
evil cannot abide with Thee, i. e., since Thou, 
God, art right, evil cannot remain in Thy 
abode. 

(Fol. 150a) Is then speaking of things 
[other than business] prohibited on the Sab- 
bath? Behold, E. Chisda and R. Hamnuna 
eay that we are allowed to bespeak charity dis- 
bursements on the Sabbath; R. Elazar said, 
in the name of R. Jochanan : "It is permis- 
sible to decide upon the amount of charity, to 
be distributed among the poor." R. Jacob b. 
Ida, in the name of R. Jochanan, said: "One 
is permitted to remove debris on the Sabbath 
in order to save a life, or for the benefit of 
a community, and we may assemble on the 
Sabbath in the synagogues in order to watch 
over the public affairs." And R. Samuel b. 
Nachmeini, in the name of R. Jochanan, said : 
"One is allowed to visit the theatres and cir- 
cuses and exchanges on the Sabbath if it is 
to protect the community's welfare." At the 
school of R. Menashe, it was taught: "Be- 
trothal of daughters may be discussed on the 
Sabbath, and the advisability of schools and 
a profession for a child may be deliberated 
on the Sabbath." [Hence it is permitted.] 
The passage says (Is. 58, 13.) By not fol- 
lowing thine own business, and speaking 
(vain) words, i. e., thine own business you 
may not discuss on the Sabbath, but the busi- 
ness sanctioned by Heaven, may be discussed. 

(lb. b) Our Rabbis taught that it hap- 
pened once that the fence of a field belonging 
to a pious man broke down, and when he 
was about to fix it, he recollected that it was 
on Sabbath; so he left it [unmended]. A 
miracle occured and a caper-bush sprouted 
forth in the field out of which the pious man 
and his household derived their maintenance. 

fFol. 151b) It was taught in a 
Baraitha that R. Simon b. Elazar said: 
"As long as thou hast with whom to practice 

81 Meaning punished even through the Just man Is 



«3nD «^« ••'j-'j; -[}!'? ];2'< H7 nnp-j nan 
«^ }">« .aiia «^ pnx^ Bn:y d: ^^ ''^•ro) 
YBn ^K «^ ^3 (n o'-jnn) n'^n^T yi n7s aiD 
ii3> H'7 'n nn« pns yn pi^"' «^ nns yii-i 
: yn 7i"i:d2 
nm xnon an «m ^^D^? ''o -i"mi ('? ii) 

Dipms iTy^K '<2-\ ncKi .natya pa-n^ nmo 
•IT'S -\2 2p's;'' ""n noKi .nntya □"jy^ npi:j 
mp3i cs: mps ]''np2o ]:nv lan nox 
^y nps^ DVDiD ""nn^ p3^im natyn Dim 
-i3 '7«iOt:> lan nn«i .nnco niai ""poy 

can ""pDy 'ry nps^ mKp7''Da^i niKDpnp^i 
^y I'lDncD w^tyjo •'37 wm .natra 
•nD>? pirnn ^i naira ons''^ mpiiTin 
(nj .TyB") «-ip nos .mims no'?'?! ibd 
^xsm nmoN ixsn .-lan nmi yisn sixoo 
: DnniD cnu' 
nsiBity in« Tonn ntyyti pan i:n (3"y) 
nmi:^ n^^y 170:1 im'^- -["na nsia i^ 
K"?! Tion ims yjo:i nn\n nnrc' nam 
nn\n njom ri'bs u nnVyi dj i'? ntyyji nn: 
: in^a itt':H nojiai inojia 
'J nns^ ytrin-' "la-i nox ""ss -i"« ■'li' n"« 
iDiKT v:si ^y i'7 n'rsiji nypn: lono c^a^ 
nty^N p ty"T ^jn .13 nnrj na 'tiq v 
^niyi 1'? ''ixm «sio nnst- -y n*^'y "aix 

not good. 



206 



n 3 c 



n 



blossoms and flowers for the Torah (revive 
learning) .' 

(Fol. 147b) R. Chelbo said: "The wine 
of t\e land Perugitha* and the batlis of the 
Lake of Dimsith ruined the ten tribes of 
Israel."' R. Elazar b. Arach once happened 
to be there, and he indulged in those luxuries 
to such an extent that he forgot his learning 
and upon liis return, he wanted to read the 
Terse (Ex. 12, 2.) Eachodesh Haze Lachem 
(this month shall be unto you), instead of 
which, he read Hacharash Tlaya Libam (deaf 
were their hearts).' The Rabbis prayed for 
his return unto the Torah, and so it was. 
This is meant when we are taught that R. 
Nehorai said: ''Go into exile only in a place 
of Torah ; say not that the Torah will follow 
thee, or that thy colleagues will preserve it 
for thee. And do not^ depend upon thine own 
acquired knowledge." It is taught that his 
real name was not R. Nehorai but R. Ne- 
chemia, and according to others, R. Elazar 
b. Arach, and the reason he was called Ne- 
horai is because he enlightened the eyes of 
the sages with [his methods of explaining] 
the Halacha. 

CHAPTER TWENTY-THREE 

(Fol. 149 b) R. Jacob, the son of R. 
Jacob's daughter, said: *'He who causes his 
friend to be punished on his account, will not 
he permitted to enter into the abode of the 
Holy One, praised be He!" Whence does he 
learn this? Shall we assume that it is from 
that passage (I King 22, 20.) And the Lord 
said, Who will persuade Achab, that he may 
go up and fall at Ramoth-Crilead. And one 
said, in this manner, and another said, in 
that manner. And there came forth a spirit, 
and placed itself before the Lord and said. I 
will persuade him, etc. And he (the spirit) 
said, I will go forth, and I will be a lying 
spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And 
He said. Thou wilt persuade him, and also 
prevail; go forth and do so. It was asked who 
the spirit was. and R. Jochanan answered: 
'"It was the spirit of Naboth, the Yizre'elite.' 
And what is meant by go forth [which the 
Lord said to the spirit] i. e., go forth from 

s) This sTipports the opinion of R. JoclianaTi who saW that the schotars ot BalbrTou were real scholars and th« 
reason for being -well dressed is because of being In a strange place. 

4) A place In Northern Palestine known tor its good wine. 

s) Because Indulging in much pleasure is detrimental to splrtuaj welfare aiwl th« ten tribes apetut all 
-tbelr time In such pleasures. 

e) H<" forgot the aJphabeit and therefore read a Daleth tor a Reis\, and a Bcilh for a Cheth. 

7) See I Kings 21. 



KiT'^nsi Nion u'i'n '•an new (^"y »dp in) 
.'i'Nntr'D D''Q3B'n m^ inap n^Dom «^m 

cp KiiN mn '3 .nniDTn -ipj?''N in^nns 
CD'7 nrn tyiinn np^D'? Kp «is^d2 np^a^ 
.T7V "'orn jam "lya .d3'7 .T«n fnnn ion 
iD-.N '•Nnnj ''31 pm u-i-im .-■'Tra^n ^1n^ 

^«i (j '^ttT3) -|Ti3 mDi''pi T'T'Dnty T«nn« 

^tmnj '•m TOty inp: nD'71 loty -jiy p 
: n37n3 D''t2Dn •«iij? n\njD5y 

Dn2^;?i niy'?2^ pit b«i2; 

^3 npv^ nan ms spy tsT icn (2"y db-) 
iniN i^D^jDD j>« IT* 'tj; c:!;: ^V2nv 
Qityc «D"«^iK .y'TO .n"3pn '7B' iminos 
ns-N n« ru~iD"» ■'d 'n ics"'! (:3 «"=) 2TI3T 
nn n33 nt nDK-"! ty'?: monz ^ism ^y^i 
iDKM 'n ijs'7 Tioyi nnn ns-'i roa noix 
ipa' nn '«n•»^^1 «ss -losv 'iji unsN ^js 
«x "bDin d:i nnsn noK^i i^k^dj '73 tss 
nn nt linp T'k nn >ra 'ncsi J3 ncyi 
.''n:£''nco ks 3n ids kx iwqi .n:3J 7r 
(HP o-'ji-w) nin3T «dj;d u^n cnn «d^ii 



209 



2pv' rv 



tn 



see that he does do so ? Eami b. Chama said : 
"A beast cannot succeed in destroying a man 
unless the man looks like a beast, for it is 
said (Ps. 49, 21.) Nevertheless man in (his) 
splendor endureth not; he is like the beasts 
(that) perish." 

(Fol. 152a) Eabbi said to R. Simon b. Cha- 
lafta : "Why were we not permitted to see you ' 
on the festival day, as my ancestors were ac- 
customed to receive thy ancestors ?'''" Where- 
upon he answered : "The hillocks became 
mountainous." Those that were intimate and 
friendly, have become estranged,'- two have 
become three." 

And when the doors on the streets will 
h4 locked, while the sound of the mill be- 
Cometh dull, and man riseth up at the voice 
of the bird, and all the daughters of song 
are brought low (Ecc. 12, 4). And when the 
doors on the streets will be locTced, refers to 
the organs of the extremities; While the 
sound of the mill becometh dull, i. e., when 
the stomach fails to grind; And man riseth 
up at the voice of the bird, i. e., when man 
becomes so weak that even the sound of the 
bird's voice disturbs his sleep; And all the 
daughters of song are brought low, i. e., when 
even the loud voices of the singers and song- 
stresses seem to him but as a whisper. Barzil- 
ai, the Giladite, also said the same unto 
David (II Sam. 19, 36.) / am eighty years 
this day: can I discern between good ami 
evil? From this, we learn that the mind of 
a very old man changes [and cannot dis- 
tinguish]. Or can thy servant taste what I 
eat or what I drink? (lb.) From this, we 
learn that the lips of the old become lax (to 
taste). Or can I listen yet to the voice of 
the singers and songstresses? From this, we 
learn that an aged ear can barely hear. Eab 
said: "Barzilai, the Giladite, was a liar; 
for there was a male servant at the house of 
Rabbi, who was ninety-two years old. and 
•would taste all the dishes [prepared for 
the house]." Eaba said: "Barzilai, the 
Giladite, was excessively profligate, and who- 
ever is excessively profligate becomes old 
rapidly." 

It was taught that R. Ishmael, the son of 
E. Jose, said: "The older the disciples of 



no ■'J2D «ns^n ja b'"-i'7 ^an ?"« {--? "i"') 
^mi« i7"'3pntt' -pij '?2-\2 y:^ u^apn «'? 

-■^N P",aO CT171 n:Dl (-' nSnp) .^ti2 n''33 

7''2V2 n:nt:n b'^p 'bstt'i .ms ^ty V2p: 
TiBsn ^ip^ mpM .]mtD irNtr ppiip 
mia 73 inti'"'! .inro-n impa max '""sxti* 
T>'7j? men nn-'ci tl'•^^u '?^p •,^''3Ntr -["^^'n 
(s' n"!r) nn^ IDS ny^an •''jnii r|S .nrntra 
•Vn^ TiU ;"'2 yixn nvn idjs n:ty cioty p 
c« (OB") .mjnB'D wipt '7ty t^yntr ]K3d 
.nncN ntr« mn 'rsis ntr« n« -^3^ oyts' 
(aw) .mQsnnn n-iipr "7^ cn^n^nstyc |N2a 
]«3D .nntt'i ni-ity '7ip2 t,j? votys cki 
'''7in3 3"i "IDS .nns^no cpr ^b> nn-'JTNtr 
nin ^sim snos N\nm n";n sipu' ••Ty^jn 

riDtn ciitaiy •<-rp'?in •'^ina ins sm .snTp 
•.v'?v nxDip -jpr nera fiitacn ^n mn 

iTD^n ims "«Di' ''313 'bKvoty^ •'3-1 s^jn 



"TTT; ^ Rafih Hashana 16 ttat it is a duty to visit one's teacher on a festival day. Hence Rabbi. as 
the PriMe of Bille. who was considered the teacher, was theretore. entitled to be visited by all the scholars »nd 

"^i?" This refers to old age. The road looks like a steep Mil, friends becomvo estranged, and the two 

*^o^™TT!io^*refer5''to either ' the' family that beoomes estranged when age appears, or to the places whi<* 
appear easily aooesslbU when roan is young, but which *ppe»r Inacoesaible when old, because walking is 
dSfflouIiU 



208 



r\2v 



m 



■charity; as long as thou hast the opportunity 
and as long as it is in thy power, do it ! For 
Solomon in his wisdom said so (Kcc. 12, 1.) 
But remember also thy Creator in the days 
of thy youthful vigor, while the evil days are 
not yet come. This refers to old age; And 
those years will draw nigh of which thou ivilt 
say, I have no pleasure in them, refers to the 
days of Messiah when there will be neither 
rewards nor punishment.'' This differs from 
the opinion of Samuel, who said that there 
is no difference between the present world 
and that of the time of Messiah, except the 
subjugation of the exile which will not then 
exist. "for it is said (Deu. 15, 11.) For the 
needy will not cease out of the land. 

We are taught that Rabban Gamaliel, 
the Great, said: "What is meant by the 
passage (Deu. 13, 18.) And He will grant 
thee mercy, and will have mercy upon thee? 
It means to imply that whoever has mercy 
upon creatures, will be granted mercy from 
Heaven, but whoever has not mercy upon 
creatures, will not be granted mercy from 
Heaven." 

We are taught that Eabban Simon b. 
Gamaliel said: "For a baby, one day old, 
if it still have life, it is allowed to violate 
the Sabbath if necessary, for the Torah said, 
'You may profane one Sabbath on his behalf, 
in order that he may be preserved to keep 
many Sabbaths.' No one is however allowed 
to profane the Sabbath for the sake of David, 
the King of Israel, if dead ; for as soon as a 
man . dies, he is freed from the command- 
ments."' This is in accordance with the say- 
ing of E. Jochanan: ''It is written (Ps. 88, 
6) Free among the dead, i. e., as soon as a 
man is dead, he is free from all command- 
ments." 

Again it was taught that E. Simon b. 
Elazar said : "A live baby, even but one day 
old, need not be watched for fear of an at- 
tack bv a cat or a mouse ; but Og, the King 
of Bashan [although the largest man in the 
world] if dead, must be watched for fear of 
an attack bv a cat or a mouse, for it is said 
(Gen. 9, 2.) .ind the fear of you and the 
dread of you. shall he, i. e., as long as a man 
(shall be) his fear will be thrown upon the 
beasts, but when dead, the fear of him 
ceases."* 

E. Papa said : "We have a tradition that 
a lion does not attack two men." But we 



(3' n'jnp) inoDna ids na^ty riKi .-jiu 
«7 nc'S ij? ^nmna ''D''3 yt^-\\2 n« T.rn 
CJ^- ly'Jm r[:pm ••d"' "i:^s n-;^^[ ^n^ •isa-' 
mK'on ''D"' ITS 'fsn cna ^7 px noNn tj« 
^KXt^T K3'7£3i .nam s^i n-Dt k7 cna ]'>»':; 

-iD«jB' 1373 n-i'-'ba nayty K7« n-'tt'on 

: YM<n 3-lpD IT-SK ^IH^ S7 ''3 (ia B'^3^) 

^'7 \r\i-\ ('' °'i:"') ims ""313 a"-i vfin 
nrnsn 'by cmnn ^3 pnm iDnm com 
^y cmc irsty '731 cDtt-n p Ti^y r^nno 
: n"»Dtyn p v^^v ]iDmo ^-ik n";''-i3n 
p'7^nD in lai*" p p-.iTi nois :"3tt-i s^jn 
n2'^ff T'7y 77n m";n mos .n3rn n« v^y 
■^70 T!i .n3-in mnaty niDS'itr ns inx 
ms net:* j-."'3 ."ir; p^7nD i^s na ^svi'i 
]jn-."' 131 "icsi uiim .n-.xcn p '703 
ntj-y: ms nat:* ]V2 ""tysn dtibs (ps o'S^n) 
na-.K -ity'ps p ty"n x^jm .msan p •'c'sn 
p naiiy^ ^Ti" ^"'S ^n lai"' p pirn 
(D n'B-N-in) nawa' c'"n33yn pi m7inn 
in m«c pT ^3 mni D3nm d3stbi 
n^B3 noir ]ii3 mnsn "tj? n^tain inoiK 

: incK 



9) ChilrTiem (dread) wJipd sllgWIy claused to CMi/utclitm, m«anfi "while yon Dto." 



211 



^PV vv 



«n 



Baid (lb.) And his soul will mourn for him; 

and it ia vrritten (Gen. 50, 10.) And he made 
for his father a mourning of seven days." 

E. Juda said : "If a man dies and leaves 
none to mourn his death, ten men shall go 
to his place [where he died] and sit there 
[seven days] ." It once happened that a man, 
in the neighborhood of R. Juda, died, and 
left none to mourn his death; so E. Juda 
went there every day with ten men and sat 
in the place where he died. After seven days 
[the spirit of the dead person] appeared to 
E. Juda in a dream and said to him, "liay- 
est thou be as comforted as thou didst com- 
fort me." 

(lb. b) E. Abuhu said: ''IVhatever is said 
in the presence of a dead body, he knows until 
the closing of the tomb."' Concerning this 
there is a difference of opinion between E. 
Chiya and E. Simon, the son of Eabbi. One 
said that the dead knows "until the closing of 
the tomb" and the other said, "until his body 
is consumed." The one that said until the body 
is consumed derives it from the passage (Job 
14, 22.) But his body on him feeleth pain 
[proving that as long as the body exists it 
feels]. The other who said, until the clos- 
ing of the tomb, derives it from the following 
passage (Ecc. 12, 7.) When the dust will 
rrfurn to the earth as it was [showing that 
as soon as it is buried, knowledge ceases]. 

Our Eabbis taugbt: "And the spirit will 
return unto God, who gave it (Ecc. 12, 7), 
i. e,, return [the soul] to Him just as He 
gave it to you. He gave it to you, purified ; re- 
turn it purified. This may be likened unto the 
mortal king who distributed clothes to each 
of his servants. The wise among them folded 
and put them into a box. The foolish among 
them put them on and performed their daily 
work in them. On a certain day, the kmg 
demanded the return of these clothes. The 
wise men returned their clothes clean and 
pressed, but the foolish returned them m 
a dirty and worn condition. The kmg was 
pleased with the action of the wise men, but 
was full of furv at the fools. He thereupon 
ordered that the clothes of the wise be stored 
and that thev themselves depart m peace, 
but the clothes of the fools were to be 
laundered and they themselves be sent to 
prison. So doeth also the Holy One. praised 
be He ' Concerning the bodies of the right- 
eous. He saith (Is. 57, 2.) Ee shall come 
(to his Father) in peace; they shall repose 



's niD'i'in .pamo i? pstr no mi-'' n"N 

3"'3t5'T Kinn .*iDipD3 D"'3ti-;'>i DIN ''J3 

I'^anjD n">7 hm «'? m-.rp 31- n"'n';33r3 
mc'j? ■'3 riTin"^ 3i -\2i mn noii ^3 {-"-j) 
-v "imns CQi nj;3U' "ins^ n\-i3n3 ''3n''i 
nn3nt:* inyn nun n^b nos-, ■'"m n-io^nn 
nan 1:23 cno'-st:' '73 ■n3K T's .Tiyi n« 
N^n ''3n n3 ^;^73 .^^lan cnoio* ij; yni* 
im '7'7vr\ cnD''*j tv nsis in ^212 ty""n 
73j;n"'ty tj; i"d .ntr3n ^3j;n''B' ty "it2« 

.'U 3S3"' T'7J? nD'3 "]« (t 31'k) 'TiZl -[^2^ 
31B''»1 (3' "'"P) 3^-131 77iJn DnD'''w' nj! 1"0 

3itt*n nnm n"n .n^nvD yiitn 7y isyn 
mm nii'ss i'? n:r\ .njrii Tu-n n\n7Nn t'K 
nD'3 "\^D7 7ti'o .mntD3 nns r,x mnta3 "p 
cn3ty u^nps "i''i3y^ n'i37D nj3 pinv on 
i3'7n cn3t:' ctrDD NDSip3 c-n"'jm Di^sp 
-^cn vp2 co"'^ .n3K'7a cn3 ^^^ 
Dnc'3 i'7 cnnnn cn3t:' cnps v^3 ns 
I'? onnnn cn3t:' ctsd cxnuo 
□■•nps riNip^ "i'7cn net? p3'73i7r) cntyD 
ins cnpsn 'rj .crau riNnp'? dj;31 
cn''n37 is'?-' cm ni'is^ ci'73 i^nj"! 
Mn:-^ D173 noH ctr'stan ^yi m'rty'? 
cjs .Dn-.Dsn n''33 r^'sttn"* en: nD''33^ 
(13 n>vr') "la-.N cpns ^c* CB";; '?'; n"3pn 
«in cncc'j '7j:i cm33*ja '75; imj"' di^b' ks"* 



210 



n2 c 



n 



the wise grow, the more wisdom they acquire ; 
for it is written (Job 12, 11.) So is with the 
ancients, wisdom; and with lc7igth of days 
understanding. As to the ignorant, the older 
they grow, the more foolish they become; 
for it is said (Job 12, 20) He removeth the 
speech from trusty speakers, and taketh away 
the intelligence of the aged." 

Also when men will be afraid of every 
elevation (Ecc. 12, 5), i. e., even a hilloc'k 
appears to old men a mountain top; And are 
terrified on every way (lb.). When they 
(the old) walk on the way, their hearts are 
full of fear; And the almond-tree will blos- 
som (lb.). This refers to the coccyx that 
gives way on account of age; And the locust 
will drag itself slowly along, refers to the 
rump of old men [which feels heavy] ; And 
the desire will gainsay compliance, refers to 
the lust which disappears in the aged. R. 
Cahana was arranging collections of passages 
before Eab and when R. Cahana reached 
to the above passage, Rab gave a long- 
suffering sigh. R. Caliana remarked: 
'•"We understand from this that Rab had lost 
the feeling of youth" (and coming to this 
passage, he felt everything applicable to him- 
self and therefore groaned). 

R. Cahana said : "What is meant by the 
passage (Ps. 33, 9.) For He spoke, and it 
came into being. This refers to a wife; He 
commanded, and it stood fast, refers to 
children." 

Also when men will be afraid of every 
ilevatlon (Ecc. 12, 5), i. e., even a hillock 
looks to him (the aged man) like the highest 
mountain. And are terrified on every way 
(lb.) ; when he walks on the road it (the 
road) becomes for him full of terrors. 

Because man goeth to his eternal home. 
(Ih.) R. Isaac said: "This teaches us that 
to every righteous person will be given a 
dwelling in accordance with his merits in the 
world to come; this may be likened to a 
mortal king who enters a city with his ser- 
rants. When they enter, ail are compelled 
to pass through the same gate, but when 
night comes, each one is given a barth in 
accordance with his rank." 

R. Isaac said further: "The worm is 
na painful to the dead body as a needle in 
sound flesh, as it is said (Job 14. 22.) But 
his bodv on him, feeleth pain." R. Chisda 
paid : "The soul of a man mourns for him 
the first seven days after his death, as it is 



D"«o^ piNi nojn D^B''»5i'U (a* 31'K) nnwB' 

nsv TDD U' 3TK) nowB' Dna neoinj 
"i^T"^ nu:D c: .np^ D^jpr Dyci d^jdnj? 
•«nn3 •\>'?y; nnn n:tip dticoj i^iSNty 
pia -i^nDc njjca pnn cnnnm .nnn 
IT ip^n }>KJ''i .c^^^n cmn i^ ntyy: 
-ism .nu^y i^n sjnn ^anD"*! .nDi3'»^p 
sniD p"'DS mn sjhd m .men n n:T>3«n 
.njn^«T TJj Nnp •««n^ wtac 13 mi n-^tip 
2-\ -ic« .nm n-'-ran n^^ ^1:2 Ct:' ion 

WH IT \n>1 -ION Nin 13 d'^ 0''?nn) T'n s:n3 

: can 17K i:j:j,"i: ms «in 
•m^iy nia ^« msn i^in •'s (a- n^np) 
cjmj pnsi pns '?2^ iD^D pnxt ••a-i id» 
mi iB'n -pD'? ^B'D .nuD •>s'? nno 1^ 

D'713 ]''Di2: DnCD I^Jj'? V]2V' «"n 0J3:tr 

^KD pnv'' i"«i .m33 "iB^ nno ^'? pm: 
^DH nnnrm nn'7\T ^r («' 0=-) a^nsT 
VJ3 BiT^ntrt: inn^ia nny mKB> onm 
tanns no^ ncn ntyp pn^f"* -\"h: .inapr ny^ 

rH^unn DTK ^c 11^33 Nion m -ids .3K3^ 



213 



2pV' PJ? 



j-'n 



to his home." The dead responded, saying: 
"Thou showest that thou hast not even read 
the Prophets, for it is written (Ez. 37, 13.) 
And ye shall know that I am the Lord, when 
I open your graves, and when I cause you 
to come up out of your graves, my people," 
"But," said R. Nachraan, "it is written (Gen. 
3, 19.) For dust thou art, and unto dust 
shalt thou return." Whereupon the dead ex- 
plained to him, saying: "This is meant for 
one hour before the arrival of the final resur- 
rection of the dead [that all dead will return 
to clay]." 

(Fol. 143a) There (in the Mishnah) we 
are taught that R. Eliezer said : "Repent one 
day before thy death." His disciples asked 
E. Eliezer: ''Does a man know on what 
day he will die (in order to repent before 
that day) ?'' Whereupon R. Eliezer said to 
them : "So much the more let him repent to- 
day, lest he die to-morrow; doing thus it 
will be found that he will repent every day 
of his life." Thus also said Solomon in his 
wisdom, (Ecc. 9, 8.) At all times, let thy 
garments be white, and let oil not he want- 
ing on thy head. R. Jochanan b. Zakai said : 
"This may be likened unto the king who in- 
vited his attendants to a banquet, but did 
not set an exact hour. The wise among them 
dressed themselves and stood ready in front 
of the palace, for they said: 'In a king's 
house, nothing is missing, [we might be call- 
ed any moment].' The fools, however, went 
about their business saying, 'Can then a 
banquet be given without preparation for it ?' 
Suddenly the king called in his attendants. 
The wise went in attired becomingly, but the 
fools entered wearing their working clothes. 
The king, being well-pleased with the wise 
and angry at the fools, said: 'Those that 
are properly attired for the banquet shall 
sit down at the table, and eat and drink ; but 
those that are not properly attired, shall 
stand and look on.' " The son-in-law of R. 
Meier, in the name of R. Meier, said that if 
they were waiting on those who were at the 
table [there would be no shame]. "But," 
said he, "both parties will sit down at the 
table, and while one will eat, the other 
will hunger; while one will drink, the other 
will be thirpty, as it is said (Is. 65, 13.) Thus 
hath the Lord Eternal said, 'Behold, my 
servants shall eat, hut ye shall he thirsty; he- 
hold, my servants shall rejoice, hut ye shall 
be tnad« ashamed.' " The passage can be 



DrriK Ti i'7>'-a"i crTiiirp ns -nnsa 'n •»:« 

ij (J D'tTNi:) airiDm ^'k .•'Dj? cs'^nnapo 

Kinn n-"^ -ii3« .2\vn -isy 'rsi nn« nsy 

: wn^n n-'-inn CT;p nnN nj;tr 

13-1 n« miD'i'n I'i'Xty .-[nn-'D ijs^ ins di"' 
f'^i y's .mo"' nv nfs yiT' m« ""ai nry^s 
VG'' ^D KSDJt nnD*? mD"" WDty m^^ 21^^ 
(b nhnp) intsDna IDS nn^tt' TiKi nnitt-na 
^« ItyKT '7J) jDtt'i D"'J3'7 "^n^n rn"" nj; "jDa 
-p'D'? '?vn ■'«3T p pm"' pi iD« .iDn'» 
pt nn'7 y2p s'i'i nnyo'? inay n« lontr 
nns ^v ^2t^"'^ I'^^j? ns lua-p nnatr cinpa 
pc'Dta ."i^Dn n''3'7 ion Di'7D iiDK "]'7Dn n-ts 

v-[2y n« i^nn tt*p3 D^sns .nnta «^3 

pi^D ■l'7Dn ■'3S'7 1DJD3 Cn^V □■'HpS 

intrs vjB^ io:3J p3tt* pc'Ecm o'^tDCipo 
Dj!3i pnps riNip^ *i^on ncti* .p3^n'70 
psy n« it2tt'pty ^b'?r\ icss .dtsis nsip'? 

^ty i:nn •int'I iidj;^ nnjjD'? psy ns 
i^'bn rn-'tr ''S"i'7m t3"i cib'd idik hm d"i 

i^^m DTntr i^^n □"'ayi i^^m p^^is i^^n 
""laj? n:n 'n ids hd (no n^i'vr) 'v::^ Qisax 
Dn«i inty nay n:n uyin dtiki i^2i<i 
ipysn cnsi 3^ 31120 i:n •'i3y n:n isosn 



212 



n 3 ts' 



an 



in their resting place; and concerning their 
souls He saith (1 Sam. 25, 2!).) Yet will the 
soul of my Lord be hound in the bond of 
life with the Lord, thy God. Concerning the 
bodies of the wicked, He saith (Is. 48, 22.) 
There is no peace, saith the Lord, unto the 
wicked, and concerning their souls. He saith 
(I Sam. 25, 29.) And the souls of thy 
enemies will He hurl away, as out of the 
sling." 

We are taught that R. Eliezer said : "The 
Bouls of the righteous are reserved under- 
neath the throne of the Divnne Majesty, as it 
is written (lb.) Yet will the soul of my Lord 
be bound in the bond of life, while the souls 
of the wicked are becoming more and more 
greasy, as it is said (lb.) And the sotil of thy 
enemies will He hurl away, as out of the 
sling." Eabba asked of R. Nachman : "How 
is it with the souls of the average persons?" 
R. Nachman replied : "I might have died 
without telling }-ou this thing. Thus said 
Samuel: 'The souls of both, the average 
and the wicked are given over to the angel 
Dumah; the former, however will have rest 
while the latter v.-ill have no rest at all.'"' 
R. Mari said : *1n the future, the bodies 
of the righteous will turn to dust, for it is 
written (lb.) Where the dust will return to 
the earth as it was." 

There were grave-diggers who dug in the 
earth belonging to R. Nachman and were 
rebuked by R. Achai b. Yashia [whose grave 
the diggers molested.] They came and 
said to R. Xachman: "We were re- 
buked by a man." R. Nachman went there 
and asked him: "Who are you, master?" 
He responded: "I am Achai b. Yashia." 
"Has not i;. Mari said that, "In the future, the 
bodies of the righteous will return unto 
dust?"' said R. Nachman [and why there- 
fore, is vour body preserved]. '''Who is ilari? 
I know him not," said the dead one. '"But,'* 
again said R. Nachman, "this is the passage, 
When the dust will return to the earth as it 
was." The dead responded : "He who read 
with thee Ecclesiastes did not, however, read 
with thee Proverbs, where it is written (14, 
30.) But jealousy is the rottenness of the 
lones, which means that [only] he who has 
jealousv in his heart, his bone? shall rot after 
death." Thereupon R. Nachman tried to feel 
[the substance of the dead bodvl and he 
found it to be a real substance. R. Nachman 
then said to him : "Let the master arise and go 



nci« N:n cjjB'i ^ty ]B',: i]) .c*^nn nnx2 

••an x-'jn .3;':pn rjs iina nij;7p> y2'<M< 
nnn mnj: cpn:* 'be inocj ioik nty^^« 
n-mx ""jns ub: ^n^^^ '«:»» nu^n kdo 
n-,;?-;.!! jt;ocit cyan 7tt'i .D''''nn inxn 

.^«D D>:^j^D ^c ;em an^ nrn y'N .-;'?pn 
«n^"'!2 "iNn ir'7 noK n? sj^'^rr n;"'s y'« 

:nmjn on^ ps -^^m nm:D an'? ^-^ i^^n 
Nnsy nm n-'p-'is piTij? inn m idn 
p«n 'tj; neyn r,tt"'T (2' n^np) 2>r\oi 
sm KV-i«2 i^ep v,m ••xbisp -njn .n\nB'3 
ins ..Ta'S"" 13 \sn« "'st --3 in: pm 
«ns .K-13: p inj pnj 317 n-i^ nasi 
.n''tr«'' 13 •'Nns sjs y'x .id •,n''j jsa ^'ni 
r,n-\ •'pnx n-Tij; no 3i no« is^i ^'x 
.ni^ SiyTi N7T no ijo-, .t^ ids .«isj; 
^j? -isyn 3:tr''i 3^n3 sip Nm n^b los 
VipK x^ n^np ynpNT ys .n^n'ir'D j'lKn 
^3 nwp niDxj; 3pm (t '^c-o) i-in3T ^^b'd 

^3 ]''3''P"1Q TTl^D SJ? 1373 ."TKip 17 '^"'t:' -iD 

.p3"'pnD rmcsy p« i3'73 n«jp i^ pwe' 
'^D«T 7inyi« ni^: y'« .Kni3T n"«ij^ id 



215 



py 



im 



Sabbath]. He who was born on the Sabbath 
will die on the Sabbath, because the Sabbath 
was violated on his account when he was 
bom. Raba b. Shila said: "He will be 
called the great and pious man." R. Chanina 
Baid [to his disciples who recited this be- 
fore him] : "Go and tell the son of Levi 
that not the day's planet [has influence] but 
the constellation of the hour [of birth].' He 
who was born during the hour in which the 
Sun serves, will be a bright man; he will eat 
and drink of his own [like the sun which 
encroaches upon none] ; he will not be able 
to conceal his secrets, neither will he be suc- 
cessful in stealing. He who was born dur- 
ing the hour in which the planet Venus 
Berves, will be rich and of a voluptuous dis- 
position, because to that planet the fire was 
attached [and this man wUl also he of hot 
temper] . He who was born during the hour 
in which the planet Mercury serves, will be 
an intelligent and wise man, because that 
planet is the secretary of the Sun. He who 
was born during the hour in which the Moon 
serves, will be burdened with sickness; he 
will build and destroy, destroy and rebuild; 
he will eat not of his own and drink not his 
own [like the Moon which has no light of her 
own] and he will be able to conceal his se- 
crets. He will be successful also in stealinsf. 
He who was born during the hour in which 
the planet Saturn serves, will meet disap- 
pointment in all of his expectations,^ and 
according to some, whatever others will plan 
against him, will turn to naught. He who 
was born during the hour in which the 
planet Jupiter serves, will be a righteous 
person." And R. Nachman adds: 'He will 
be righteous in religious duties.' He who 
was born during the hour in which the planet 
Mars serves, will be a man whose occupation 
is to shed blood." R. Ashi said: [He will 
be] "Either a sergeant or a thief, or a butcher 
or a Mohel." Rabba said : "I was bom dur- 
ing the hour in which the planet Mars 
serves." Abaye said to him: "The ma=ter 
indeed is like one of them, for thou punish- 
eth those who violate thv orders." R. Chan- 
ina said : "According to the destinies is a 
man's wisdom and according to the destinies 
are his riches and Israel is not dependent on 
nativity." 



^N-ii^ n37 n"'^ noiN ipis wjn lan in^ nD« 
■"Kn .DTi: nyc* ^td «'?« mu uv 7td «? 

\s2n Tny in: sn' n:u noim jno "'«n 
]No •'«n .«m: n^2 x-'vniKi men q"d «n' 

'7"'3D "132 h?n^ n:3:3T ]sd ''«n .«in nom 

«7T '7''3S •'«J31 TTID TTlDI •'«J3 P^IO 

33J •*« pD3 %Tini nvn sn ^nc'i n^^n 



-\2i sni 



'«sn3i:*3T :«D •'sn .n^xo 



]"'3cnDT '73 noNi n-'xi .]^7t33 H^nstrno 
-13; Nn^ pii-3T ^xn •'«n .|"'^n3 ••m^y 
.msD3 ipns pnx" n3 ]Dn: 31 ids .|pi!f 
n"s .sm n"'ti*N 13: sn-' ^1x031 jso N^n 
.s'i'n'iD "IS «n3D ■'« ^333 ■<« sjdis "^s ""cw 

-ID ^"'3« nOS ."'S'lH Cn«D3 «:« n3-l ION 

■ttd nois «r:n 'n ^tn^s .^■'cpi tr':y ^0: 
^31 .^siiy''^ '710 c'11 I'cya ^To c^3na 

, gge Berachoth 50, that there are eeren "walking planets" which serve constantly, each one an 
hour and ia a ooniUnual rotation. The names of the planets are Sun, Mars. Venue. Mercury. Moon, Saturn and 

Jupiter. .... ,, 

2) The word Sajtum In Hebrew Is Saithai which means hinder. 
9) Jupiter In Hebrew is Tzeddek which means "righteous." 



214 



n ^ V 



in 



explained in another way: at all times let 

thy garments be white, refers to Tzitzith, 

and let oil not be wanting on thy head, re- 
fers to Tephilin. 

CHAPTER TWENTY-FOUR 

(Fol. 155b) R. Jonah expounded in front 
of the house of the Prince of the Exile: 
"What is meant by the passage (Pr. 29, 7.) 
The righteous considereth the cause of the 
indigent, i. e., the Holy One, praised be He! 
knoweth that a dog has not enough food and 
therefore ordained that the food shall remain 
in his stomach (undigested) for three days." 

(Fol. 156a) It was written in the memor- 
andum of E. Joshua b. Levi: "He who was 
bom on the first day of the week, will be a 
man in whom not one thing will be found." 
What does "not one thing will be found"' 
mean? Shall I say [that it means] he will 
not possess one good thing? Has not R. 
Ashi said: "I was bom on the first day of 
the week," [and he surely possessed many 
good things] . Shall I say, on the other hand 
that there will not be found one 'bad thing 
in him? Behold, R. Ashi said : "I and Dimi 
b. Kakuzita were both hern on the first day 
of the week, yet I am a chief [of an Acad- 
emy] while he is a chief of thieves!" We 
must therefore, say [that he means this] : He 
will be either entirely good or grossly bad, 
because light and darkness were created [on 
the first day of creation]. He who was born 
on the second day of the week, will be a 
quarrelsome man, for on the second day of 
the week, the division of water took place 
[which shows disagreement]. He who was 
bom on the third day of the week will be rich 
and of a voluptuous disposition, because all 
grass came forth on the third day of creation 
[which are abundant in number but without 
distinction]. He who was born on the fourth 
day of the week, will be a scholar and a 
liriijht man, because on this day the lumi- 
naries were hung up in heaven. He who was 
bora on the fifth day of the week, will be a 
charitable man, because on this day the fishes 
and the fowls were created [which do not 
work for their maintenance, but are supplied 
by God]. He who was bora on the Sabbath 
eve will he a zealous man and E. Nachman b. 
Isaac said: "He will be zealous in the ex- 
ecution of religious duties" [because on the 
Sabbath eve everybody works in honor of the 



"l^^s vn^ nj? ^D3 inn i3i .3^ nw^n 
iDn"" ^N "^cKn '7JJ piri .n^xix "i'7K d^ji^ 

131 KnnB« -J1"' lan u'li (-"v nj? 1^) 

Qiay-.D iin-ijiiDiy 3'733 n"3pn yir .dvt 

3723 .«Di2 xnii ryoa "n'7''3« n-;yn nD3 
: ny? nyo l>^> na''7C 

•'I'? ]3 ytyi-i 13-n niDprBS 3in3 {-'-p -t;) 
.n''3 «in «7i 13: Nn-" n3C'3 -n3T jnd >v.7\ 

«m3"'tS'7 sin «^1 KD"''7''K .n'»3 Kin N71 ind 
«'?« .^Nin N3C*3 in3 «J« itt'N 31 IDKm 

lom «:n i'^x 31 iDsm it:"'37 sm ";S7 
Kim I'i'D k:k N3ty3 in3 j"*"'!" Nnnpp 13 
ni^iD "N ■i3"'D'7 nvo IK .K^K .■'3JJ tt'n mn 
\fy\ 13: Kni K3t:'3 nn3i jk:: ^Kn A^^ib 
]K0 isn .Kia n"'3 uvbini dicd q"d 
ik:;! iMj; i3a kh^ K3t:'3 Kn7n3i 
]KD ""Kn .013CJ," n"»3 r\y»' ur^ra d"d 
c".c'D D"o i^n:! csn 133 Kn^ Kstrs 'lai 
KirDn3i ;k3 'kh .nn-.KD n'3 I'^n^Ki 
Ditt'is Knvu iKD cncn 'rm: i33 Kn' K3tt'3 
''7j;o3i ^KD iKH .msiyT DiJi ni3 ns^KT 
pnx"" 13 pn: 3i itsK prn 13J Kn-* Knst? 



217 



apy' I'y 



n 



lection to-day.' When I reached that [poor] 
man I made it appear as if I took a portion 
from him [but in reality I gave away 
my own share] and thus prevented the poor 
man from becoming embarrassed." "Thou 
hast fulfilled a meritorious deed of charity," 
tras Samuel's remark. Thereupon Samuel 
Went out and expounded, "But righteousness 
will deliver from death (Pr. 11, 4). Not 
jnly will it deliver from an unnatural death, 
but aJso from a natural one." And from 
Akiba, we also learn that Israelites are not 
subject to destiny, for E. Akiba had a 
daughter of whom the Chaldeans predicted 
that on the day on which she would enter 
the garden, a snake would bite her, and she 
would die of the effect. This prediction 
caused R. Akiba much worry. One day his 
daughter took off her head-dress in the 
garden and as she stuck the sharp side into 
the fence, she happened to pierce the eyes 
of a snake who was then at the fence, and 
it was killed. The next morning when she 
took her head-dress, the dead snake was drag- 
ging after her, so her father asked her: 
"What meritorious deed hast thou performed 
to-day that thou wast saved from the snake ?" 
She told him: "One day late in the after- 
noon, a poor man appeared at the door. The 
whole family were busy at their meal and 
none heard him but I; upon hearing him, 
I took the portion which was given to me 
and gave it to the poor man." "Thou hast 
performed a meritorious act of charity," re- 
marked R. Akiba. Thereupon R. Akiba went 
out and expounded : "Charity delivered from 
death (Pr. 11, 4), and not only does it 
deliver from an unnatural death but also 
from a natural one." 

And from R. Nachman we learn 
also that Israelites are not subject to 
destiny, for H. Nachman's mother had a 
prediction from the Chaldeans that her son 
(R. Nachman) would be a thief. So she 
always watched him that he should not be 
left bare-headed, saying to him: "Always 
keep thy head covered that thou mayest have 
the fear of the Lord, and pray to Him for 
mercy." He never understood what she re- 
ferred to. One day he was sitting and study- 
ing underneath a date-tree, when it happened 
that his hat fell off his head. He lifted up 
his eyes and saw the fruit on the tree. His 
inclination overwhelmed him and he climbed 
up the tree and cut off a branch of fruit with 
his teeth. [Hence it shows that while crav- 
ing God's mercy, a man can escape all 
destinies] . 

THE HND OF SABBATH 



p£33 .mny mxo iT"^ nas .fjiD^^'? n't! 
.moD ^•'xn n^p^i^ («» '^tro) trni ^isioty 
.nosy nnioa «^k mwD nnian «^i 

Sinn •'in^3 .T"^ "•"ins «m3 n-"^ Nvn «3''py 

KaT" Sinn .Kmn Kn^as «:''S"i mn 
^ann^K sim «nsi sn:3Da^ Kn"7pc^ 
x^pty sp ■'3 «nDS'7 .K-iim n-'i'-ya a^n'^s 
n^ naK .mm w-iin '•n«i -pno «p mn iH 
«nK Kijss T)>i maK .may "wo mss 
«a^y i^is nnta mm «n3« Knp «^jj; 
.T'n'i'pty N:a''Np n-'yatrT to>'7i K.mijjDa 
n'7 iBK .n^^ni: n-riin^ ••'7 nann ■'NjriDn 
^•"sn npnxi tmi y"n ps: .m^y^'p msa 
.nasy nrr'aa is^« niims nnnsa n^i man 
^Knty"*^ ^ra j-ik ''a: pHS*" na pm amai 
■'K^73 n^ na« pHx-" ~i3 pn: yn maiWT 
mtyn •"'•i^j nTipstr k'? .mn «33: ini 
"j'7y ■'imm ""aM 13 .T-tyn •'DS n-"^ max 
yi^ mn ,«^ .■«am •'ym s-'atrr «na"«K 
D-i-iJ sp sTi'' nn Kai"" .ni^ masp •'Nax 
*«^i n-ityn •<i^''yo Ka'«^:i ^S3 s^pn ^mn 
p-'^D .n'»ns'» n-'a^M s'i'pint' nsrn n"'j''y 

: n^J*tS>3 ni2''p'7 n-'pDB 



216 



n 3 ty 



Ton 



R. Jochanan said that Israel does not come 
under the fate or influence of stars,* and R. 
Jochanan said : "Whence do we infer that 
Israel is not dependent on planetary in- 
fluence? It is said (Jer. 10, 2.) Thtis hath 
the Lord said, 'Do not habituate yourself to 
the way of the nations, and at the signs of the 
heavens be ye not dismayed'; although the 
nations should he dismayed at them. i. e., 
other nations should be disma)ed by them but 
not Israel." Rab also contends that Israel 
does not come under the control of stars for 
R. Juda said in the name of Rab : "Whence 
do we learn tliat Israel is not dependent on 
planetary influence? It is said (Gen. 15, 5.) 
And he brought him forth abroad, i. e. 
Abraham said before the Holy One, praised 
be He I 'Sovereign of the universe. One born 
in my house tuill be my heir!' (lb. ib. 3.) 
To which the Lord answered, 'This one shall 
not be thy heir but he that shall come forth 
from thy bowels.' (Ib.) He again pleaded: 
'Sovereign of the universe, I have searched 
my constellation and have found that I am 
incapable of having a son.' 'Cease thy as- 
trological speculations,' said the Lord to him, 
'for Israel stands not under planetary in- 
fluence. Why do you think so? Is it not 
because the planet Jupiter stands in the West 
(i. e., thy planet is on the point of declin- 
ing) ? I shall cause it to return to the East/ 
And thus is meant by the passage (Is. 41, 
2.) Who woke up from the East the man 
whom righteousness met on his steps." 

(Ib. b) And from Samuel it is also under- 
stood that Israel is not subject to nativity; 
for Samuel was once sitting with Abalat (the 
astrologer) while some persons passed by on 
their way to the field. "This man," said 
Abalat to Samuel, "is going away but will 
not return, for a serpent will bite him 
and he will die." "If he is an Israelite," 
remarked Samuel, "he will return." While 
they were sitting, that man returned. Abalat 
rose immediately and examined the man and 
found in his pack a serpent cut in two. 
"What [meritorious] deed has thou per- 
formed to-day?" inquired Samuel of that 
man. The man answered: "We are ac- 
customed to make every day a collection of 
evorvone's bread, and eat that in company. 
To-dav we had a man amon? us, who, [I 
knew] had no bread, and seeing that he 
wniild be put in an embarrassing position, I 
.^aid to the company, 1 will make the col- 



\:n\^ '-\ siTKi ^xic'^'i? '7TD ps nD« \:nv 
^Hnt5"^ ^TD ]^nu i':d pm' T'ni n-'Dyo^ 
^N D^ijn "im '7N 'n ick hd (i -'dt) ivh:':; 
inn' ''3 innn '?« cocn mm«Di no^n 
.^«^t5''• s^i mm 0^320 n3ij? nono OMjn 
min-i 3n nosn ^Nnc'^ '710 i-ix 130 3-1 ci« 

IDKJt? '7K-1B*''7 ^tD ]'«iy ]'JD 3n IDK 
Dm3K "IDX nsinn imw WXI^I (us n'ir«i3) 

•••mN v^^'< "'n"»3 p (ov) j,""c3n n"3pn ^jb? 
•''7B' mrj:QS'K3 in'73nDj j;"tt'3"\ i*js^ 

«X 17 nOK .p Ti^in^ ^',KT 'i'Hl 
•'ND ^Nnty'7 "TTD ]^HW t?^ mj'JJDS^HD 

NjmnD 3-iyD3 pix '«pT (2"jr) ynvi 
3^131 ir^m .mtD3 n<7 sj-iiDpim 
inKip' pTf mtDD i^yn -"d (ko .Ti-o") 
'jsnB'"'^ ^iD pK ■'DJ VsiDts'-rai ^'?i^'? 
yn I'bTNp nm ^3n' nn u'73ni ^xioct 
Kn33 •'Kn ^KIDty^ D^3K ^"k .kdjk^ ^wk 
nox .n"'DT K-iin n>'? pnm K"»n« k^i ^vk 
.••nw ^VK Nin '7«nc'' "i3 '•k 'JKioa' n''? 

iT-JID^ i-lB' Ob3K Dp .TIMI ^t« ''3nn« 

.''2M 'mn3 ■'nci p-'DST s-iin n'3 n3ts'« 
NCI' "73 n">^ "iDN -msy ••sr) ^Kiaty Vb 
p"''73Ki mn 'in3 snan jj-'mn 'in 
nin K^T p'n nn sr^x nin s:TNn 
'.n^ WDS ri'D3a Kp mm nds'i n'^ 



4) H*DC« Israel •ouM change his destinies through prayers. 



219 



3py^ py. 



an 



acuic; for it is -written (Ts. 30, 20.) But thy 
eye shall see thy teacher." 

E. Abuhu said in the name of K. Jo- 
chanan: "R. Meier had a disciple named 
Sumchus, who used to assign to each leviti- 
callj' unclean thing forty-eight reasons for 
its being unclean; and to each clean thing 
forty-eight reasons for its being clean." 

We are taught that there was once a 
pious disciple in Jamnia who could prove a 
reptile to be clean by one hundred and fifty 
[sham] reasons.* 

E. Abba, in the name of Samuel, said: 
"The schools of Shammai and Hillel were 
at variance for three years: the one party 
contending that 'the Halacha is in accordance 
with our views,' and the other party contend-- 
ing likewise, 'the Halacha is in accordance 
with our views.' Then came a Bath-Kol (a 
Heavenly voice) and said 'Both, these and 
those are the words of the living God, but the 
Halacha is according to the school of Hillel.' " 
Since both these and those were the words 
of the living God, what was the merit of the 
lichool of Hillel that the Halacha should be 
iixed according to their opinions? The rea- 
son was that its disciples were gentle and 
Bubmissive [for while they rested upon their 
own decision], they also studied those 
opinions maintained by the school of Sham- 
mai ; and moreover, they even mentioned 
the words of the school of Shammai before 
jientioning their own words. As we are 
taught (in a Mi?hnah) : "When one sists with 
his head and the greater part of his body 
vrithin the Succah but has his table within 
Ids house, the school of Shammai says 'It 
is WTong' ; the school of Hillel says 'It is prop- 
er.' The school of Hillel said to the school of 
Shammai, 'Did it not happen once, that the 
elders of the school of Shammai and the eld- 
.-rs of the school of Hillel visited R. Jochanan 
1). Hachoranith and they found him sitting 
\(rith his head and the greater part of his 
body within the Succah, but his table in the 
liOTise? Hence we have the precedent that 
makes it proper.' To which the school of 
Shammai answered: *You cannot use this 
incident as evidence because they did say 
1o him. If thou hast alwavs been accustomed 
lo do so then thou hast never fulfilled the 
.■ommandment of Sucmh.'" [During this 
conversation the Hillel ites mentioned the 
uame of Shammai before mentioning their 
own words]. This teaches us that he who 

""^T jTreptlle Is unclean. See Lev. 11, 14. 



iT'n in« T'c^n pnT" -i"n inas i"« ■T'Tid 
'73 ^y noiH ^^^'Ly lot:' d".2didi n"-i'7 i? 
"rj;! nsiain •'oyta n"n nsoita '7ty nam nsT 
•mnti 'Dj;t2 n"D mnn b^ nan nm ^d 
nntan n\ntr n^i^n n-'n pTii T'D^n «<jn 
pn« 13N m nDN .□'•oyQ j"p3 j'T^rn n« 

ty"3 "ip'7n3 D''iC 'J ^NIDtt* 1DH KiS n"« 

D^ms ',^^m ijmD3 na^i Dnms i^'i'n n"3i 
•i7K en? masM 7ip na nns'' umcD r:2'?n 
.n"2 ■'-1310 nD^m p n"n dm^n nm i'7M1 

•"iSD ni''n DV"l^« •'-I3T I^KI 1^«T "inKo •'3^ 

'':so .^mo3 riDbn jjisp? n"3 "dt to 

ty"3 n3T ]"'C"'npDti' «^K mj? N^i 'ts'"n 
■ic'xn n-'nt? ""D irjcc nm«3 Dn"'i3i^ 
p'7Di3 u'"3 n-^an "(ins un^tri nsioi ism 
n-in 13 K7 ^"37 n"3 inns .]"'T'sr3Q n"3i 
nN "ip3^ n"3 •':pn t:'"3 •'jpr i3%ity nB^n 

\n'? nos .n^3n -[ins un^tri nr-D3 i3m 
•^3 CN 1^ nn« p ti«'n^sT dc*d •'kdb' n"'3 
.^CD na-.D m^fc nDi-ip K7 :m: ni'^n 



21S 



iiiniiiiiiiiiiiMmMinm iiiMiiiiiiiiiniiiiniiiiii 



nn 



ERUBIN' 



CHAPTER ONE 



!w 



innniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiii^ 



j^n-in^y 



miiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiH^ 



(Fol. 2a) We find that the Temple is 
Bometimes called Mishkan and that the 
Tabernacle is called Mikdash. It is quite 
right that the Temple is sometimes called 
Mishkan, for it is wTitten (Lev. 26, 11.) And 
I will set my Mishkan (Tabernacle) among 
youJ^ But whence do we infer that the 
Tabernacle is called Mikdash f Shall we as- 
sume it from this passage (Num. 10, 21.) 
And then set forward the Kehathiles, the 
bearers of the Mikdash (Temple) ; and the 
others set up the Mishkan (Tabernacle) until 
they come. This referred only to the ark 
[and not to the Temple]. But this we learn 
from (Ex. 25, 8.) And they shall make me 
a Mikdash and I will dwell in the midst of 
them, [referring to the Tabernacle]. 

(Fol. 3a) People say: "A pot that be- 
longs to partners is neither cold nor warm." 

(Fol. 13b) E. Acha, the son of R. Chah- 
ina, said : "It is revealed and known to Him 
who spoke and created the world, that there 
was none like R. Meier in his generation [in 
wisdom and learning] ; why then did they 
not determine the Halacha (Law) according 
to his opinions? Because his associates were 
unable to fathom his ultimate conclusion ; for 
he could say of a thing levitically unclean, 
that it was clean and give reasons that made 
it appear so; and of a clean thing, he would 
say it was unclean and give reasons which 
made it appear so.'' We are taught that 
"His name was not R. Meier but R. Nehorai.* 
Why waa he called R. Meier? Because he 
caused the eyes of the wise to brighten with 
his words." 

Rabbi said : "The reason that I am more 
acute [in wisdom] than my fellow-students 
is because I have seen R. Meier in the back, 
[when he was lecturing]. Had I seen him 
face to face, I would have been still more 

-T,"!^ treatUe of Erubin d^ell. «l«n community l^'^.^^^ro'yaM, l^afyTde u™°L Krul'^'cof sW?Bg 
without the City Hml.3 is -' P^™'"^,^ g-^'^f, '?^^^^^"„ ■n^ttar^L^eVe^the V»l d^yf^y wtch^a^^^^^ 
lLS^rl\tt'f^e%'t^i^t^^^^ b.: mo'v'renl: TZ kbbath "are measur«l from that d^posi^ry as the 
•""^ Tn*^?;^'?ut.rrera'%hf T:£"naTe?an[r.SS Ca exietetK. .t that time. It therefore must refer 



nty^n pis ""ina- 

pcm \2^n np-iKT npD ihdb'k (3 «n) 

pBTS ''-ip'«KT ripn sc^tya .i^ipD ""-ipiKT 
«^K .C2inn "'j-ti'D Tinji (1= «ip'i) aTiST 
«nD Kn"»^^s .f? sra B^npn np^«n pe'D 

•>nu^: Qinnpn ij;djt (' i^io^) stiot 
(i"y av] csu nj; \3v12n n« "icpm tripcn 

(ns motr) srnD «'?« .ITID \',M<2 «inn 

: D3"nn Tijatyi vipn <7 icyi 
K^ ••BniB'T mip ^tyi-'K ncN (^ ^i'') 

V1T1 ""i^J t^J'^Jn na «n« !"« (^"v J' =ii) 
^ly nns ^'SB' D^-.yn n-'m nosty ■•ts •>:s'} 
•■mD3 HD^n -.ynp «: no ■'jsm ".mca d"i 
.inyi t\^n '?y i'dj?'? Ti-ian i^a"" «^b' ''iso 

«^ wn .n-'is 1^ n«iDi sod -nnta 'bvi 
TOtr sipj HD'i'i ".Dty •'sninj 'i s^k lot:* D"n 
«?i ,n37n3 "'C2n ^ry T'SO n\T^' t2""i 

^an '.at:' snp: rrc'?'! 'icty iny p «""i 
-iri« .nD':nn D'»arn •»ry Tinictr ''«mm 
o"n7 n^nnm •'Ninnn «mnm isn ^m 



smnc ""Kin -"scpD n-rinn ii?iKi .TTinsa 



221 



ry 



«3n 



One, praised be He! 'Sovereign of the uni- 
verse, let my food be even as bitter as the 
olive leaf, but direct from your hand, and 
not from the hand of a mortal man, although 
it may be as sweet as honey.' " How do we 
know that the word Teref (plucked) indi- 
cates food? For it is here written, Teref 
(plucked) in her mouth, and it is written 
there (Pr. 30, 8.) Ilairifeni'- (let me eat) 
the bread appointed to me. 

E. Jeremiah b. Elazar said further: "A 
house, where the words of the Torah are heard 
even at night shall never be destroyed, it is 
said (Job 35, 10.) But the man who fiUeth 
the night with song, saith not, 'Where is God, 
my mal-er.'" 

R. Jeremiah b. Elazar said further: 
"Since the destruction of the Temple, it is 
sufQcient for [the men of] the world to use 
only two letters- [of the Holy Name, instead 
of four], as it is said (Ps. 150, 6.) Let every 
thing that hath breath, praise the Lord 
Hallelujah." 

E. Jeremiah b. Elazar said further: 
"T\'hen Babylon was cursed, it was a curse to 
its neighbors also; but when Samaria was 
cursed the neighbors were blessed because of 
it. When Babylon was cursed, it was a 
curse to its neighbors also, as it is written 
(Is. 14, 23.) I will also make it a possession 
for the hedgehog, and pools of tvater; where- 
as when Samaria was cursed, its neighbors 
were blessed, as it is written (Micha 1, 6.) 
Therefore will I change Samaria into stone 
heaps on the field, into plantations of vine- 
yards [that could be put to use]." 

(Fol. 19a) E. Jeremiah b. Elazar said 
further: "Gehenna has three entrances: 
one in the desert, one in the sea, and one in 
Jerusalem. In the desert, as it is written, 
CXum. IG, 33) A?2d they went doivn, they, 
and all that appertained to them, alive into 
tlie pif.^ In the sea, as it is written (Jonah 
2, 3.) Out of the depth of the grave have I 
cried, and Thou haM heard my voice.* In 
Jerusalem, as it is written (Is. 31, 9.) Who 
hath a fire in Zion, and a furnace in Jeru- 
salem." In the academy of Ishmael it was 
taught that a fire in Zion refers to Gehenna. 
And are there no more entrances to Gehenna? 
Has not R. Muryun, in the name of E. Joshua 
b. Levi, said, and according to others, Eabba 

1) Teref and Hatrifent are of the same origin. 

2) The Divine Name with the ietters In which it 
are "used in the last ietters of the word Balleluyah 

3) See the next paragraph that Gehenna has seven 

4) He was wiithin a flsh in the sea. 



•cm "iirn Tin pi'bm ^212 i^-^int: ",\t 
: ■'p"n en'? iJEntin 

(n^ :-'N) -iDSJtt' 3nm "irK 3",B' n7''^3 n"T 

nn''ot ;mj "itr-v m'i'N iT« ion «7i 
3nnr c^-'D -it3;7S p nioT' n"Ni .n'7''^3 
intt*3 D'cnt:*"'!:' c'7-iy'7 ri c-ipnn n^i 
^^nn -t:r:n '73 Up Q'''nn) lexju' m^mx 
•733 n^7pnj "iry^s p .t'd-i"' n"Ki .n> 
i3n3n: inmc •,'7?pnj ,n'':''3ty i^^pnj 
n"'r3ty lYypn: '733 n'^bpn: .nijisty 

11E"'P BniD'7 nTmiT'l (t nijjtt") 3in3T 

n"'j"'3c i3n3n: inD^ty n^'bpn: ,d"'D ioj«i 

: m3 ■'ync'? (o in) 

tt"' D"'nn3 ': nrv^s p .t'CT' 13-1 noNi 
.D"'^tyn"'3 'N-i C13 insi I3ic3 ins c:n''S7 
nc*« ^31 on m^i (»•- i^in:) 3"'n3T n3"ra3 

]123D (: n3T) 3"in3T ^3 .nVINty Cin DH^ 

3in3i c"'^i:'TTi3 .i^ip nyott* ^nyity ^ixb^ 
1^ m:m ]VJ2 i^ ni« icn (k^ n-i-ts") 

nnns it □'•^^•1113 i'? m^m cjn^j it jins 
jrniD 131 ncsm sd""? im .ajnij ^a' 

Is written Is a quadrilateral. A half, the first two letters^ 
names Including those mentioned here. 



20 



p 3 n ^ y 



31 



bumbles himself, the Hoi}' One, praised be 
He ! will raise ; ami whosoever exalts him- 
eelf, the Holy One, praised be He ! will abase. 
Whoso pursueth greatness, greatness will floe 
from him ; and whoso fleeth from greatness, 
greatness will pursue' him. And whoso forces 
time, will, in return, be forced by the time; 
))Ut to him who gives way to time (yielding 
i)atiently to circumstances), time will give 
way. 

Our Eabbis taught : "For two and a half 
years the school of Shammai disputed with 
the school of Ilillol. One side claimed that 
it would have been much better had man not 
been created, and the other side claimed that 
'It is far better that man has been created 
than if he had not been created.' At the 
end of that period, they counted the number 
of opinions; it was found that the ma- 
jority held that it would have been much 
better had man not been created, but that 
since he had been created it behooved him 
to examine his actions, and according to 
others, to be careful of his actions." 

(Fol. 14a) Our Rabbis taug!ht that: 
"The sea which Solomon made° was as large 
as one hundred and fifty MiJcvaoth."^ Now, 
let us see what the size of a Milcva is? Forty 
Seali,'' as we are taught. Then shall he bathe 
his whole body in water (Lev. 15, 16), i. e.. 
In water of a Mil-va; Ilis whole bodi/^ (Tb.), 
i. e., so much water shall be used that it shall 
cover the whole body. How much does that 
require? A square "cubic by three cubics in 
height. And the Rabbis have estimated the 
quantity of the water in a Mikva to be forty 
Seah. 

CHAPTER TWO 

(Fol, 18b) E. Jeremiah b. Ela2ar said: 
"Only a part of a man's praise should be said 
in his presence, but the entire praise in his 
absence." Only a part of the praise [due him 
should be said] in his presence, as it is writ- 
ten (Gen. 7, 1.) For thee I have seen right- 
eous before me in this generation; and the 
entire praise in his absence, as it is ^vritten 
(lb. 6, 9.) .4 just, perfect man in his genera- 
tion. E. Jeremiah b. Elazar said further: 
"What is the meaning of the passage (Gen. 
8, 11.) And lo! a plucked olive leaf was in 
her mouth? The dove said unto the Holy 

5) A water reservoir of copper In the form of a sea. 

r.) The ritual ba-h of purificatioa i-; called Mikian. 
7) A measure. 



-itnon ^Di •i7"'Styti r\"2pr\ \r::r; ^"^2^12^ ^n 
nmnn 'r^i "ijdd nmn n^n: r^'^^-iin nn« 
pnnn ^3i mnK mtno nrn: n^-.un p 
•'JEO nm:n ^3i inpnn nyty n)!vr\ dk 
D^J^f >r\v ^"n .i^ moij; nya* n]jvfr[ 

nm"' Ninj «^c ms^ I'b nu nno'^s 
vn2:u ms7 i^ n-,3 cncs :^7m NnsiD'c 
mN7 i'? mj no:i ijd: k"i23 n^jd in-.'' 
K-i3Jiy vu':';-! «-i3:u*n nn:"i snaj wrj^ 

v,n mpo nsD .mni2 n'.pc ]"p pnno n''n 

0113 HDK "by nDS -jn nD3i •]n3 nr.y is'.j 
.n«D 'D mpD ID CDsn Tiytri .n-.cs ': 
nt2n'707 n«s'.''n r\:nc T'n (" ii) 

12 ••"n .c^tt'3"' cxy ^t:3 onmo mcnn 

□ipD3'l D"33 CJin ?!« IDIM «OTI 

••jc; pnss r"£ r^iv 

i'7i3T rjs3 c-K ^a- •.n3a' n:fpD onoiN 
3T131 ••':33 in3ty mpc .vjs3 K^ty 

Tn3 ""JS)^ p-'ns Tl-'Kn -n'.S -"O (' n-CKn:) 

ti-'S (1 15-) 3^131 T':33 x^c i^'oi nrn 

13 -•'DT' T'si .•''n"iT;i3 n^n can pnx 
rpo nn n7y n^m (n or) 3^137 ""wn ■iTy7s 
*,in'' y"*^'3n n"3pn "«je^ nr."" moK ■T'ss 

See I Kings 7. 44. 



223 



apy> r>' 



J3n 



Mar expounded: "What is meant by the 
passage (Jer. 24, 1.) The Lord caused me to 
see, and behold, there were two baskets of 
figs, like the figs that ripen first; (lb. _b) 
and the other basket had very bad figs, which 
could not be eaten, they were so bad, i. e., 
the good figs represent the truly righteous 
and the bad figs represent the grossly wicked. 
You will perhaps say, that their [the grossly 
wicked] prospect [of returning to God] is 
gone and their outlook is frustrated, there- 
fore it is said (Songs 7, 14.) The mand- 
rakes give forth their smell, i. e., these and 
those are destined to give forth a good smell." 
Kabba expounded: "What is the mean- 
ing of the passage (lb. ib. ib.) The mand- 
rakes give forth {their) smell? This refers 
to the youth of Israel who have not sinned ; 
And at our doors are all manner of precious 
fruits, (lb.) refers to the virgins of Israel 
who inform their husbands when they ap- 
proach the period of their menstruation, or, 
who are very modest and live respectably be- 
fore their marriage; New and also old; 
my friend, these have I laid up for Thee 
(lb.), i. e.. The Congregation of Israel said 
before the Holy One, praised be He! 'Sov- 
ereign of the imiverse, many restrictions did 
I impose upon myself beyond those which 
Thou hast imposed upon me, and have ob- 
served them carefully." 

E. Chisda said to one of his disciples who 
reviewed before him the Agada according 
to its orders: "Hast thou not heard what 
is meant by the passage (lb. 7, 14.) New 
and also old; my friend, these have 1 
laid up for thee." The disciple answered: 
"It refers to both kinds of commandments; 
those that are easy and those that are diffi- 
cult to observe." Are we to assume that 
the Torah was given in sections, at different 
periods [that it refers to new and to old] ? 
"But," said the disciple, "one refers to the 
Biblical ordinances and the other refers to 
the Sopharic (Rabbinical) ordinances." 

Eabba expounded: "What is the mean- 
ing of the passage (Ecc. 12, 12.) But more 
than all this, my son take warning to thy- 
self, the making of many books would have no 
end? This means: My son, be careful in the 
observance of the Sopharic ordinances even 
more than the Biblical ; for while the Biblical 
commandments are merely positive and pro- 
hibitive laws" [without any special punish- 
tx.^t for their transgression], the Sophmc 



"•ST,! ^yz' nsm 'n '':Nnn (^= ntm') 7"d 
"in«n mn 'ui 'n ^a-in las^ ci-rvin D^a«n 
i^« n "mann {^"t!) lisna n«D nmta Cisn 

man nas noKn «Dtyi .Dmo:) D-iytrn 

i"o «aT cm .nn i3n"'tr onTiy i7si 
mna !'?« nn unj D-iNinn (' v'nv) 
b:i irnns 'byi .stan cvu id^q t^b'^ 'jsnt:"' 
p-inns 'n-'jcc ^sid*^ m:3 i^s Dn:D 
.]n''^j;3'7 jn^nns nnjixB' n'"? .in-'^ya^ 

^y "Tnij nnr: nmn y"tt'ai T\'':i^n -ija^ 
y'K .DTiDipi •'^y rr\uv nno nnT" ^Dxy 
smjs mcD Kp n-irn panD i^^nr^'^ n"i 

m'bp mso !'?« y'K .wn •'kd -p tusx 
D-'oya ccys nmn ■'di ^'k .mmcn msm 
•"im "i^^m min ■'-121 i^^n «'?« .n:nj 
nnno nnT'i (=' n^np) i"d isan trm .c-ieid 
•"js j'p i-'X nann nnsD mti^? nnrn ••n 
n-nn nano im'' cnsio ""nma intn 
ntr'yn «'7i nry na tyi mm na-rty 
nn"'Q y^n d"i ^y laiyn ^3 nnsio '•nani 



222 



p a n ^ y 



331 



''313 jin-.D 13 n31 KJn n7 nt2«". '7"3''1S 

u:n ]3 ""^3 c' cicn '3 •'sri j3 pni*' pi 

in 'rx li-'iyir s-in in Dn^j'3D j'^-y n^iyi 

.Dj.T'j '7C nnns K^n in mic3 7n3n 

iD^^trnn u^M «D7i 

I'JKI D:n^j'7 I'? ty^ mOB' 't '7"3n idk 
ta^m psB* US', nnc ik31 |n3Ni riSB' ]n 
3^131 ^-.NU' .iiTinn pNi niD^xi jim 

•]lDn 13p3 ISIDM (ns D'^nn) 3^131 ^n3S 

(m or) ninri nn'r 1S3 .;n3S3 -nrcs 
ffcn jnn «7 '?\n'i'b ^csj 3Uj;n «? •'3 
3^n3i y^Ti t2'Di I'sa' im .nna' mKi? 

.'1J1 pM Q^CD I'lNB' 1130 ''J^yi (» db') 

«m «3V -m .K-n sicj rrrinn |'iki 
^3nc c:n"';3 npinya' v .cjn-': n3"'K 
nnfiii «3"'sm .Din •'pcy ^' n^ ]nii^ 
.nnan 'yicnso iiij? ^3 ('' "'yB") 3^131 
pj? p .nty ^su nx''3 nn£3nDn '7315' i<mn 
ISC rr's Nin ^«itr"» |'ik3 d« ^'i idk 
DK nnns du n''3 Kin K'3iy3 cki nnns 
'7333 .nnns n-'ipcnin «Kin niinan ]^3 
K31 .K^D^ i3yi ■'i''23 nrn'^*o ■'•'3K 
: K-iJB im 'i"'S3 n3nrQ 

ID 13 ""ID Cn KIDH 31 1DK1 '«": li) 

- . ~Thp BamM of GehPnna mnntionpd hfre may baT* thf menninc; that tho failure!" of man are the NMM «• 
TarioU Jau.c-^" ^s^J whleb Indicate the varlou- names, refer indireetlv to the dltferent faUures to whld 
ru^nl^ U suWeot t^^e »«ne m«nln« may be cppUed to the next paragraph tre.t1n« ot P»r«ll«. 



b. Murvun taught, in the school of R. Jo- 
chaiian b. Zakai : "There are two palm-treea 
in the valley of Ben Hinnom from which a 
emoke arises; and this was meant when we 
are tauglit that 'The palm-trees of Mt. 
Barzel aro properly used [for the Lulah on 
the Tabernacle festival], and at this place 
is the gate of Gehenna.' [Hence there is 
another gate besides the three previously 
mentioned.] "It must be the same one that 
was mentioned as the gate of Jerusalem." 

K. Joshua b. Levi said: "Gelienna has 
seven names ;^ Grave, Place of Destruction, 
Dungeon. Horrible Pit, Miry Clay, Shadow of 
Death, and Subterranean Land. Grave, as 
it is written (Jonah 2, 3.) Out of the depth 
of the grave have I cried. Place of De- 
struction, as it is written (Ps. 88, 12.) 
Shall thy kindness be related in the grave, 
and thy righteousness in the place of destruc- 
tion? Du ngeon, as it is written (lb. 16, 
10.) For Thou wilt not abandon my soul to 
the grave; Thou wilt not suffer thy pious to 
see dungeon. And H or r i b 1 e Pit, and 
Miry Clay, as it is written (lb. 40, 3.) 
And he brought me up out of the horrible 
pit, and of the miry clay. Shadow of 
Death, as it is written (lb. 107, 10.) Such 
as sit in darkness and in the shadow of death; 
and it is known by tradition under the name 
of Subterranean Lan d.'" L-; there no 
other name [for Gehenna] ? Behold, there 
is also Gei Ilinom? This means only a 
valley which is as deep as Gehenna and to 
which people go to practice lewdness. There 
still remains the name, Topheth, as it is 
written (Is. 30,s- 33.) For already of old is 
Topheth made ready. This means that who- 
ever is persuaded by his evil impulse, will 
fall in there. 

Concerning the locality of Paradise. Resh 
Lakish said: 'If it is in Palestine, its gate 
must be in the city of Beth Shean, [since 
it yields the best fruits] ; If Paradise is 
situated in Araby then its gate is in the 
city of Beth Gerem [the most productive 
spot]. And if it is between the rivers it 
must be in Damaskamm.'' 

In Babylon, Abaye would praise the fruit 
growing on the other side of the Euphrates 
and Rabba would praise the fniit of the 
City of Harphania. 

(Fol. 21a) R. Chisda said that Mari b. 



225 



3py rv 



n3T 



of the large cities who practice amongst 
them rapine, lieentiousness, swearing iu 
vain, and false swearing. But come out in- 
to the field, and we shall show Thee many 
scholars who study the Torah although they 
are in very poor circumstances'; let us spend 
the night in the villages; (lb.) do not read 
Bakfarim (in the villages), but read it Bal-o- 
frim (who disbelieve in Thee). This means 
'Come with us and we shall show Thee, the 
children of Esau upon whom Thou hast 
showered Thy blessings and who still dis- 
believe in Thee.' Let us get up early to the 
vineyards, (lb.) refers to the houses of pray- 
er and the houses of study; Let us see if the 
vine has blossomed, (lb.) refers to those who 
read the Holy writ; Whether the young 
grapes have opened, refers to those who study 
the Mishi.ah; Whether the pomegranates 
have budded, refers to those who study the 
Talmud; There will I give thee my love; i. e., 
there I shall show Thee my honor and the 
worthiness of the praise of my sons and 
daughters [who adhere to Thy religion.]" 

E. Hamnuna said: "What is the mean- 
ing of the passage (I Kings 5, 18.) And he 
spoke three thousand proverbs and his songs 
were a thousand and five. It is intended to 
teach that Solomon uttered three thousand 
proverbs for each and every word of the 
Torah; and for each and every word of the 
Soj)hariin (Eabbinical), he assigned a thou- 
sand and five reasons." 

Eabba expounded: "What is the mean- 
ing of the passaee (Ecc. 13, 9.) And in ad- 
dition to the fact that Koheleth was wise, 
he also continually imparted knoivledge to 
the people, i. e.. he supplied the Holy writ 
with Massoritic test and he explained the 
jdifferent forms by means of examples and 
provers; Yea, he gave good heed, and sought 
out, and set in order many proverbs. Ulla, 
in the name of E. Elazar, explained it: 
"Previous to the time of Solomon the Scrip- 
ture was like a basket without handles, that 
cannot be grasped ; and when Solomon came, 
he affixed the necessary handles." 

His locks are like waving foliage (Son, 
5, 13.). E. Chisda, in the name of Mar 
Ukba, said: "We infer from this that from 
every stroke of *he letter [contained in the 
Torah] a mass oJ laws and ordinances can 



Ku miyn Ks: «^n ipc* nymcn xitr 
.pnnn "(inD minn i-ipoiyty n"n ik-i«i 
nnsi^n N'bK cnsDa npn ^« nnsaa nr^: 

isin .njtyD ■'byn i^n Trnon nns .«npo 
irn n« ^ns cty .T,a^n -"^ya i^s n-ijiann 
: im:m ""jn mv n^nji imna i«n«ty -p 
-im-i"! {T K"D) iTiDi ''«D Njijon m ids 

mm ^c* nmi -i2t ^d '7y nn^c' -instr nn'bo 
'bts' 1311 im '73 *7yi ^B'Q cs'i'X nir^ty 
rm .ccyiD nvam cj^s nnix hm DnsiD 
D'^r^p nvnB> nnri C^' n^np) 3^31 ^so N3n 
■•jsoiDs nnn^MT cyn ns nyn •rc'? ny □3n 
;tni (otr) .n''^ "'Oil '>nd3 msDSi «oya 
"IS"! i»« «^iy -io« nsnn ni^tt'o ipm npm 
ns"'23'7 man minn nn\n n'i'nn3 nry^s 
n^ ntyyi nn^tr «3B' ly CiT^ n^ ^''Kty 
3n nD« .D'«^n^n rmxnp (n ti?) .D-iiTs 
'7y tym^ c^^ty its'ro S3piy no nas xnon 
(Dv) .ni3'7n ^ty c^in "•'bin ppi I'lp ^3 



^p mrr-Ine of <-'^'e«ts on th<> Sabb«th In a court whore there are several houses occupied by different 
. vVir/ H«w«^r it thp tenants contribute their share towards a dish which Is deposited In one of 
te»iaots 19 "^"•"'^d'^'h, Howerer " J^^^^f" Tre considered as common to all (one Reshuth). and thereby per- 
*r?l'.. ttf °fr^n« of <yW«tt on the l.'bSSh from on« tA the otier, and al«, across the court. This act 1« called 
Evuft and -was Imtroduoed by King Solomon. 



224 



I "« a n ■» y 



nrn 



commaDdments, if neglected, involve capital 
punishmeut. One might say perhaps, that 
if it be true that these are so important, 
then why were they not put down in writ- 
ing? The passage therefore says [in answer] 
(lb.) The making of many books would 
have no end." 

Our Kabbis taught: "It once hap- 
pened that E. Akiba was confined in a 
prison and K. Joshua Hagarsi was his at- 
tendant. Everj' day they brought in water 
with a measure. One day the keeper of the 
prison finding very much water said to R. 
Joshua: 'What a lot of water thou hast 
brought to-day? Dost thou need it to soak 
the walls of the prison?' He poured out 
one-half and left the other half. When R. 
Joshua reached R. Akiba, the latter said to 
him: 'Joshua, dost thou not know that I 
am old and my very life depends upon thy 
life ?' E. Joshua then related what had hap- 
pened. 'Give me water to wash my hands,' 
said E. Akiba. 'Why,' answered E. Joshua, 
'there is barely sufBcient water to drink, let 
alone with which to wash the hands.' Then 
E. Akiba said to him: 'WTiat am I to do? 
He who neglects to wash his hands is guilty 
of a sin involving capital punishment by 
Heaven. It is better for me that I should 
die by my own act [from hunger] than to 
act contrary to the opinion of my associates.* 
It is related that he did not taste anything 
till they brought him water and he washed 
his hands. When the sages heard of this 
incident they said: 'If he was so strict in 
tis old age, how strict must he have been 
when young? and if so strict in prison 
[where it was hard to obtainl, how much 
more strict must he have been in his own 
home?'" 

E. Juda said in the name of Samuel: 
"Wlien Solomon ordained the law concerning 
Erubin^ and that of wa.~hing the hands be- 
fore meals, a Bath-Kol (heawnly voice) 
came forth and said My son, if thy heart 
be wise, my heart shall rejoice, even mine. 
(Pr. 23, 15). Become wise my son, and 
cause my heart to rejoice, that I may give 
an answer to him that reproacheth me (lb. 
27, 11)." 

Eaba exponnded : "What is meant by the 
passage (Songs 7. 14.) Come, my friend, 
let vs go forth into the field, etc? Thus 
eaid the Congregation of Israel before the 
Holy One. praised be He ! 'Sovereign of the 
universe, judge me not, like the inhabitants 



«7 no lissa BtJD |nn vfi dx noxn sd?? 
Dn£3D mtry {^< n7np) ^np idk una: 

B'iDn n-'nti' wpy ••ana ntt-yn T'n 

CD 1^ pD-'iSD rn en d-."" '733 •mu'o 
pniD«n n-ia "iDity issd nn« cys mos 
n^n ninn^ tNoty ]i3nD T'CO cm ^"n 
.I'l-'sn n^jm j^sn "^Bty -ins nns jn":cKn 
nns "IS ya'in"' ^'? idx .y"i 'bxs y^nty ]V3 
'72 1^ no .7^n2 ]'''<ibn ■'''m '<:« ]pw yn' 

nn nn^D in^'by p2"«>nB' ntyys noi ^'? -ion 
Tisys '7S1 ■'oxy nn^ts mes'a' 2u*,d .n-'cc 
ly m73 cyt: «? nns .nan nyn ^y 
D^DDn 'iyDtrtt'31 .■ni ^12:1 d-'d i"? iK^nnc 
nn« ^y ",nn'i'"'3 p iniipra noi ncN nana 
in^23 -[3 cmcsn r\^22 noi .ni:3i no3 
now mm"' 3i ids .nD3i rTO3 nns 'by 
n^itaji ji3Ti''y no^B* ipnty nya's ■bsicty 
cs '»J3 (j: '"jiTc) mcsi ^ip n3 nnsi ct 

(t: or) -!!:•;«•, .ijs CJ '<3'7 ncti*"" ■13^ C3n 
:13T ^£3-in n3''JS1 ^3'? nCti'l ^J3 D3n 

^nn n37 (» ^r) stidt "isa «3i tr-n 
nDJ3 mas (ds- »"=-ve'j,-) '•;• niB>n sv: 
^jjnn '7S y"t:'3n n"3pn ••jd^ ^snc^ 



227 



3pj;^ rv 



ran 



opinion of Eabban Gamaliel [and so it must 
remain]." And there were none to contra- 
dict him. [Hence we see that the decree of 
Eabban Gamaliel was accepted and not that 
of R. Joshua.] In the generation of Eab- 
ban Gamaliel, his opinion was followed, but 
in the generation of R. Joshua, the opinion 
of E. Joshua prevailed. 

CHAPTER FOUR 

(Fol. 41b) Our Rabbis taught: "Three 
things cause a man to disregard his own 
sense and the will of his Creator, viz.. idol- 
atry, an evil spirit, and the stress of poverty." 
For what purpose do the Rabbis tell us this? 
In order that we shall pray to God to de- 
liver us from such evils. ^ 

Three classes of people will never see 
Gehenna: viz., those who sufi'er from the 
stress of poverty; those who suffer from 
stomach troubles, and those who suffer from 
creditors. According to some, there is also 
another group, including him who has a bad 
^.vife. But the first Tana holds that a bad 
vdfe could be divorced. The second Tana, 
however, contends that the last may happen 
in spite of his desire to divorce, either be- 
cause the return of dowry is demanded and 
he cannot pay it, or because of their chil- 
dren [whom he does not wish to be dis- 
graced]. For what purpose do the Rabbis 
tell us this? In order that one should ac- 
cept such troubles with resignation. 

Three classes of people are likely to die 
suddenly; viz.. he who has stomach disease; 
a woman in confinement, and he who suffers 
from dropsy. For what purpose do the Eab- 
bis inform us of that ? In order that we may 
prepare the death garments for the sick.^ 

(Fol. 43b) We are taught that Eabban 
Gamaliel had a tube, through which, when 
he looked, -he could distinguish objects at a 
distance of two thousand cubits, upon land 
as well as upon sea. Whoever desired to find 
out the exact depth of a valley, looked 
through his tube and ascertained its exact 
depth. Likewise if one wanted to ascertain 
the height of a palm tree, he would use this 
tube, by measuring its shadow and compar- 
ing it with the shadow cast by a man, whose 
height is known. 



-\22^ I? pyc'.ty ps ytt-.ni msn ^tan^ 

-lynytt' Di« n\T S7i .y'na n37n rr^i^i 

•nna j"-i3 T«nj? j"n i^ nna .m^a ■13^l 

: IDT' ^ais Tiay idi^ ^an ^b' 

nsiv .jn i^Ki .liip nyi >yi inyi ^y 
iXD^ .n^jy ip-ipn .nyi nm cnro 
pK 'J .""Dm inii^y lynia) nirn Npsj 
.nrjy Y''^p-[ .jn i^«t ajn^j ^js jwn 
ID El« nnoix tt'iT .nitt'im -o^ya iTim 
mi'o nyn ntt'n ■^T'Ni .n^g-y nu-'N i'? c'-'ty 
«^i nana nnaiDST ]"':nT ^tini .na'nj'? 
1JW1 njoD en 1^ tt*' j"« .rti cn:^ ^sa 
.ninxa i^up^ ni^a spsj ''VkH ntyna^ ^id* 
.Diiya -"^"in .jn i^«i nnsoa □nB':: cna 'j 
in^ iB'iatt'a^ a"j ""xa^ .]pmni .nTii 

: Kn-nit 
cia nvnc a"n^ i^ nn^n misistt' x^jn 
D''s'7« m:jDi ncn^a na« cs'i's na nsisi 
«ij be ipoiy naa y^b Tr:i\-\n ca nax 
ipaiy nas yn^i na cnai msisB' waa 
bpi btt* inmj naD yi^b nxnm s^:! bc' 
inm: nas yT^i inaip b^i ib:ii inaip nnat 



1) AUhough tliey committed a crime, we ought not to outcast them, but pray for their relief. 

2) And the sick, seeing this, will pray to God tor mercy. 



226 



1 ^ 3 ".-1 " y 



un 



be derived ; Black as a raven, i. e., with whom 

00 you Cud the beauty of the Torah? (Fol. 
S'iaj With him who arrives early and stays 
late in thu house of study."'" Kabiia .said: 
"With him who blackens himself as a raven." 
Raba said : "With him who becomes as 
hard-hearted toward his family as a raven is 
toward its young." An instance of this 
is that of R. Adda b. Mathna, who wanted 
to go to the house of study to learn; and 
when he was asked by his wife, '"what shall 

1 do with the little ones ?" he answered : ''Are 
the water-plants in the marshes all gone 
[wherewith they could support themselves] ." 

And repayeth those that hate Him, to 
his face, to destroy him, (Deu. 7, 10). 
R. Joshua b. Levi said : "Were it not for the 
passage, it would be impossible to make such 
an assertion; for this is as if the Lord is 
like unto a mortal who carries a heavy burden 
and wants to throw it away [in order to be 
rid of it]." He will not delay, to him who 
hateth Him (lb.), R. Ela said: "To His 
enemies he delayeth not punishment, but 
he delayeth the reward to the strictly right- 
eous, and this is what is intended by R. 
Joshua b. Levi, who said: TVhat is the 
meaning of the passage (lb. ib. 11.) Which 
I command thee this dai/ to do them. i. e., 
to-day it is to he fulfilled, but to-morrow it 
could not be fulfilled ; to-day it is to be ful- 
filled but the reward shall be paid to-morrow 
[in the future world].' " 

R. naggai, and according to others. R. 
Samuel b. Nachmeini said : "What is meant 
bv the passage (Ex. 34, 6.) Slow to angers 
(in the plural). It should have been slow 
to anncr, i. e.. Slow to anger to the wick- 
ed and slot!) Tto pay the reward] to the 
righteou s." 

CHAPTER THREE 

(Fol. 41a) It is taught that after the 
death of Rabban Gamaliel, R. Joshua came 
and sought to nullify the former's decrees. 
R. Jochanan b. Nuri then arose and said: 
"We see that the body always follows the 
head ; as long as Rabban Gamaliel lived, we 
followed his decisions, now that he is dead, 
thou wanteth to repeal his words. Joshua! 
We will not listen to thee! The Halacha 
has been fixed long ago according to th§ 

7) ShecTiorotJi (black) is to be read ShncJiarith (morning). 
In both Cises lie words are slightly changed. 



(33 till 1133 jN^fiD nriK '«D3 3nij>3 nmnB' 

nan .b'Tid.- n^an nn-'^j; anyci crcoc' 

^j;i Via ^j; •'iok idxv cb'ob' ^o3 no« 
«:ni: -a «n« am «n ^2 ot.vd in-'a ■•an 

■ioi'7{y tD n^ noK .in^ n^ajJK ''^'^ IT't V^"" 
r\Qvh TiiysK ""N n-,nD sipo K^t2^« y'ain« 

trp3D1 VJS ^JJ '«i«aiS SC'IJC DISS ^13^33 

sin insa ^3n nnK'* n^t Kin ixjit:*^ 
V'3 ytrw n"KT ^J■'^^^ .cmoj cpnx^ 
cmttT;'? nrn ^ixr) ^3iK t^n i^v) i"d 
Drn cn-ityy'i' nno'? «'7i Dms'j;'? dim 
K2Ti"'Ki >:n-i"« .p3t5''7iQ''^nm:^icmB'jj^ 

*p« D-'SS -pS (^'i' nioty) i"q ijonj 13 t5'"T 

•psi D^tri^ D^&K yiK «^K .n'''? •'j;3d eim 

:C'«pni'7 D^BK 

]3-i ^'j iDT'tsB nns^ ts'-'in (•«» ''i^) 
Try insT ns nsn^ y^in' 'i dj3j ^K^^a 
«j« nn "lONi i"'^:-! "ry m: p pnr ^3t 

]3-l ^U' VC ^3 ^T« «31J «tm "in3T 

cpsD nns i^tyov imn3 n3^n laysp ^k"'^d3 

Ko'oreft (itiTen) la to be re«d Ka'ere^ (erenlnB). 



229 



2py> py 



D3n 



CHAPTER FIVE 

(Fol. 53a) Eab and Samuel give differ- 
ent explanations for the cave of Machpelah. 
One said : "It was called so because it was 
built as two houses, one within the other''; 
the other said : "It is built like a house and 
an upper story." It is quite right according 
to the one who said it was built like a house 
and an upper story, that it should be called 
Machpelah [which means double] but as 
to the other who says that it was built of a, 
house within a house, why then should it 
he called Machpelah? Because our couples 
are lying there, viz., Adam and Eve; Abra- 
ham "and Sarah; Isaac and Eebecca; Jacob 
and Leah. [Therefore it is called Mach- 
pelah '] . 

Unto Mamrei the city of Arha (Gen. 25, 
29.) E. Isaac 'said: "The city of four 
couples." 

E. Jochanan said: "For eighteen days 
I lived with K. Oshiya, the great and learned 
nothing from him except one thing 
concerning this Mishnah, namely: the Mish- 
nah should be read Keitzad Me'abrin (how 
shall the boundaries of a town be extended), 
with an Alef." Is this so? Did not E. 
Jochanan say, "Twelve disciples had E. 
Oshiva, the great, and during the eighteen 
days'l lived with them, I became thoroughly 
acquainted with the hearts of each and every 
one of them, and also the wisdom of every 
one." [Hence he learned more than one 
thing.] If YOU wish, you may say that he 
learned the" hearts and the wisdom of each 
and every one, but he learned nothing m the 
Talmud ; and if you wish, you may say that 
from the disciples he did learn many things, 
-but from E. Oshiya, he learned only the 
one thing mentioned. If you wish, also, you 
may say he means that he learned but one 
thing concerning the Mishnah, but aside 
from that, he learned many other things. 

E. Jochanan said further: "WTien we 
were studying the Torah with E. Oshiya, 
the great, we Bat four in number, four to 
one cubit." . 

Eabbi said: "When we were studying 
Torah mth E. Elazar b. Shamua, we used 
to sit six in number, six to one cubit." 

B. Jochanan said further: "E. Oshiya, 
the great, was as great in his generation as 
■was E. Meier in his generation. Just as the 
Associates of 1. Meier's generation coiild not 



'bKiDis'i 31 n^a^on mj?a (jj 1^) 
.nrn cas^ nt dtis i:b' nos in 
]«D^ «D'7t?a .vij ':'$ n-'vyi n-'n ids im 
3TI31 u'''«n nr n:i ^j; nt DTia 'a noxT 
••Ht: nta cjsb nr OTia 'a n"D7 «'?« -n^sDD 
nnp «"ioD (n: DB") .mjira n'7i32B' .n'7£32o 
mK niju yans nnp pnx' "'sn nos yansn 
.n«^T 3py npam pn^"" mci Dmas n";m 
K"'yt5'iK '-[ '^SM Ti^n:! D^n-' n""" pnT* "i"i< 
ins nai «^n i3dd imn^ N'i?i '•ans 

'"1^ i7 ivT n"'i^o'7n 3"i pm"" "i"« «m tn 
•'mD'71 jn-ijin ti'?!: □■'O"' n"'' •'mn s^yc'is 
3'7 .msT ins '7D no2m insi ins "73 n"? 
~iD3 msi in« '73 nn^m msi ins '73 
103 mm 'n"'i3"'n s"v3Si .id: s^ sioj 
ins 131 s"j?3Si .1123 s^ nn-'i n^ro 
:insp i:nja'n3 

nnn nnc^ i^-imtrs i^m"" 'i nasi 

CStt'T' irM (■'313) S-iyty'iN '1 ^XN 

nnn im^ •'n''Mty3 '«3i ids .nDS3 '1 'i 

'1 '1 D'«3B'T> I^M yiDC p ITV^S 'l ^:iS 

'13 11113 •'313 siycis '1 ]:mi i"s .nDS3 

T'13n 11DV K^ "11113 D"l no 11113 T'SD 



228 



r 2 



(Pol. 45a) R. Juda, in the name of Rah, 
said: ''If heathens besieged a town inhabited 
by Israel, the latter were not permitted to 
meet them \rith war implements on tlie Sab- 
bath.'' We have also a Baraitha to the same 
elfect: "If idolaters besieged," etc. In what 
case do these words apply? Wien the 
enemy came because of monetary matters; 
but if their coming involve human lives, 
they should be met [even on the Sabbath] 
vnth implements of war. If the enemy in- 
vaded towns near the boundary [of Palestine] 
they should be met with implements of war 
[on the Sabbath] even if the invasion does 
not involve danger of life, but involves the 
robbery of even such a common article as 
straw." R. Joseph b. Minyumi said in the 
name of R. Nachman: "Babylon is con- 
sidered [in respect to meeting an invasion 
with war implements on the Sabbath] as a 
city near the boundary."-This refers only 
to Neharde'a. 

R. Dostai of Biri expounded: "Wliat is 
meant by the passage (I Sam. 23, 1.) Then 
they told David, sai/ing. 'Behold, the Phili- 
stines are fighting against Ke'ilah, and they 
are plundering the threshing-floors'? We are 
taught that Ke'ilah was a city situated near 
the boundary and the invaders came solely 
for the purpose of seizing straw and hay, 
as it is written They are plundering the 
threshing-floors; it i^also written (lb. ib. 2.) 
Thereupon David asked counsel of the Lord, 
saying, 'Shall I go and smite among these 
Philistines?' And the Lord said unto 
David, 'Go and .^mite among the Philistines 
and deliver Ee'Uah.' Now, what did David 
ask of the Lord? Shall we assume that he 
asked whether he was permitted to go out 
against the Philistines or not? This should 
have been asked of the court tribunal, at 
that time sitting in Ramathi and of which 
Samuel [the prophet] was the head. We 
must therefore conclude that he asked of the 
Lord whether he would succeed or not. This 
conclusion can also be proved from [the 
reply given them] which is written there, 
Go and smite among the Philistines and de- 
liver Ke'ilah. [This indicates that the Lord 
meant to secure David's success.] The con- 
clusion is therefore accepted. 



'TV ■nsty D"iry an ick r:T,n> m noK 

D""i3y n":n .nau'n ns CpTi^v ]i^^to j-ini 
•^2K ]iDD ipoy '7V ixac'o «"i3 '1-1 nsty 
pv 1^33 inibj; ]iKST' miyDj ^dv ^V "i«3 
nr-ocn t>'3i n3'^n n« ]-^'?'i} j-i^^nm 
"by «^K nx's: •'po)} 'by ik3 k^ i'i'"'SN -\sd'? 
p^^ntsi pn '*'?22 jn-'by pNsi'« pm cp ""pDy 
ic« ■'DT'jo -\2 riDT" -i"K .n^'^n n« ]-■>'?]) 
N^m nsD7 naiDcn i-'ya '7331 pn: 21 
•'T'3 ]DT •'Knon '31 tr-n .s-yTinj «DO-im 
njn -iD«'i' nn'7 n'':''i (j: « ^Kictr) i"d 
n« D-'Dic nam n'7''yp3 D'^cn'?: dtiit'^s 
nrfn nsD^ n^Minr^ n-iy n^-iyp Kjn nunjn 
3^131 typi pn •'pDy ^y «^« i«2 w^ cm 
T,i '7«ty"«i 3TI31 mn:n n« n^u:u nnm 
n^wn n"'ncbs3 ••n-'om i^sn idk^ 'n3 
nyiinm n"'ntt''7S3 n>3m •]'7 nn '?« 'n ick'^i 
•<« sD'«b>s n""^ «'>y3*'D Kp '•KD .n'7''yp riK 
••nonn '7NiaB' ^e' n"3 nn n'c« ""n nty 
^D3 spn n'bxo N^ ^« n^so '« «'?« o^-'p 
HK nytyim D^nty^ss n'^om i'? 3\"i3T 



231 



3PV' W 



K^n 



ten (Ps. 119, 74.) Those that fear Thee 
will see me and be rejoiced. But of Saul, 
who did not teach others, it is written (I 
Sam. 1-4, 47.) And wheresoever he turned 
himself, he caused terror." 

(lb. b) E. Jochanan said further: 
'^Whence do we know that the Holy One, 
praised be He! forgave Saul [for the sin 
of killing the priests of Nob] ?^ It is said 
(I Sam. 28, 19.) And to-morrow shall thou 
and ihij sons he with mc, i. e., with me in 
the same abode."® 

E. Joshua b. Chananjah said : "During my 
life I was frustrated once by a woman, once 
by a boy and once by a little girl. What 
was the instance with the woman? At one 
time I resided at the house of a woman. 
At the tal)le she set before me a plate of 
beans; the first time, I ate the entire por- 
tion, leaving nothing [on the plate]. The 
Becond time, I also ate it all up and left 
nothing. The third time, she made it too 
salty and after tasting it, I stopped and 
left it untouched. Whereupon the woman 
said to me : 'Eabbi, why dost thou not 
cat?' I replied, T have already eaten during 
the day.' 'Thou shouldst have eaten less 
bread,' she remarked to me, and continued, 
'Eabbi, perhaps because thou didst not leave 
any Pe'ah'' the first time ? For have not the 
sages said that Pe'ah should not be left in 
the pot [with the cook] but it shall be left 
in the plate when the mess is served? [You 
therefore, left it now to include all three 
occasions.]" ^What was the incident with 
the girl ? I was once walking on a road near 
a field and seeing a trodden path which ran 
across the field, I took that path. A little 
girl who stood nearby said to me: "Eabbi, 
art thou not walking in a meadow?' To 
which I replied : 'Is this not a trodden path ?' 
Yea, cried she, 'such robbers as thou art 
have made it a trodden path.' What was 
the incident with the boy? Once I was 
walking on the road and noticing a boy 
sitting near the cross-road I asked him: 
'Which road leads to the city?' And the 
boy answered: 'This road is a long road, 
nevertheless a short one; but that one is a 
short road, and at the same time, a long one.' 
I took the short road, which was at the same 
time, a long one. When I came near the 



^noK' ]"'JD pm"" n"«i •yB-i'' (3";f o^) r\:s'< 
nno («3 «"») -iD«:tr ; ly ims 'ry n"3pn i? 

^jnsj K^ ^DiD K"'j:n p ytrin'' ■'an noN 
■»KD ntys .npirm pirn ncx «^^« mw 
nn« s-ijoaK ':s« Timsnj nn« dvb K\n 
N^i Tnj/'D n:ity«-i cj;3 p^is ""^ nncyi 
.m'i'j "rn^ty n^i •'mj;D n^aty .di'73 Tn^ts' 

no ""jsn ■'3-1 1^ n"iD« .uD-'n "'T' ti^c'd 
■«mj;D 133 n^ imns .•iJD''n yv riDD'o 
JO IT" iwD*? -p n^n 1^ niDN .ni'' myao 
nK3 nmn «^ iKDty ''2^ •''b moK .nsn 

.mjjpn -ND pT''CD '73K DS'7'«N3 HNa 

l^no Ti^M nnK cya «^^ ""no r\p^y^\ 
•]bni2 in"'''m men mnij; -[ni nn\Ti "i~i"7a 
.wn mc 1S7 "im nnN npu-ri ^^ n-in« na 

«in ^KD pirn .mts-'Da "imoati' cqd^ "i^ 
pirn •'n-'Mni pni ■]'7nr3 •'n''\n nnw djjs 
i'7 ■'mcK n-ism ntr-ns ^y ncr nTtty nn« 
nsiTiK IT "i^ -ION .-i-'v^ i''3 im nr '»k3 ''ja 
mxps '•nr'i'n .nansi msp in mxpi 



See t Sam. 22, 11-19. 

since 



me saine abod'8 with Samuel Ui« ' 

71 Sc-o"l,p^T is, 9, that If ^ni reap the han-est he mus. 
In caUed Pe'ah. 



1 ^ 3 n •■ y 



^1 



foi^etell his final decision [regarding any 
'Halacha,] so also the associates of R. Oshiya, 
the great, couJd not foretell his final de- 
cision." 

R. Jochanan said also: "The hearts of 
the first sages were as broad as the gate of 
the Ulam;^ and that of the latter sages were 
as broad as the gate of the Heichal;^ but 
our hearts are as narrow as the ej'e of a very 
fine needle." Who are called the first? R. 
Akiba [and all such as he] ; and the last 
sages? R. Elazar b. Shamua [and all such 
as he]. Others say: '"The first sages are 
[like] R. Elazar b. Shamua, and the last 
sages [like] R. Oshiya, the great; and we 
are as narrow as the eye of a very fine 
needle." Abaye said: "It is like driving a 
peg into a hard wall; thus are we, so far as 
the knowledge of the Talmud i.* concerned."^ 
Raba said: "We are like a finger pushed 
into a cake of wax so far as reasoning is 
concerned."* R. Ashi said: "And it is as 
easy for us to forget what we learn as it is to 
put a finger in the opening of a cave." 

R. Juda, in the name of Rab said : "The 
Torah endured with the Judeans. who paid 
strict attention to the exact language which 
they received from their teacher; but with 
the Galileans, who paid no atttention to the 
exact language as they received it from their 
teacher, the Torah did not endure." Does 
this depend upon paying strict attention to 
the exact language? It means that because 
the Judeans quoted the exact words of their 
teai-luis, tlK'V were enabled to make sij^us and 
marks on every law, and thus preserve it. 
The Galileans, however, who did not quote 
the exact language of their teachers, were 
unable to place signs on the laws and con- 
sequently forgot them. If you please, you 
may say that the Judeans studied from one 
teacher and therefore remembered what they 
learned ; but the Galileans had many teachers 
and consequently did not retain anything. 
Rabina said: "The Judeans studied the 
treatise [with. others, after they knew it 
themselves], and therefore they retained 
them. But the Galileans did not study the 
treatise with others, and in consequence, for- 
got it; David [the King] studied with 
others, but Saul did not study with others. 
Of David, who studied with others, it is writ- 



Tmy «^ (■•ans) iwya'-.K 'i r,s ".nyT qiD ^y 
^c p'7 ]:nv T'Ki .",nyi q-D ^y "nan 

.'131 lano 3pj «^D3 i3«i .1313 «"'yty^K 'n 
-iri« .«no:^ h-\M2 hh^'^d ■'3 ]3si "sn inw 

1tt« .tn3D'7 KT'p3 «ny3:fN ''3 ]:w K3-| 
: nn3tt*^ «-l''33 «ny3S« ■'3 p«i "'W'W 3i 

iTspnty mw •':3 3T now min^ 31 "it:« 
n'7B' '7"'': J ''i3 ]T'3 jnmn no^pn: n^^\ff'? ^y 
.p'3 jmin no^pn: «^ Diir'? 'Ty iT'spn 
m^n"' ''J3 «'7N .«n7t2 «ibn «rspn3 ■'Ta 
D"pn3 ^JD'D in^ ^njnm wi?^^ ••p^n iim 
K^i «3c^^ "'p'^n «^T '?^'?i ''J3 p'3 pia'jn 
.]T3 piD'bn D^pnj s"? ijo-'D in"? ^nino 
n3T nno no; rvr^n'' ija kd^n n''y3^N 
•>noa K71 b'^'^i •'J3 DV2 Dmin nc^pn: 
W3T .DT'3 Dmin Di^pnj N'7 n3n nna 
piD-^n c-ipn: Nn3D0 i^:i nr.n> "«J3 icn 

D^pnj Kb KnSDO I^J «^ ^i^J •'J3 .p^3 

'•'73 «'? ^iKiy «n3Dtt '«'?3 in .p-'s pio^n 

D.^nn) n^3 3''n3 «n3DD •>'?it in .Nn3Da 



1) The vestibule of the Temple. Its gate was 20 •obits wide. 

:\ Thp Temple. It? Kate was ten cubiU wide. 

•1 Cft ta fha ift>u>r of lmT)ressln« tradition on our memories. 

i) ^ IltU« aT^li^lnToVthe finger which ha-s been pnlled onjt of wai. ao little of the Torah remain, with us 



233 



rv 



i'pt 



grave? Children of man are like the grass 
of the meadow; some are blossoming and 
others are fading." 

R. Joshua b. Levi said : "One who walks 
on a road and has no companion, shall study 
the Torah; for it is said (Pr. 1, 9.) For a 
wreath of grace are they; if a man have a 
headache, let him study the Torah, for it is 
said (lb. ib. ib.) Are they unto thy head; 
if a man have a sore throat, let him study the 
Torah, for it is said (Ib. ib. ib.) And neck- 
laces for thy neck; if a man have stomach 
sickness, he shall study the Torah, for it is 
said (Ib. 3, 8.) It will he healthy to thy 
body, if a man is sick with rheumatism, he 
shall study the Torah, for it is said (Ib. ib. 
ib.) A7id marrow to thy bones; if a man is 
sick in all or any part of his body, he shall 
study the Torah, for it is said (lb. 4, 23.) 
And to the whole body a healing." 

R. Juda, the son of R. Chiya, said : "Come 
and see how the nature of the Holy One, 
praised be He! differs from that of mortal 
man. The nature of mortal man is that if 
a man prescribes a remedy, it may benefit 
one and injure another; but the Holy One, 
praised be He! gave the Torah to all Israel, 
as a remedy for all, and for the whole body, 
as it is said (Ib. ib. ib.) And to the whole 
body a healing." 

R. Ami said: "What is meant by the 
passage (lb. 2"2, 18.) For it is a pleasant tiling 
if thou keep them within thy bosom, if they 
be altogether firmly seated upon thy lips, 
i. e., when are the words of the Torah a 
pleasant thing? If thou keepeth them with- 
in thy bosom. And when canst thou keep 
them in thy bosom? If they are firmly 
seated upon thy lips."^" R. Zeira said : "We 
know from the following: (Ib. 15, 23.) A 
man hath joy by the answer of his mouth; 
and how good is a word spoken at the proper 
time! i. e., when has a man joy? If his 
mouth is able to answer [a question]." R. 
Isaac said : "We deduce the above from the 
following (Deu. 30, 14.) But the word is very 
nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy 
heart, that thou mayest do it, i. e., when is 
the word nigh unto thee? If it is in thy 
mouth and in thy heart to do it." Raba said : 
"We deduce the above from the following 
(Ps. 21, 3.) The longing of his heart hast 
Thou given him and the request of his lips 

10) .Vs atove. tti"? al'o rofer?! to the fact tha/t wben 
lips, not merely thick cl them. 



]iDn m« ^:3 .-p ^y •'o 'riNtra pin ^:2'? 
•■ ]'>^au i^m ji^xi: ^'?'?n mtrn •'scy'? 
1*7 j-'Ki 7113 i^rTDn 11^ p ycin"' T'm 
.]n n'>\'? •'3 (« '''"•B) '»w m-\n:i pioj?^ n'>^'} 
on (p^) '«Jtr mina pioy iB'Nia tyn 
(Dtr) '«jiy minn pioy "iJTi^a uu .■]C'«n^ 
piDj;^ D"jjD ■'Jna B'n •Ymnji;'? n"'p:yi 
en .'\^'y'? ^^^l mssn (- dj*) '«:c nmna 
tipu'i (0=*) 'n:v mina p-ioy vmnxyi 
'xjiy mina p-iDy isu ^oa rn .yn'm])'? 
nnn mw m ins .ksid "nr^ ^2'7i (i Q~) 
n-TO n"3pn dtdd «^tt' ntm «u i^'^n 'ni 
nT^ ns"" DD n'»3n'7 |mj V'n mo .mi ntra 
'jsntyi^ min jmj n"3pm .nt^ TWffp'i 

•'D n-'V: ""D (:: Q-) 3\-|3T "'ND ''DS 21 IttX 

^nD''S iTist:* '?]} nn^ uir 1:1233 matt*n 

.•pQ33 DlCrn '•3 Q^D^p min ''131 

nm iro-'U' nj;B'3 13D33 cncrn ^nn^Ni 
(IB Dv) s2no nns ^n''t "'3T ."iTistr 'iy 
3iti nn iny3 tsn T'S n3>'D3 b'"'«'7 nntSB' 
.1133 myo*^ nya'3 ti'is*? nnn'^ ^nniw 
T''7K 3np ^3 (^ D'i2i) s3nD nn« pn^"" "'3n 
3np TiD-'X inv^'j?^ ■j33'i'3i ■11B3 iNQ n3nn 

133'731 7331:' pT3 INO ~l3in T>'7K 

msn (*<= 0'''"") K^no ^D^? «3n .initry^ 
n^D nyjo ^3 iTistr* ntr-iNi i'? nn: 13^ 

learning a man shall pronounce the words with Lis 



232 



1 '' 3 -n ^ y 



3^n 



city, I found it so surrounded, at its en- 
trance, by gardens and parks, that I had to 
turn back to the place wheuce I had started. 
I said to the child : 'My son, hast thou not 
said that this road is the short one ?" Where- 
upon he answered me: 'Eabbi, did I not 
also tell thee that it was, at the same time, 
a long one?' I then kissed him on his head 
and said: 'Happy art thou, Israel, that all 
thy children are wise, large and small." 

R. Jose, the Galilean, was walking on the 
road when he met Beruriah (the wife of 
R. Meier), and he a:5ked of her: "Which way 
must I take to the city of Lud?" She re- 
plied: ''Thou Galilean fool! Did not our 
sages say 'Thou shouldst not converse long 
with a woman'? Thou shouldst have asked 
'Which is the way to Lud ?' " 

Beruriah once found a certain disciple 
who studied in silen<^e (Fol. 54a). Scornfully, 
she said : ''Is it not thus written (II Sam. '23, 
5.) Set in order wi!h all and preserved, i. e., 
If set in order with all, the two hundred 
and forty-eight members of the body — it 
will be preserved in the heart." 

We are taught that R. Eliezer b. Jacob 
had a disciple who studied in silence, but 
that after three years he forgot all that he 
had learned. 

*We are taught that R. Eliezer b. Jacob 
had a disciple who was judged by God as 
deserving of being burnt, but the sage 
said: "Xiet him live, since he was an at- 
tendant to a great man." 

Samuel said to R. Juda : "Keen scholar, 
open thy mouth when thou readeth, open thy 
mouth when thou studieth, so that thou may- 
eth live long and the Torah will endure with 
thee; as it is said (Pr. 4, 2'2.) For they are 
life unto those tliat find them, and to the, 
whole body a healing; read not Lemotza'eihem 
(that finds them) but read it Lemotzi'eihem 
(who utters them) with the mouth."^ 

Samuel said to R. Juda: "Keen scholar, 
snatch and eat, snatch and drink for the 
world which we are to leave is like a wedding 
banquet [ wliich passes quickly]."' 

Rab said to R. Hamnuna : "'My son, if thou 
hast means then live according to them, 
for there is no enjoyment in the grave; and 
death does not linger, [it may come sudden- 
ly]. If thou wilt say 'I shall leave the means 
f"r mv children.' who will tell thee in tbe 



^J3 "17 ^moK .n",nK'7 "Ti-nn .conisi nij; 
«'?i tsT ■''7 nDK .mxp It 1^ mD« 13 k^ 
^y vnpm .nDinKi msp "p ^moK p 

ID""' u"i .cr"'jt2p nyi ds^hjo ens o^oon 
n"'-ni3'7 nn^tj's «n-nK3 "rnx «p n-n '«7"'^:n 
,T"7 mo« •Ti'? n^y7 ip: -pi it ^«2 n? ids 
nmn ^s '^n^n r,t:« "p «? nc-c ""^^^a 
: Ti'77 -It "Ka -ID-,? I? r\^n nti*«n cv nn^^ 

KTD7n i<^nn'7 n^nnrti-K nnna n* ^n) 
mc«i n-in ntt*t22 Kt:'"'n73 ona sp mm 
^33 nrny (-= = =rK-.ctt-) s^no •'rn ".k^ ni^ 
ms "jtr c^i3"'« n"m3 nrny d« miDB'i 
«jn .mcnc'D nrw is"? cn 3^3 n-nD!y 
(3py'' ]3) if;>7N '17 1^ n^n nn« TD^n 
nrtr n^:v 'a "in«^ rn'73 r^y^v n^n':; 
-ity^s 'i'? *>^ •T'n in« VT2'?r\ wn .mD'7n 
■ncs mpc'7 nana' 3"nnjir (3py^ p) 
31^ ^w-cty y'w .ct:"'ty ^n: Di«ty "i"? iman 
■•in "]C"i3 nn£5 np icib nns NJi-'a' rn'ri"^ 
-iDKJK' 1^3 c^prim i^'^n yr.m ^2'n ""S 
-i-it:'3 ^371 cn''NX"D7 en n-'-'n •'3 C '''^•o) 
cn-'K-'Xic'? k:s nn^sx-iO'? npn '?« .nsio 
s::-"*? m-.n-" 3'n7 7«x*^ n-'? now .ns3 
^r^tsi KD7j;i ^-nc'is": r,inn '7",3S q";t:n 
31^ 3T n^^ ^cs .^ai «'7-,'7n ''3^ n-iro' 
'?*Ktr3 i-'K ^2 -|7 30^ -j'? t:*^ DN ':3 «:"i3art 



8) Uotzei has two meanings, "to And" and "to bring forth." 

9) W:;;; ;-\; have ihe means enjoy It tor you do not know how long a 



235 



3py> py 



Tfn 



him ; otherwiae, his learning will not endure 
with him." 

R. Elszar said further: "What is the 
meaning of the passage (lb. 32, 16.) The 
writing of God, engraved upon the tables, i. e., 
if the first tables had not been broken, the 
Torah would not have been forgotten by 
Israel."" R. Acha b. Jacob said : "No 
nation on the earth could have had power 
over him; for it is said 'engraved upon the 
tables.' Do not read Charuth (engraved) 
but read it Cheiruth (liberty.") 

E. Mathna said : "What is meant by the 
passage (Num. 21, 18.) And from the wilder' 
ne^s of Mathanah, i. e., if a man makes 
himself as a wilderness, upon which every- 
body treads, his learning will endure with 
him; otherwise his learning will not endure 
with him." 

Eaba, the son of E. Joseph b. Chama 
was not on good terms with R. Joseph. Upon 
the approach of the Day of Atonement, Raba 
said: "I will go and appease him." So he 
went to R. Joseph, and found R. Joseph's 
attendant preparing a cup of wine for his 
master. "Give it to me and I shall prepare 
it," said Raba to the attendant. The latter 
gave the cup to Raba who prepared the 
wine. As soon as R. Joseph tasted it, he said : 
"This prepared wine tastestjust as if it were 
prepared by Raba, the son of R. Joseph b. 
Chama."" "It was I who prepared it" ex- 
plained Raba. R. Joseph then said to Raba: 
"I shall not permit you to sit down unless 
you will explain to me the meaning of the 
following passages (lb. ib. ib.) And from 
the wilderness to Mathanah, And front 
Mathanah to Nachaliel; and from Nachaliel 
to Bamoth. And from Bamoth to the val- 
ley. Eaba said to him: "[This means that] 
if a man make himself just as the wiMerness 
upon which everybody treads, the Torah will 
be given to him as a gift. Since the Torah 
was given to him as a gift, the Torah will 
remain with him as an inheritance, as it is 
said and from Matharuih to Nachaliel. Since 
the Torah will remain with him as an in- 
heritance, he will rise to distinction, as it is 
paid and from Nachaliel tn Bamoth}^ But 
if he exalt himself [with his learning] the 
Holy One, praised be He! will lower him, 
as it is said and from Bamoth to the valley; 



(3^ D») i-e K'nKi .n^3 D^pno mn^n px 
H^ ■'^D^« .'u nnn Kin d\T7s anro 
nmn nnjni?: k^ nuiB'Knn mm'? i-Dnrj 

7y nnn -\aH:v ;na zi\iv'} n'?^2'> \■\V7^ 
: nn'«n k^'k nnn inpn '»< mm^n 
naiDDi (K^ -isico) 7"D njriD an idk 
Vsnc nrn nmoj loxy onM^D^tyo d« rune 
l^K iK^ OKI ira Di"'pnD niD'Jn u pn 
c|cn'' 211 nna Kin .it3 c'^pno mn^n 
n"'nnn r,Di^ sn^ Kn'r^n n^? K^n KtDn na 
'jv'K nDK mD"'3n kdi^ ••'i'jm kod ns 
j-im Kpn niyoty^ n-'nDB'K ^tk .n''D"»"'£PK 
.Nj« n-i^ JVD^KT ^^ an n-"^ noK kdd n""^ 
^Kn nin noK n-ioyta no .n^^ :tD .n"«^ am 
•Kan nn cidi^ am nna Kam K:tD'? kjtb 
nv TTn3« arrri k'? ^'k .Kin kjk !?"« 
mnn nrnnDi n"D ^Knp ^:n7 ^^ nanem 
niD3oi niaa ^K'^^njoi bH-^bm njncDi 
nnDD iDsy hk dik w^ii ^k ^"k .K^:in 
.njriDa ^'? mm nnin ,13 ptyn 'JDnB' nrn 
noK3B> '7K i^nj njntJi nmn 17 naruB* ji^ji 
n^iy ^K I'bnjty ^vdi .^K^^nj njnntsi 
D-'Jio CK1 .moa '7K''^mni nnwts' n'7nj^ 
.K-'^n niDSi (00') 'K3«y i^">stj»D n"3pn inyn 



li) For • thing •n«r»vea CMmo* be obliterated. 

14) R .ToofTh "^'" b!ltidfo1<iP<!. he therefore (ll!i«OTere<J It only after he bed tasted tbe win*. 

15) JIattuinah maau "gift," Nachaliel "InheritKoae," Bamoth "an eieratioo." 



234 



p 3 n ■« y 



n^n 



hast thou not withheld, SclaJi, i. e., when 
hast Thou given him the request of his heart ? 
If the request was not withheld by his lips, 
Selah." 

Raba raised the following contradictory 
question: 'It is written (lb. ib. ib.) The 
longing of his h ear t hast Thou given him; 
[even without praying] ; and immediately 
following, And the request of his lips hast 
Thou not withheld, Selah. And he answered 
thus : If the man has merited it, the longing 
of his heart is given him without requesting 
it; but if he has not merited it, he must 
first request it before it is granted to him." 

In the school of R. Eliezer b. Jacob it 
was taught: "Wherever we find Netzach, 
Selah, Va'ed, forming the conclusion of a 
passage, it signifies that it will be forever, 
without interruption." As for Netzach, 
it is written (Is. 57, 16.) For not to eternity 
will I contend, neither will I be wroth (Lanet- 
xath) forever}^ ks for 8 el a h, it is written 
(Ps. 48, 9.) As we have heard, so have we 
seen, in the city of the Lord of Hosts, in the 
city of our God; God will establish it forever, 
Selah; as for V a' e d, it is written (Ex. 15, 
18.) The Lord will reign forever, and ever 
( Va'ed) . 

R. Elazar said : "What is the meaning of 
the passage (Pr. 1, 9.) And necklace around 
thy neck, i. e., just as a necklace is loose 
around the neck and is not seen, all the time 
[as when the wearer is bending down, so is 
it with a man. If he is not constantly seen 
in the streets or markets, but sits at home 
and studies] he will retain his learning; but 
if otherwise, he will not retain his learning." 

R. Elazar said: "What is meant by the 
passage (.Songs 5, 13.) His checks are as a 
bed of spices, i. e., if a man makes himself as 
a garden bed upon which every one treads 
[extremely modest], and just as the spices 
give enjojTnent to others [so he teaches 
others], then his learning will endure with 
him ; but if otherwise his learning will not 
endure with him." 

R. Elazar said also: 'TVhat is meant by 
the pas.sage (Ex. 31, 18.) Tables of stone,^- 
i. e.. If a man makes his jaws as [un- 
tiring in repeating lessons as] a stone 
that cannot be defaced when trodden 
upon, his learning will then endure with 



ri'Nn 2T\D •'D1 «3n .n^o r>y:D '73 •.TiEa' 
nyjD ^3 TTisty riB'-iNi 3ti31 ^'? nn: u? 
nciM ret h'? ^'? nn: u^ msn nat .n^D 
nry'^M ^3n ■•31 «3n .n^D nyjo ^3 vnsB' 
i'? ]■<« nyi n7D nsj 'wtr cipn ^3 3pv^ ]3 

«'? ^3 (" n'J'B") 3^n3T n:fJ .D^D^IJ? pDBH 

3''n3i n?D .cjixps m:'? H'?^ 3''nN d^ij?^ 
'n n">y3 u^Kn ]3 liv^ii* it^'^- ("° °'^"") 
D^iV "^y niJi3'« D^^'7« irn^K tv3 ms3s 

C'71V'7 T'^'^'' ''"1 ("^ "^°*') 3'n3T IV'' '"l^D 

n-'p^yi (« ''^»a) i"t2 ntj;'7N i"« .tvi 

nt pjys iDxj; ns ci« ccd c« yn-nna? 

iTD^n HKni ir«i n«-i3i n«i:f^ ciic 

: IT'S c'lpno 

r'n^ (n ir"ntr) T'o nty^K ^31 -ic« 

'73nB' nrn dci331 n3 i^ci '?znv it 
ps iK'b c«i o^pno mo^n uqd pDB'3no 
(h"? niDtr) 3''n3T >sr! «""iKi -D^pno mo^n 
IT ]3«3 vn'b ciK W'^r'D Ds ]3N mm^ 
iK^ D«i 1T3 n^pno mo^n nTroj ni-^nv 



11) Th« expreeglon iised here tar eternity Is Netnach. 

n) Tables is u.s«;<l here In the "plural" and stone in the "singular." 



237 



npv rv 



T^ 



country to another country to teach the Torah 
and explain it until it is aa clear as noon- 
time. Ye that ait in Judgment, (lb. ib. ib.) 
refers to those who sit and give verdicts that 
are really just; And ye who talk, (lb. ib. ib.) 
refers to those who are versed in the Bible; 
On the way, (lb.) refers to those who are 
versed in the Mishnah; Utter praise, (lb.) 
refers to those who are versed in the study 
of the Talmud and whose entire conversation 
ifl devoted to the Torah." 

K. Shizbi said in the name of K. Elazar, 
b, Azaria: "What is meant by the passage 
(Pr. 12, 27.) The indolent roasteth not thai 
which he hath caught in hunting. He will 
not live nor last long, the cunning indolent 
[who strives to study superficially without 
repeating his learning]." R. Shesheth said: 
"On the contrary, the cunning indolent will 
live and last." When E. Dimi came, he said : 
"This may be likened unto an indolent man 
who catches birds; if he pinions the wings 
of each fowl [immediately after he has caught 
it] , he will retain them, otherwise he will not 
retain them." 

Eaba, in the name of R. Sechora, who 
quoted R. Huna, said: "What is meant by 
the passage (Pr. 13, 2.) Wealth gotten by 
vain deeds ivill he diminished; hut he that 
gathered hy close lahor will increase it. If 
a man studies in mass (too many subjects 
at a time) his learning will decrease; but 
if he gathers it slowly (subject by subject) 
his learning will increase." "This," said 
Raba, "the Rabliis have studied [and know 
it] and yet they transgress it." R. Nachman 
b. Isaac, however, said : "I acted accordingly 
and retained my learning." 

Our Rabbis taught: *^hat was the 
method of learning the traditional Torah in 
the daj's of Moses? Moses learned it from 
the mouth of God, then Aaron entered and 
Moses taught him the chapter; when Aaron 
had finished, he left the seat of study, taking 
a seat at the left of Moses, and then his sons 
entered. Moses then taught them the chapter. 
When they finished, they departed, Elazar 
assuming a seat at the left* of Moses and 
Ithamar at Aaron's right. R. Juda says: 
'Aaron was always at the right of Moses.' 
The elder then entered and Moses taught 
them the same chapter. WTien the elders 
were through, they departed and the people 
entered and Moses taught them the chapter. 
Thus it is found that Aaron studies the 
chanter four times, his sons, three times, the 



l-'jim j-'acT'ty p-ra ^y ••db'ti (o») .nnnxD 
'Tj; .«-ipD ^^j;2 i'7N ij^in .inDW^ ntsK jn 

«'? nis n-im "rnn-' ^?'7 (=' '^•'o) n"D nnty- 

m NriN •'3 ."inn"' ''VXi^r\ T"-"! now r\^^ 

]">« 1N7 nsi nnntyo rsjD n« noa^ jickt 
an noN mino 3-1 id« san ids .noniyD 
{'sipi lavD"" 'JnnD |in (-> '''»o) T'd «jirt 

.nan'' !•• 'by ti by p-p csi ntsynnD mbian 
••nnyi snb^Q «nb pan nb ''-i"'t2j xm nnn 
smay «3k pnx-' nn jonj 3-1 ncN .nby 
: in D"pnsi 
130 iDb nti'Q .njtyn -no ^^^2 p3T ijn 
pbno: .ipis n^'D i^ nats'i pns dj3: .mnjn 
n3B>i V33 id:3j .nts'D bsorb 3C'''i pns 
str-i "iTybK T':3 ipbnc: .ipns ntt'o en'?- 
•'sn .pnN bKotr'? 3ty' lon-'Ni ntro ^"'D'''? 
sin ntit) pcb pns Dbiyb ims min^ 
.]pns ncTi cnb njtt-i cjpT icjaj .nnn 
•Ipns pb njci Dyn ^3 idj3j cipr ipbrioi 



236 



] ' a n ■> y 



iVi 



and if he reconsiders his conduct the H0I7 
One praised be He ! will raise him again, as 
it is said (Is. 40, 4.) Every valley sImU b* 
raised." 

R. Huna said : '"What is the meaning 
of the passage (Ps. 68, 11.) Tky assembly 
dwelt therein; Thou didst prepare it ivith 
Thy goodness for the afflicted people, God! 
If a man make himself as a wild beast, which 
devours its prey immediately after killing, 
so also will the scholar repeat his teaching 
immediately after he hears it from his teach- 
er until he knows it ; or as others explain it, 
like a wild beast which eats even when in the 
mud, 60 will the scholar humiliate himself 
for the sake of study ; thus he will retain his 
learning, otherwise he will not retain it. 
If he does so, however, the Holy One, praised 
be He ! Himself will prepare a meal for him 
as is said immediately following,^" Thon didst 
prepare it with goodness for Thy afflicted, 
God." 

R. Chiya b. Abba, in the name of R. 
Jochanan said : "Wliat is the meaning of 
the passage (Pr. 27, 18.) Whoso guardeth the 
fig-tree, will eat its fruit. Why are the words 
of the Torah likened to a fig-tree? (lb. b) 
Just as a fig-tree yields its fruits as often 
as one searches for it, so does the Torah vield 
new reasonings as often as a man utters it." 

R. Samuel b. Nachmeini said: '"What 
is the meaning of the passage (lb. 5, 19.) 
Let her bosom satisfy thee abundantly at all 
times. Why is the Torah compared unto a 
bosom? Just as the breast supplies milk as 
often as the suckling touches it, so it is 
with the Torah; as often as a man utters it 
he finds taste [new reasoning]." With her 
love ie thou ravished continually (lb.). This 
refers to R. Elazar b. Pedath; for it is said 
of R. Elazar b. Pedath that when he was 
studying the Torah in the lower market of 
Sephoris, his linen garment was lying in the 
upper market [and he did not even miss it 
because he was so preoccupied with his 
studv]. R. Isaac h. Eliezer said: ''Once a 
man attempted to steal [the clothes of R. 
Elazar b. Pedath] but found a serpent lying 
on top of them." 

In the school of R. Anan it was taught: 
"What is the meaning of the passage (Judge 
5, 10.) He that rides on white asses, etc. 
This refers to the scholars who travel from 
one town to another town, and from one 



'Kjty i.TDJD n"n v^npn ^2 inn dk". 

yiin (no Di'jnn) s^nsi 'SD «Jin m nOK 

nu D"pnn iTiD'i'n n'73"i«i nmooB' n? 
nciv 0S1 .ira n^pno mo'bn j-'s in'? dki 
(Bv) '«jtt' "iDXvn m'VD 1'? nciy n"2pn p 

•^SM ('= '^B-a) n-TlDT ""ND Jim"' T'S K3X 

mm ^lai i^d'dj hd^ iTinsj '73N^ n:Nn 
msty pr ^D (2"y o=*) it n^sn no njsnD 

: nj;t2 ini ss-.d tnn n::n msr pr 73 

-T no m'7 n-nn n3T I'rtrDJ nc^ 
3^n 13 ss'iD 13 irDtr'CD pirnu* pr 73 nr 
Ntiin \n2 njin mst:' pt ^3 min n3T r,s 
''3"i ]i:3 ,TDn n^tyn n3nK3 .cyu ins 
ms p N"n ^y i-^^y nos .ms ]3 nrv'Js 
pDyi "'nis:f 're jinnnn pica sb'V iThe' 
.''niss '?z' ]v'?)!r\ pm'3 'bene irnoi min3 
ins ciN K3 «"2 niybs i3 pnx"" 'n ics 
py 3n "-SI «jn .i''7j? qna* a-nj xsai ibt:"'? 
nninx nijin« "»33n (n niBcir) i"o 



^33n .'W'^r -n 



:^im po '7J? ''3tt'i'' 



i«) 6ee Intpoduotory paragmph regarding meaJs prepared by God. 



239 



py 



B^ 



the papil failed to learn it. "Whj is it dif- 
ferent to-daj from any other time ?" he asked 
hifl pupil. "Because,"' replied the pupil, "from 
the moment the master was summoned 
to discharge another duty, I direrted my 
attention and every now and then I said unto 
myself. Soon the master will get up, soon the 
master will get up [and I was not able to 
learn]." "Well, then," said the Kabbi to his 
pupil, "pay attention and I shall teach it to 
you again." He then repeated the lesson a 
second four hundred times and the pupil 
knew it. Whereupon a Bath-Kol came forth 
and said to K. Preida: "What reward do 
you want ? You may add four hundred years 
to your life or you and your generation may 
be merited for the future world." "I wish 
that I and my generation shall be merited for 
the future world," responded E. Preida. 
Whereupon the Holy One, praised be He! 
said, "Give him both rewards." 

B. Chisda said : "Knowledge of the Torah 
can be acquired only through means of 
signs;" for it is said (Deu. 31, 19.) Put it 
in their mouth. Do not read it Sima (put 
it) but read it Simana (its signs)."" When 
B. Tachlipha heard this in the West (Pa- 
lestine), he told it to B. Abuhu, who said: 
"Ye derive it from that passage, but we de- 
rive it from the following (Jer. 31, 20.) 
'Set thyself np waymarks, i. e., set up way- 
marks to the Torah." Whence do we know 
that the word Tziyun means marks ? For it 
is written (Ez. 39, 15.) Then when anyone 
seeth a human hone, he will set up a 'Tziyun' 
around it." R. Elazar said: "[We know it] 
from the following, (Pr. 7, 4.) And call un- 
derstanding thy kinswoman, i. e., make a kins- 
woman of the Torah." Eaba said: [Thia 
means] "Set a fixed regular (Fol. 55a) time 
for the study of the Torah." This also is 
intended by B. Abdimi b. Dosa, who spoke 
thus: "W^hat is meant by the passage (Deu. 
30, 12.) It is not in heaven, neither is if be- 
yond the sea. It is not in heaven means that 
even if it were in heaven, one would have to 
ascend to reach it; neither is it beyond the 
sea, i. e., even if it were beyond the sea, one 
■would have to cross the sea to reach it." 

Eaba said: "It is not in heaven, means 
that knowledge cannot be found in him who 
exalts himself [in wisdom] as high as the 

IT) Rubrioation by catchwords. They learned by heart 
he studies, he will remember tt In that way, but If he does 
torgeC 

18> The letters Shin and Samach are interchaagable 
"put it" but with a Samach, It means "signs." 



n-'i «:n msoi Kn^^ m^a >nn nxr>x 
«nytr ikhd '}"» .r"D «:T>«n V« -"asJ t^\ 
^nnD» msoT wn^io wk toS »t^ itckt 
ID ■>«? tciwn «j'D« «n>» to ''Knjn7 
-iir\ ."1^ ^jnKT yiyn an '?'» ."» vp «nrn 
«ps: .noai «:nnK '»:dt nma j^tm n"'? «:n 

1^ un Kin 7i-a rnpn pi^ new ."ntn 

■• in n 
«^« n-i^pj n-nnn ]■•« vrem 3i td« 
^« Dn-ifiia rsQiv ("^ o»-v3n) 'jow i-iJCDa 
Kfi-'^nn 31 nyow .njcD vi'm m'>w npn 
iDK ins« •'am n'^op moM ^k wiyoD 
pijno «3na pK n^ inijnc Dnno pnK 
D'ljT'x 12^ 'u D"':i''X 1^ "•a-'sn (»rt n'»T) n^ 
k:d^di KJiB'''7 ji^s 'Km yovm 'Km .mm'? 

njai DIK DXJJ HKni (a^ ^»P»ni) ^TOl Kin 

(t '^»o) Krno lOK nrj;^ 'n .ji's i^k 
.mm^ D'v^10 niyy Kipn nj'a^ yiioi 
u'lm (n: =]•>) .m in^ D'lyiD n»v -vck Kan 

C? 'n;7) ^"o son la 'cnas ai idki 

K'n □"''7 na>'c n71 «'n CDca k^ 

^nx nriK k\-i cotra dkb' knt onsra k^ 
7»-i2t nriK KM D''? naj?D dki nnnK m^^ 
K^ KM D'DB'a K^ iDK KaT .nnnK niay^ 

and therefore if a scholar puts a sign es each Balacha 
not marli them, he is likely to become confuted and will 

according to grammatical rules. With a Shin it 



238 



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r'n 



elders twice, and the people once. Moees then 
departed and Aaron studied the same chapter 
•with them all. When Aaron finished, he de- 
paned, arj his sons studied the chapter with 
them; after the sons finished, they departed 
and the elders studied the chapter with the 
people. It is thus found that every one re- 
peated the chapter four times. 'From this.' 
says R. Eliezer, 'we leam that it is the duty 
of a man to repeat a lesson with his disciple 
four times.' For if Aaron who learned it 
from Moses and if Moses, who learned it from 
God Himself, had to repeat the chapter four 
times, then, surely, an ordinary man who 
learns from another ordinary man, should 
repeat it much more frequently." 

R. Akiba said : "Whence do we infer that 
a man must leam the lesson with his disciple 
until his disiiple knows it? It is said (Deu. 
31, 19.) And 'teach it the children of Israel. 
Whence do we know that he must teach him 
tintil he knows it? It is said (lb. ib. ib.) 
Put it in their mouths. Whence do we infer 
that the he must show him the reasons for 
every law? It is said (Ex. 21, 1.) And 
these are the laws which thou shouldst place 
before them." 

Wliy should not all enter and leam direct- 
ly from Moses? In order to show honor to 
Aaron, his chidren and the elders. If that 
he so, then why should not Aaron enter and 
leam it from Moses, Aaron's children from 
Aaron, the elders from Aaron's children, and 
the people from the elders? Because Moses 
leamed from the Almighty, he was therefore 
more capable of explaining the Torah. 

The master said above : R. Judasays 
*'A aron was always sitting 
to the right of Mose s." In ac- 
cordance with whose opinion is the following 
Baraitha? ''"When three men are walkincr on 
the road the teacher shall walk in the middle, 
the junior disciple to his right and the senior 
to his left." Is this not in accordance with 
B. Juda fwho says Aaron was sitting at the 
right of Moses] ? We can say it is in ac- 
cordance even with the opinion of the Rabbis, 
yet Aaron occupied his seat to the right of 
Moses in order to save him trouble [as he oc- 
cupied the seat at the right of Moses in the 
Ijeginning, so he remained]. 

B. Preida had a pupil to whom he had to 
Tepeat a lesson four hundred time? before he 
comorehended it. One dav the Rabbi was 
called to nerform a meritorious deed, and he 
repeated his lesson as usual, hut this time, 



p^no: .nnK cyn ^3 T■z^ wzv o^jpt t31 
Mv priK p^noj ipiB jinK uni mv nro 
D^:pt Dn^ 'iv T'J3 "p^noj jpii vaa en'? 
"iDK ;Nrt3 .nyanK '«i 'k '?2 n^a «2ro3 jpia 

nirm -B'D '•SD ■ro'7tr pns noi V'pi coyo 

n-iivi mN n^nc' ]^jd noiK Ksipy ^ai 
{xh Dnn) iQwac UTO^'tr ly ira^n^ 

(K2 niDB-) 'Kjijf ro D^:s 1^ m«nn^ s^nr 

l'7^^y31 .DH^JS^ CVn IK'S D^DBBDn H^KI 

pn«'7 T,3D pibn'j n3 nvoQ nDJ:i ^rf?^3 
cj^'b^^i ]^^« ^-y^^i .D^ipr^ T.nri v:2'p nan 

'l'7"y'71 p-KD IB^i^l VJ3 "i^^^^l nrTD 

iB'b^^i bvrw' ^n ^'7>^1 .vi2Q ib^^^) D^apr 

nDi« min> ^3i id ic« .n^n^ xy^ron 
jiKCJ inn Nin nun j'^c'? pnn c'?',y'? 
7112 ]^3^nc vnty nv'?v »^:ni sn k^ik 
."i^KDira ]Qpi u^D'D ^na .yxD«3 Din 

«0T1 "l^-iBM .]J3"1 H'?^ «M nT>r\'' '»31 KO^i 

: ]intn Knits dicdi jj31 
sra'i'n Kinn n>b mn ktib -"DI 

.icr. 'jov nsa yniK n^^ ""Wi mm 



241 



^?v py 



SDT 



wonder if this disciple will live through this 
year." And the dasciple died within that 
year. So his wife said to R. Elazar: "Art 
thou a prophet?" "Neither a prophet nor 
the son of a prophet," was his answer, *T)ut 
I have a tradition that whoever decides a 
legal question in the presence of his teacher 
is guilty of capital punishment." And Rab- 
ba b. Ghana said that this disciple was Juda 
b. Guriah and he was three miles away from 
his teacher, R. Elazar. [Hence it shows that 
even in the absence of his teacher, deciding 
legal questions involves capital puishment.'] 
It was in his teacher's presence. But E. 
Jachanan said he was three miles away from 
his teacher! And according to your own 
opinion [is there not an objection to be 
raised] ? Wherefore was it necessary to state 
the disciple's name and his father's name? 
We must say (that these names are given) 
that we should not construe the above story 
as a mere parable. [Therefore it stated all 
the facts and it was indeed decided in the 
presence of R. Elazar.] 

R. Chiya b. Abba, in the name of B. 
Jochanan, said : "Wlioever decides a legal 
question in the presence of his teacher, de- 
serves to be bitten by a serpent, for it is said 
(Job 33, 6.) And EHJiu, the son of Barachet, 
the Buzite, commenced, and said: 'Young 
am I in days, and ye are very old; therefore 
I hesitated and feared to show you what I 
Icnoiv.' It is written here vachaUi (I feared). 
and it is written there (Deu. 32. 24.) With 
the power of serpents (Zochalei) that crawl 
in the dust." E. Zera said in the name of 
R. Chanina: "He is to be called sinner, as 
it is said (Ps. 119, 11.) In my heart have I 
treasured up thy saying, in order that I may 
not sin against thee." 

R. Humnuna raised the following contra- 
dictory point: "It is written (lb.) In my 
heart, have I treasured up thy saying, and it 
is written (lb. 40, 10.) / announce Thy 
right eoiisnex.t in the great assrmhhj" ; and he 
himself explained it: "The former was said 
when Ira, the Yairite [his teacher], was liv- 
ing, [therefore David did not teach others] ; 
and the latter refers to the time when Ira, 
the Yairite, was dead." 

R. Abba b. Zabda said : "He who sends 
his [priestly] gifts unto one priest vdll bring 
a famine into the world, for it is said (II 
feam. 20, 26.) and Ira, the Yairite, was a 
priest unto David, etc. Was he a priest unto 
David onlv? Behold he was a priest unto 



HMi IDC «m: 13 mm"" T»'7n 'mK ]:nv 
«m mn v:s3 .mKona ty^ty "ijdd pim 
T'OVQ^i nnsp m«Dns c'^tr ijdd pirn 
^t^D nDKn «^tr «'?« no'? rns dci yaw 
nmon ^d pmi ■!"« k3n is x^^n n"« .hm 

nDN"'i vun ^Dna p ki.t^x jyi (=^ ai'") 
'»n'7nt p ^y w^^'^v cnwi d'^di'? •>:« iijrx 

r\sy ^'Jnn riDn ny (3^ onm) cnn ninsi 
^n'?! nDs:ty «uin Kip: wjn -i"s ••T'yr 
«n3Dn m .-j'? sanK k^ jya^ imoK ijijes 
imox '•riisx -"a^a (b'p c^nn) airia ••dt 
|K3 .m '7np3 pix Tnti'i (o oo-) D-^nsi 
]''«B' p?3 t^3 Di''p ''n^«\n s~i"'yB' prn 
^D Hint na «o« n"K .Diip ••n-'SM siiy 
n^iy^ ay-i «iiD nns ]nD^ ttiuhd "latrnn 
ps n'^n •'T'HNn kt«j? dji (= a'V) nosjtr^ 
N^ «D^j; v".:^ pD •'im sin iMb .'ui in^ 



240 



] ' an ' y 



tST 



heavens; Neither is it beyond the sea, mean'' 
that neither is it with him who considers 
his opinion as broad as the sea." R. Jachan- 
an said: "It is not in heaven, means that it 
cannot be found among presumptuous men; 
Neither is it beyond the sea, means that it 
cannot be found among travelling merchants 
and tradesmen." 

(Fol. 56a) R. Juda, in the name of Rab, 
said : "In a town, that is hilly and has slopes 
and valleys, both men and cattle will die 
young." Will die ? How can you believe so ? 
But Fav rather they will become old prema- 
turely. R. Iluna, the son of R. Joshua, said: 
"Those hills between the cities of be-Biri and 
be-Nari made me old prematurely." 

CHAPTER SIX 

(Fol. 63a) Rabina, while sitting before 
B. Ashi observed a man tying an ass to a 
tree on the Sabbath. Rabina admonished the 
man but the latter paid no attention to him, 
whereupon Rabina said: "Thou art under 
ban for this." Rabina then said to R. Ashi: 
"Can this action of mine be regarded as dis- 
graceful?" [Because I have done it in tlie 
presence of you, my teacher.] R. Ashi an- 
swered: "There us no wisdom nor understand- 
ing nor counsel against the Lord (Pr. 21, 
30), i. e., whenever the desecration of the 
name of the Lord is threatened, no regard 
must be paid to a teacher." 

Raba said : "In the presence of his teach- 
er, it is prohibited [for a disciple to decide 
i legal question] and it involves capital pun- 
ishment ; but in the absence of his teacher [if 
i disciple does so] it is, of course, prohibited 
but no capital punishment is involved." And 
in the absence of his teacher, you say, it does 
Qot involve capital punisliment. Behold ! It 
is taught that R. Elazar says : "The sons of 
Aaron did not die for any other sin than 
that they decided questions of law in the 
presence of their teacher, Moses. What verse 
did they interpret? [without asking Moses 
their teacher:] And the sons of Aaron the 
priest, shall put fire upon the latter (Lev. 1, 
7). Thus they said to themselves : 'Although 
Ere is to descend from heaven [upon the 
altar], it is neTerthele.=s, a virtuous act to 
bring common fire.' " There was a disciple 
of R. Elazar. who decided legal questions 
in the presence of the latter. Whereupon R. 
Elazar snid unto Ema Salmon, his wife: "I 



H7 «NT D'>^ "13V'I2 «7"1 min ^DJ3 «i'Dn 

D^na nac ni^n^-i din mTnm ni^yo na 
]^rptD SD"«« «'7S i"d criD .DiT'D-' ''sna 

: ]M''pm &M •'31 niD "•m Kn^"«^ iD ^jn 

""V^y pne mn 

nntsnV n-"!? nc« «pT sin: sinn^ n^in 
n:»'« «'? N^p n-ia «m Knati'a sn'^a-'xa 
••o y'» .KHDU'a (xnn: ^«n ^in^ ^'m .Ta 
y'H .«nn^pBSj vniT^o ""d wn: ''«n 
nxy pNi njinn psi nosn pw («= '^b«) 
l-ip^in i"«K Dtrn ^i^-^n tr-itr mpD "jd .'n n:j^ 
nn^o a'«"«m mOiN tijd3 san nt2« .di'? ti33 
s^cT .nn-'c ni^n i-^si its tijes «^r 
"inn K^ lOiN nry^M 'i s-'jnm x: T'jsn 
nro ^JS2 T]2':n mnw' ^y «'?« ]nn« ^ty ■i"':a 
jron pn« ija "lanji (« «ip'0 tm ^ko .pi 
]D rmT> trsnty s"yN nox nnton 'tj; tk 
nns TD!?ni .tsrnnn p «"«3n7 mxD D^n^n 
noK .visa nD^T mintr nry'l'S 'i^ i^ n\n 
«"«si^ c« ^jncn '.ntr'N c"'7tt' sdk^ k""i n^ 
K1ZJ 1^ mcs .;r,r:' s^x-n x^i •injtr' nr 



MB 



2PV* py 



»i 



getfier with their families. [Hence tint aia 
ot neglecting family duties.] 

B. Samuel b. Avia, in the name of Bab, 
■aid : "To study the Torah is a virtue greater 
than the offering of the perpetual sacrificea, 
for it is said Now I am come [showing he 
came on account of the latter's sin which 
was the neglect of studying the Torah]." 

(Fol. 64a) B. Juda, in the name of 
Samuel, said: "He who drinks one-fourth 
of a Lug'- of wine should not decide any 
legal question." "This tradition is not a good 
one," said B. Nachman, "for I know that 
unless I do drink a quarter of a Lug of wine, 
I feel that my head is not clear." "Why," 
eaid Eaba to him, "should the master ex- 
press himself so? Has not B. Acha, the 
eon of B. Chanina, said, 'What is meant by 
the passage (Pr. 29, 3.) But he that heepeth 
company with harlots will lose (his) wealth.' 
This means that whoever says one Halacha 
(Law) is beautiful and that the other Hala- 
cha is not beautiful will lose the wealth of 
the Torah (he will forget it)." '1 take it 
back," E. Nachman said to him. 

Eabba b. B. Huna said: "One who is 
tipsy should not pray; but if he does pray, 
his prayer will nevertheless be acceptable. 
If one is intoxicated, he should not pray; 
and if he does pray his prayer shall be con- 
sidered an abomination." When can one 
be termed tipsy and when intoxicated? 
This we learn from the incident of E. Abba 
b. Shumni, and B. Menashia, the son of B. 
Jeremiah of Diphti, who were taking leave 
of one another when they were on the boat 
which crossed the river of Yuphthi. They 
agreed to let each one say an Halacha which 
should be new to the hearer; for B. Man, 
the grand-son of E. Huna b. Abba, said, 
"A man must not leave his associate other- 
wise than with a word of Halacha; by which 
he may remember him." So one began thus : 
"When can one be termed tipsy and when 
intoxicated? If one would have enough 
sense to speak to a king, he is merely tipsy; 
but one who would not have enough sense 
to converse with a king is called intoxicated." 
The other replied and said: What shall he 
who takes possession of the estate of a pros- 
elyte [who has no heirs-in-law] do [with 
the wealth] in order that it may endure 
with him? Let the possessor buy a Torah 
(a scroll)." 

1) A oMMm aaiMl (p a9i»-feKu^ of a vxutt. B 



: 'nK3 nny (n d») noMJir |n»»n mapno 
^3 ^«iDKr now mvp dt tbk (■» ^n) 
■\vf} pm "["» jnv ^H f < r>^jr»an nmrn 
vfn nD3 K3K «m Mnyor ^kh K-i^yo 
.^«njn ^K^^x «^ Kiom nny^an «3^nty 
HnK ■'31 -iD«m ^Dn id noK ki"d «3"i y'K 

n«i IT nyior noisn tia pn i3K' nun 
.m"jn b^ njin nawD nw nj-iN it nyioB'i 
"•inv win m is nn idk .13 mn ^"k 
-wyo .n^sn in^Bn 'r^enn d«i ^^ijn' ^k 
<D%n .nnyin in^sn ^^snn d«i ^'7sn'> ^k 
na K3« 'm «n •»d mar n"m ••iriE' ^dt 
^in Tiano n^DT 'na K^rao sm ••jDity 
nos Tiiji^ nnn majjos mno nDsop 
n^^ V^DB' «'7T p^D im nn ^d «n^D «d^: 
nBS"» ^K «jin m nna ""no idki nnan^ 
•jiriDB' ns^n nsn Tino k^« narro Dn« 
n"m vntt' T'n idki nn nns .imsiT p 
.■j^on ^£53 nm^ ^id-ic ^3 "•ints' .-nsB' 
nns ."I'bDn ^jsa nai'? '7id' u'«b' ^d hdb' 
n»y^ nx'3 nan -iDDja pvnon -id«i -[tk 
: n"D jna np' .n^a iD"pv 

Koa ooxs-fmrtii te « edxteeDth of a quart 



2ri2 



] ^ 3 1 T I 



301 



all Israel also I We mxui therefore say that 
it means 'All the priestly gif ta were giren un. 
to him by Darid, and immediately following 
this it IB written (lb. 21, 1.) And there was 
a famine for three years in the days of 
David." 

B. Elazar said : "He [who decides a legal 
question in the presence of his teacher] will 
be deposed from his honorable position, as 
it is said CNum. 31, 21.) And Elazar, the 
priest, said unto the men of the army," etc. 
And although he said that the law waa 
taught to his uncle and not to him, still 
he was deposed from his honorable position, 
as it is written (lb. 27, 28.) And before 
Elazar, the priest, shall he (jfoshua) stand 
and he shall ask of him after the Judgment 
of the Urim before the Lord, etc. We, how- 
erer, do not find an instance where Joshua 
ever availed himself of Elazar's help." 

B. Levi said: "Whoever decides a legal 
question in the presence of his teacher, will 
die childless, for it is written (Num. 11, 28.) 
And Joshua ben Nun, the servant of Moses 
from his youth, answered and said : 'My Lord 
Moses, forbid them,' (lb. b) and it is writ- 
ten (I. Chr. 6, 27.) Nun, his son, Joshua, 
his son [showing that Joshua had no chil- 
dren]." This is in contradiction to the 
opinion of R. Abba b. Papa, for R. Abba b. 
Papa said: "Joshua would not have been 
punished had it not been for the sin that he 
neglected his family duties for one night, as 
it is said (Jos. 5, 13.) And it came to pass, 
when Joshua was in Jericho, etc., and it is 
written (lb. ib. 1-i.) And he said. No; for I 
am a captain of the host of the Lord; now am 
I come, L e., the angel said to him 'Yester- 
day you neglected to bring the perpetual 
afternoon offering and now you are neglect- 
ing the study of the Torah.' So Joshua asked 
the angel. In regard to which one did 
you come ?' Whereupon the angel said, 'Now 
I am come' [i. e., for the neglect of this 
moment] . Inmiediately following And Joshua 
lodged that night among the people (Ib. 8, 
9) ; and it is also written (Ib. ib. 13.) And 
Joshua went that night into the midst of the 
valley; and R. Jochanan said: *We infer 
[from the erpres?inn 'of the valle>''] that 
Joshua lodged within the profoundness of 
the law [be studied over night]. And we 
have a tradition that whenever the holy ark 
and the Shechina rest without its proper 
place, the Israelites are forbidden to live to- 



v^w in ^D^3 Djn %T'i ("3 ■►) TY>-\ro n^nsi 

bn iron iTjrt'M idwi ("^ tnxi) ncwr 
«'? ''i .mx K3K inM^ iDtn 3*j«i mxn tjs 
(13 Dr) n-insT vyy^in ]n3rH ^dh i^-ibk mx 
Mroa "1^ ^twi niDjp yan iij>^k ^jb^t 
•T^ ■p-itxtn ]rawK «^> "m 'n '>aJ^ cniKn 

^11 (K» -131133) 'n:v n'?i Kta 'rvAV'7 ^vk 
noK^i vmnsD two mm pa ]3 yv^n•> 
133 p: (i"" ""I) 3^n3i n«ta nro 'hk 
Vsn Nss nn sss •'3-n kj-i^di .un yv:n^ 
^i3-i3Bf ^y «'7s ytyin"* vfiy: »*> nbb na kdk 
^DVi:^ .nns n^"''? n^mi iTTBd ^Kitr" n« 
'ui inn"«a ymn"! rwn^ '<r^'>^ (" ?»3n') 
'n «nx ntr ""js •'3 «^ idkm (d») stidi 
■pen Dn"7B3 CDS n^'7 idk .""riKn nny 
mo'bn Dn^D3 T'C'syi D-ianyn p3 •?» 
ntsK .nK3 DHD nt^« ^ rp^ noK .min 
yirin'' ]'7"'i (n Dir) t«d /nK3 nny n"-'? 
To^D ]3m' ■!"« -p^v^ 1^3 «inn n^'^3 
pr tats' '•"T'oai .HD^n ^B' npmy3 j^c 

13 ^«ioc 31 IDS .ntacn ty''Dts'n3 ?n'DK 



M6 



3py* py 



noi 



they are nof responsible,] An objection 
was made from the following: 'A drunien 
man's purchase is a valid purchase; his sell- 
ing is a valid sale; if he has committed a 
crime which involves capital punishment, ho 
should be executed ; if he I'ns coiumitted a 
crime involving punishment by straps, he 
should be given lashes; as a general rule, he 
is, in all respects, considered a sober man 
with the exception that he is to be free from 
prayer." [This is in contradiction to the 
opinion of R. Shesheth, who said in the 
name of R. Elazar b. Azaria, that a drunken 
man cannot be judged]. R. Shesheth will 
say that his statement, 'I can exempt the 
world from Divine Judgment', also means 
'Judgment caused through prayer.' 

R. Chanina said : "All the above is said 
concerning a man who is not as drunk as 
was Lot,^ but if he is as drunk as Lot was, 
then he is exempt from everything." 

R. Chiya b. Ashi, in the name of Rab, 
said : "Whoever has his mind not thoroughly 
at ease, should not pray, for it is said, In 
his affliction shall he not judge."* 

On a day when he was in a bad humor, 
R. Chanina would not pray, saying: "It is 
■written, In his affliction shall he not judge.'' 
Mar TJkba would not leave for his judicial 
chamber on a day when a hot southerly 
wind was blowing. 

R. ISTachman b. Isaac said: "To decide 
legal questions, one needs a mind as clear 
as the day when a north wind is blowing." 

Abaye said: "When my mother asked 
me to bring her a certain mess only, she 
would confuse me the entire day [and pre- 
vent me from studying]." 

Raba said: "Even if a flee bit me I 
could learn no longer." 

The mother of Mar, the son of Rabina, 
made her son seven suits of garments, one 
for each day. 

R. Juda said: "The night was created, 
only for sleep." But Resh Lakish said: 
"The night was created only for studying 
the Torah." The Rabbis praised R. Zeira 
because his teachings possessed a specU 
brilliance, and he replied: "It is because 
they were all studied during the day." The 
daughters of R. Chisda said to their father: 
"Why does not the master take a nap for a 



^ty i^^j ,im« pp^D mp^D .im« j'tt'dd 
jD mDsc «^« -im ^3^ npsD «in nn in- 
]^*ra ^d: noKpT -nosj^ ^:^idi ^kd .n^snr 
y^n «^ty K^« '\:u s^ «iijn ■i"n .n^ar 

r«ty ^3 m 1DK ■'CN 13 n"n« 

x^ nnm ndt«d wjn •'an .mi"« ^« iss 
wnpij; 10 .sTia mi'' ^« ixn idn "«^xd 
pn: m ion .«:n^ pis: s^ «mB»T kdit 
«DT«3 «m^"'x nons xnyoB' pnx^ in 
nnp DK 1^ mns •«s "as inN .wnoNi 
ni''3 pxnp ">« «3i nos .'•sjn «^ Nnma 
iTiDS n>'7 mDj? «i^3"n nnn no .^«3n «' 
min^ 31 IDS .^Di^ nynty^ -"tyn^ nyne* 

U'n IDS .SnjiB'^ K'7S S''^^^ NIl^S S'7 
nDS .SD13'7 S^S SliTD Sia^S S^ l^'p^ 

in'j IDS .innyDC i-inno siv '«2i'7 n^^ 
siDn 311 n^nj3 n""'? pos .inr: SDon 
n^ IDS .snns dij'^j id 'p n^ kidh ai^. 



») See Gen. 19. 30-38. 

«) Tills auotaUoD bma been taken (rocn "Bes Slra," naahi. 



244 



p 3 T1 "I y 



"TOT 



(lb. b) We are taught: '^t once hap- 
pened that whiJe Rabban Gamaliel was travel- 
ing between Achu and Chezib, mounted on 
an ass, and R. Ilai was walking behind liim, 
the former saw some loaves lying on the, 
road, and said: Ilai, pick up these loaves 
from the road. Afterward meeting a Gentile, 
Rabban Gamaliel said to him: 'Mabagai, 
take the loaves away from Ilai.' When R. 
Ilai became acquainted with the Gentile, he 
asked him: ''Whence art thou?" The 
Gentile answered, "I am from the cities of 
Burganin." "And what is thy name?" 
"Mabagai, is my name." "Does R. Gama- 
liel know thee?" "No," replied the Gentile. 
From this we understand that Rabban 
Gamaliel knew the name of the Gentile by 
Divine Vision, and that three things may be 
inferred, first, that bread must not be passed 
by; secondly, that we are guided by the 
legal status of the majority^ of wayfarers; 
and thirdly, the leavened bread belonging 
to a Gentile, even if it remained over the 
Passover, may be made use of by Israelites 
after the Passover. Upon his arrival at 
Chezib, a man came to Rabban Gamaliel and 
asked him to nullify a vow. Whereupon R. 
Gamaliel said to his companions: "Have 
wc drunk one-fourth of a lug of Italian 
wine?" And they answered: "Yea, we did." 
"If so," said R. Gamaliel, "then let him 
follow us, until the effect of the wine shall 
have passed away." And the man followed 
them for three mies until they reached a 
big mountain. As soon as the)' reached this 
mountain, Rabban Gamaliel dismoimted from 
the ass, wrapped himself, sat down and nulli- 
fie<' the man's vow. From these actions wc 
learn many things, namely: one-fourth of a 
lug of Italian wine intoxicates a man; that 
■when a man is intoxicated, he must not de- 
cide any legal questions; that walking on 
the road causes the effect of the wine to 
pass away ; and that a vow may not be nulli- 
fied while riding or walking or standing but 
only sitting. 

R. She^eth said, in the name or R. 
Elnzar b. Azaria: (Fol. 65a) "I can (by 
my plea) release the entire world (of Israel) 
from Divine Judgment, since the destruc- 
tion of the Temple to this very day, for it 
is said (Is. 51, 21.) Therefore hear now 
this, thou afflicted, and drunken, hut not 
with tcine. [Hence if all are dnmk then 



"•m nim ans^ loyo "pna ^^^^ niDnn by 
^"K "Tnn ppDi^j «XD innN -pno ^«v'i'« 

ifbn ppoi^J ^113 ■'SJ3D y'K inn D-insia 
p-^no '7"« ■'«y^« '•m i^ ^sd: .•'«y'?Ka 
noi .]''3Jii3 ^B' niT^yr) i'? idk .nriK 

'?«^'7DJ pT I'T'Sn D1^3 .""JOty ^NJ30 .pBf 

prDty mo^ nyir nmsa .i«'? ^'k .D^iyo 
nm«3 mo'? cnm 'Ji .uiipn nna i"^ 
.I''^3",«n ^y pTiayD ]''i<^ i:id'7 •nyie' 
.WDM naiy an nnN D''3'7intr i:nD'7i 
.D''3m ""iny an ins D''3'7intr uia^i 
nosn nn« d^sdid imy '?v ixDnty mo^i 

irnt:' di'^d inyc nr'? ids tiu ^y ^st?'''? 

': nnnn« ^"di .i:i:" ^''s-'ty ly ir->n« 

monn p ^«^^d3 pn it" "ns ^ir no^iD'? 
D1-I31 naim .mj i^ n^nm nc^ cioynji 
]ii n-'ymti' i:iD'7 .nyc' nm«n mo^ 
.mi"' ^« Tiat? una^i .naco ••p^QKn 
^•'Nt:' inn^T .^''''n ns n:'£3D ynz' ino'ri 
iDiy «^i 'I'i'nD «^i man «^ nmj pn-'SD 

nnry p nry^s ^n mtrQ nc'C' an iid« 
]D 1^3 D^iyn ^D ns mos^ ^:^id'' (no «n) 
vu^V "^V' Bnpon n^a ann-j ova pin 
n-'jy nsT kj ■•yoc p'? (•« "'?•") '«Jiy 
npn inpo maty 'a^n^o .j^o k^i miDtri 



:) Ttie majorltr of 4b* membn* of th? earaTwi tint enoscnped n«oT the towa. 



247 



3pv' py 



TD1 



be bought with money belonging to the 
Tithes." It must therefore, refer to irine; [for 
water cannot be bought] yet the passage calls 
it water (lb. b) to hint that, if it flows in 
his house like water, then it may be called a 
blessed house, otherwise it cannot be called 
so." 

E. Hayi said: "On three occasions a 
man's character can be recognized; by his 
wine-cup (when he drinks) ; by his purse 
(dealing honestly) ; and by his anger (sel- 
dom getting excited), and according to 
others, by his laughter also." 

(Fol. 85b) Buneis, the son of Buneis, 
once called on Eabbi. "Make way for one 
worth one hundred manehs,"'' exclaimed Rab- 
bi. Presently another visitor came in and 
Eabbi said: (Fol. 86a) "Make way for one 
worth two hundred manehs." So E. Ishmael 
pleaded with him saying: "Eabbi, the 
father of the first-comer, owns a thousand 
ships at sea and a thousand towns ashore!" 
"Well," replied Eabbi, "when thou seest his 
father, tell him not to send his son around the 
next time with such poor clothes." 

Eabbi honored the rich and so also did 
E. Akiba honor the rich. As Eaba b. Mari 
once preached: "May he abide forever before 
Ood; ordain that kindness and truth maiy 
guard him. (Ps. 61, 8). When May he abide 
■forever before Oodf At the time that kind- 
u«sa and truth may gvard them." 



no yo-'D riKi -jtsn^ ntt ■\^o^ (» ntov) 
D^npn n^D cjs -\vyQ sioan np:v nn'? 
□iQ in'7 np Kpi ]" in:^i ^«qi "[vyo cidds 
«^ ""SI nann «3''« d'^dd VT'aa -fim ••« 

q« D-i-lDlK B'M 1DX?D3 ^D'>22 1D"D3 "O'^i 

■■ ■ipnB'3 
r^i^i^'? nriK Dvan p dt":!! (a"? n"B) 
.niD nsD p'7 DipD us in^ now ^nm 

•»31 VJS^ -IDK .n:D DTISD p'7 DipO 

':« 1^ TiDK Tins '7SK yi:D nnKtt'3 ^"n 

ion DNn^N •':3'7 O^iy nty^ (»« n>Vnn) no 

••ia^ D^ij? 2B'^ TICK im-ixj"" p noNi 
: inmxj'' p nD«i idhb' pn ch'tk 



THE BWD OF EEUBIN. 



rsnj? nroa n'? p'^^D 



^) Bee Bn*ln SCb. ««it oD Mod* o< ylrtwia mar l»« bought with 4fa« proeMd* o< the Goeond WlM* (Ma'aaur 
Bheni) except -water and eatt. ^ ^ . . 

1) ▲ eertaJTi weight of silver amovuiUng to one hundred denanm. 



1A& 



]i:i'\'\'<y 



xn 



while f" And H. Cbiadft Mplied: 'Tery 
long dft/i will yet come whon they will be 
short for study, but long for sleep." R. 
Nachman b. Isaac said: "We are all day- 
laborers."' B. Acha b. Jacob would borrow 
[houjs from the day] and repay them [at 
night.] 

K. Elazar said: "WhocTer comes from 
the road, should not pray for three days 
for it is said (Ezra 8, 15.) And I gathered 
thrm together to the river that rmnneth into 
thi Ahava and we encamped there three 
days; and I looked about among the people. 
[Only after three days, was he able to look 
about among the people]." 

The latder of Samuel upon coming from 
a journey would not pray for three days 
[because his mind was not sufficiently clear [. 
Samuel himself, would not pray within a 
house where there was beer, [for the smell 
of it would confuse his mind]. B. Papa 
would not pray within a house where there 
was a mess made of a certain fish [that gives 
forth a liquid smell]. 

R. Chanina said: "A man who becomes 
appeased when mdor the influence of wine, 
possesses the qualities of his Creator, for it 
is said (Gen. 8, 21.) And the Lord smelled 
the sweet flavor," etc. 

B. Chiya said : "Whoever remains clear- 
minded when drinking, possesses the quali- 
ties of the seventy sages.'" 

The word Yayin (wine) aggregates the 
number of seventy and Sod (secret) aggre- 
gates also the number seventy, i. e., as soon 
as wine enters, the secrets escape. 

E. Chanan said: "Wine was created in 
this world for no other purpose than to com- 
fort the mounrners, and wherewith to pay 
the wicked their reward for any good deeds 
they may have done, as it is said (Pr. 31, 
6.) Give strong drink unto him that is ready 
to peri'^h, and wine unto those who have an 
embittered soul." 

B. Chanina b. Papa said : "Any house 
where wine is not poured like water, cannot 
be classed among those that are called blessed 
houses, for it is said (Ex. 23, 25.) And 
he will bless thy bread and thy water. Bread 
and water are placed on a par; just as 
bread mentioned here can be bought with 
money belonging to the Tithes, so also the 
water should be of the same kind that can 



X31B mrsi *3^pn rsmn vn^ Tm »nm 

«Dn "^n::] '?« dsdpni (n mtv) itsxjr c^^ 
^Dr Kn^n «miK3 tin ^d ^ictn msK 

rr'NT i<n'>22 ^'7x0 a'? nbs 3-1 .h^dv nu 

(n riTKna) "itiwjc .up nyno "d r^ ir^n 
N^^n ^31 -IDS .'i:i nwin nn nx 'n n-i>i 

K^ jjn an noN .nio hsi j" djdj nvms 
D'7tr^i D'''73N un:'? «'7N nrn D^iya |" sn:: 

I^HV ^3 KSa -\2 ]:n '31 IDK /IJI 131«'7 
'«Jty n3-13 '7'i'33 13'N D'D3 in*33 IBtTJ J"'"' 



8) See Numbers 11. lG-17.